Essay on “Bluebeard”
The whole world tells these stories, but few know the author’s version of these tales. Unauthorized stories for a long time and emancipated from their creators, and by diligently discharged by Charles Perrault morals. These texts Perrault fairy tales far more cruel than their counterparts lollipops, with whom we met in childhood. In them -. The blood, tears, hunger, cannibalism, sex, corpses
Sleeping Beauty p>
This and subsequent prose tales (except a prose version of “Donkey skin”) written by Pierre Perrault, whose father, Charles Perrault , process text and supplied them with moralizing verses. p>
Only in the ballet Tchaikovsky and cartoons Walt Disney all ends with a kiss the prince, a magical awakening and wedding apotheosis, Perry princess wakes itself, and then to be secret marriage, birth of a son and daughter, leaving her husband to war and poor Princess It appears … I’m at the mercy of mother-in-ogress. That tells the butler to kill the children and cook their meat sauce “Robert” (white wine, fried onions and spices, served with meat, still French – gourmet nation!). So malicious women from Pushkin’s “The Tale of Tsar Saltan” velevshie sharpen the queen with a young son into a barrel and thrown into the sea compared to this – just the embodiment of humanity p>
In the interpretation of a fairy tale, given by representatives of classical psychoanalysis! blossoming girl interrupted in fifteen years, her personality falls asleep for a long time, until the spikes are removed and expunged virginity protection, then her body will finally love. In the second part of the tale, which deals with the cannibalistic desire the Queen to eat their own grandchildren and a daughter, stated that the son who marries, has to bring his mother to the victim of a new family, or cannibal will eat them (oral-cannibalistic complex).
Little Red Riding Hood p>
The plot of this tale can be considered as a stray. Frivolous girl went to visit her grandmother in Belgium and Portugal, Latvia, Italy, Germany, that’s just not always the grandmother and the girl emerged from the wolf’s womb alive and well.
This piece, like a red cap, did not appear until the first time in Perrault fairy tale, it came up with Perrault father. In the manuscript version of Pierre Perrault, the girl had a name, but it is so often repeated, that we had to replace it, using a favorite trick of French folk tales – references to pieces of clothing as an identification sign of character. (He goes about editing text and his son, Charles Perrault will resort to such inventions: so the cat will get boots with boots, Cinderella – shoe, trimmed with fur.)
In the folk variants are found curious details and plot twists. For example, the wolf girl asks which way it will go – on igolochnoy or a pin, he chooses the one that is shorter p>
In one of the French folk versions girls Dialogue with the wolf ends a little striptease.. Taking off alternately scarf, skirt, stockings, the girl every time asks imaginary grandmother where to put this little thing, and she says: “In the fire, my child, to you it is no longer needed!»
There are altogether gory details: wolf makes girl eat the flesh of her grandmother and drink her blood (the later the echo of a famous evangelical motive) p>
But familiar to us from childhood phrase: “Dorni the strings, my child, the door will be opened”, – is. only in Russian translation. Any mechanisms to rope in the French countryside did not know there was used a belt, one end is threaded into an iron bracket on the latch: «Tire la chevillette, la bobinette cherra». But in the Russian villages, where the doors and gates locked is not from men, but from the animals just used rope of hemp or bark.
Patty, who obviously can not satisfy neither grandmother nor the more wolf It appears in the Russian translation of a fairy tale. In the original, -. Une galette, ie tortilla or quite large, on the whole baking pie p>
Pierre Perrault wrote a story with a good ending, but Charles Perrault, wanting to teach trusting Little Red Riding Hood, roughly finished in that it was eaten after the grandmother. However, today all over the world more than a popular happy for all but the wolf, the end. So the brothers Grimm, the hunters cut through the belly of the wolf, and from there safe and sound appear grandmother and granddaughter. However, literary critics, many of Freud’s followers to practice in a variety of interpretations of fairy-tale ending. However, Charles Perrault himself gave to this occasion, in the final rhymed sermons warning young girls from rash acts, the author found it necessary to provide a story board: the girls do not listen to the treacherous speech of men. In accordance with the moral norms of the time tale reminds us that sexuality is dangerous, equates male sexuality to aggression, and women – to sacrifice p>
Psychoanalysts see in this story a manifestation of female oral sadism and problems of single mothers.. Masculine and grandmother, and mother, and most of the Red Riding Hood is seen in the form of a wolf, devouring people; cake and a pot of oil symbolizes the fight flesh and blood – the basis of the sacrifice on the awareness of gender differences; undressing scene and the issues that defines the Little Red Riding Hood grandmother lying in bed – voyeurism-exhibitionism. Wolf ate Little Red Riding Hood to symbolize the sexual act and the loss of innocence.
The singularity of this tale is that of the title character had a real historical prototype. October 26, 1440 in the central square of Nantes was executed Baron Gilles de Rais. In all cities and towns in France it was read by a court that executed killed many innocent children to help with the devil tricks to get gold. Subsequently it formed the legend of a bloodthirsty villain, which was reflected in the tale of Bluebeard.
We can only wonder how by Gilles de Rais has turned into Bluebeard of folk tales. Meanwhile, in a Breton ballad names Bluebeard and Gilles de Rais as alternate in the verses that both characters have merged. Tormented children have become murdered wives. A blue beard probably is all of the other legends.
In 1866, the abbot Bossar wrote a comprehensive book about a man nicknamed Bluebeard, where considerable space is devoted to the famous trial of Gilles de Rais, the judges, the allegations and sentence p>
in the XX century, researchers have repeatedly asked the question: “Is Gilles de Rais was really guilty of the crimes attributed to him?” – and each time came to the conclusion that most likely is not.. Historians argue only about the motives that gave impetus to the pursuit of Gilles de Rais and the subsequent trial. Whether it was the proclamation of a “witch hunt”, or the process was based on political motives? Or maybe someone was anxious to profit by property confiscated from the convicted person? In 1992, on the initiative of petit writer and historian Gilbert Prut held a new trial, fully rehabilitated Gilles de Rais p>
The psychoanalytic conclusion of this tale is as follows:. Nothing is perfect in the afternoon the world and should not be abused the secrets of men’s subconscious, because of love can hide sadism and blood lust. Key with indelible stains of blood is essential: silly neglect danger being with a serial killer. Tale heroine rescues brotherly love rather than the love of a man.
Mr. Cat, or Puss in Boots p>
Only the youngest son could just “get lucky” with the inheritance! As well as in the Russian folk tales, the third son got the most useless thing – skinned cat. The younger brother was hurt in the folklore of many peoples of the world. Tales reflect reality: the younger children always remained without inheritance, so as not to break up the family property, they were forced to seek their fortune elsewhere. Younger sons went to the Crusades, became priests, went to sea and engaged in piracy, discovered new lands and try his luck in America, became musketeers. In the fairy tale Perrault impossible becomes possible: the cat helped the hapless owner to get rich and marry the princess p>
Meanwhile, traced the memory of ancient times, when people worshiped idols of animals and asked for their help in this story.. Côte assistance in gratitude for the fact that he did not eat, just like goldfish fulfills the desires of the old man who caught her, but was released into the sea.
Enterprising cat to avoid the sad fate of being eaten by a hungry host Charles Perrault’s shoes in the boots that made the narrative comic touch that made the name memorable tale, and the main character – even more irresistible. Illustrators, picked Perrault proposed game, dressed up in his cloak on developing a satin lining and a hat with a feather p>
«Puss in Boots” in the interpretation of the representatives of the school of psychoanalysis -. A man’s story. The younger son of the father subjected feminization, so he inherited a cat (or cat). Cat handed boots (top erection) and it is a sign of maturity becomes Master cat. Hunting motif – a symbol of increasing aggression. Thanks to the cunning cat youngest son is facing oral aggression ogre (kastratora father-symbol), he turns into a lion, then a mouse and a cat swallows. Thus, the youngest son inherits good father (the king) and his wife.
Magic, but worldly is not quite convenient property at every word spit out pearls and diamonds youngest daughter of Perrault’s fairy tales obviously inherits from the heroines of Italian novels p>
In the fairy tale comes materialization of metaphor: the good words are identified with falling mouth flowers and precious stones, and evil – with the toads and snakes.. With this metaphor in the child the feeling that everything connected with the body, is precious.
Cinderella, or shoes, fur-lined p>
The story associated with orphan persecuted wicked stepmother was widespread. Numerous versions of it pretty well understood. Back in 1893 in London, he published a monograph MR Coke, which refers to the 345 tales options.
However, any folk tales or in the text of Perrault’s no word on the glass slipper. Perry said a shoe, trimmed with fur (vair). Where did the glass first, and then the glass slipper? Many researchers believe that it is either due to an error a typesetter, or the result of a mistranslation: vair – old French word for fringe fur squirrel or weasel, while verre – the glass. The pronunciation is the same, but the values are different. Therefore, in multi-lingual versions of “Cinderella”, created under the influence of Perrault’s fairy tales, it speaks of the glass slipper. Honore de Balzac, is famous for the accuracy of descriptions, not without reason indignant unreliability of this part, because the glass slipper would immediately smashed on the steps of the palace stairs. Crystal shoes of Cinderella began later, and only after the Walt Disney cartoon character is impossible to imagine without them p>
According to psychoanalysis, in “Cinderella” fairy tale are the manifestation of the following reasons:. Rivalries children because of parental love (stepmother and her evil daughter taken away from Cinderella’s father, he cares for them, and not the mother the child); split image of his mother (good late mother and a wicked stepmother); loss of femininity (village girl becomes an ugly duckling). Glass slippers, which can be seen through the feet, they shake the legs – a symbol of virginity, which is a burden; loss of a shoe – sex appeal shoe itself – a symbol of the vagina, and a lot of trying on – applicants. From the perspective of internal processes Cinderella story – a story of desire awareness, which, in contrast to the desire for a beautiful dress or a trip to a ball can never be satisfied with his father. These desires are suppressed, that symbolized the subordination of Cinderella, dirty, like ashes on which she sits or sleeps, and bloom (directed to the appropriate object) after the hard work of awareness and acceptance.
Riquet with the Tuft p>
The theme of magical transformation in the light of love has long been important for Charles Perrault. More in the dialogue of love and friendship, written by Perrault in 1660, Cupid says that lovers do not see each other’s appearance defects because they are shining glow of love fire. “If a woman is too small eyes or too narrow Telegram, I offer to the eyes of her lover crystal that magnifies subjects … if, on the contrary, the mouth it too big, and the chin is long, I put another chip, which still reduces …» p>
in a fairy tale happy ending: short and nondescript Prince Rica Perry turns “in the most beautiful, very slender and very kind person.” True, the wicked one, and realistically minded author then suggests that perhaps no magical transformation was not just a princess, reflection “about all the great features of his mind and soul, is no longer notice how ugly his body, how ugly his face “. The final lecture Perrault: “All that we are loved, for us beautifully and intelligently” – only reinforces the idea p>
This story, with its theme of the forgotten, repressed into the unconscious – a true fount of the psychoanalyst.. Beautiful princess, forgot everything, so stupid, that her mind is undeveloped as a child. It is awkward, even a neatly can not. However, she wants to take a tumble. Met her Riquet with the Tuft (crest – a phallic symbol) – is the king of the dwarves, holding it under the ground, that is, in the subconscious. Thus, the princess finds his lost mate, their masculinity. Restoring forgotten (the promise to marry married Rica), Princess thereby realizes his desire to connect with masculinity half. Thus is the mutual exchange of: bottom, the subconscious mind gives the beauty, and the top gives the beauty of the bottom, the mind, as it should in psychoanalysis. Once restored the forgotten, there is a connection of consciousness and subconsciousness, feminine and masculine, beauty and intelligence.
Tom Thumb p>
In French folklore there are tales of 79 variants of Tom Thumb. In some versions it is really tiny – no more than a grain of wheat – and cope with all the adversity alone. In folk tales, the hero’s name was sensor body (Poucet (fr.) – the little finger) or Puzo (Pouçot (fr.) – thumb). Perrault changed the name, trying to figure perceived as a real boy p>
The number of children in the Lumberjack family variously in folklore variants from three to six, and in the Brothers Grimm fairy tale “Hansel and Gretel” children do two – a brother. and sister. In the fairy tale Perrault seven brothers. Charles Perrault tried to justify the cruelty of parents who left sons in the woods: “It is time heavy, began a great famine that these people have decided to get rid of their children» p>
On some folk details Perrault resolutely get rid of.. For example, he does not mention that the woodcutter, the head of the children in the thicket, hung on an oak wooden shoe so that it blows from the wind hits the trunk, and the children heard the blows of an ax. Another modification of the text associated with the desire to make it more logical. In folk tales, it says that the daughters of the ogre had red hoods, and on children Lumberjack white caps. But in this case it is not clear how the man-eater in the dark without lighting a candle can know exactly where are Tom Thumb and his brothers. Perrault has made a fairytale son adjustments: the daughters of the ogre are crowns of gold, and a clever boy with finger replaces them on the caps p>
In the folk versions tale ogre chasing children riding on a pig, or a magic dog that can drink the lake and then throw it back, but Perrault instead introduces such detail as the seven-league boots. Tom Thumb, taking these boots, not only has the upper hand over the man-eater, but with the help of wonderful boots becomes Skorokhod p>
psychoanalysis representatives perceive the plot oral sadism and primitive cannibalism:. Loving parents who are hurt and endanger ; for the child bear the thought that his parents might throw; children fall into the darkness of the forest thicket, in the anus, and here they are smeared and covered with mud; image Maneater – devouring oral sadism, which can divide and children (seven daughters Ogre); Tom Thumb, swapping gold wreaths brothers caps, makes Cannibal devour their own children p>
In the introduction to the tales of Charles Perrault said:. “There is moral” Griselda “impelling wives all suffer from their husbands, and indicating that it is not will be found among them no less rough and erratic, which was unable to be patience to win a respectable woman. » p>
in this tale, according to followers of Freud, we are talking about misogyny, king of unconscious hatred of women, whose roots in sado masochistic anal complex, the rejection of a woman with a different desire than his own. King is inherent in the Oedipus complex, unable to implement it in relation to the mother, it automatically transfers it to his own daughter. Griselda herself, a child of nature, undergoing all the misfortunes, inclined to masochism. The King, to make sure that a woman can feel love for him, endlessly exposes her persecution. Fortunately, he still manages to get rid of misogyny. P>
Donkey Skin p>
This tale admired Gustave Flaubert and Anatole France, I assure you that with a light heart would sacrifice an entire philosophical library, just to he left “Donkey skin» p>
The prosaic paraphrase. (in a Russian translation – “Donkey skin”) appeared much later verse version in 1781, and, apparently, does not belong to Perrot and M. de Leprens Beaumont. p>
In this tale has acquired extraordinary popularity can distinguish three main motive. The first, associated with the unwanted marriage, dates back to the chanson de geste of the beautiful Helen of Constantinople. The second motive – dressing up in animal skin – found, for example, in the medieval novel “Perseforest” where the princess to escape, disguised in sheep’s skin. And finally, the third motive – recognition motif with the help of some object – as already found in the literature: the story of the fitting ring in the same “Perseforest” fitting shoes in “Cinderella.” Even the magic donkey, replacing in this tale Mint is not a new motif, as a predecessor donkey can point to the goose that lays the golden eggs, in a fairy tale, which opens “Pentameron». P>
According to the representatives of psychoanalysis, in this tale quite openly is the theme of incest, since the king is the beauty, the equal dignity of his dead wife, only daughter. The image of a fairy godmother embodies the superego. Donkey spewing gold coins through the anus, associated with the bourgeoisie and bankers. Frightened criminal desire of the father, the heroine runs, covered stinking donkey skin, and it turns into a pigsty, including manure and dirt. Significantly, the emergence of a voyeur Prince. She also sees a strange way of Prince, peeping through the keyhole. She sends him his ring – a symbol of the vagina, thirsting to have penetrated into it. Thanks to a pair of divided love overcomes the Oedipus complex. P>
Amusing wishes p>
Proponents Freud believed that in this tale we are talking about the castration issue of who is in the family is the embodiment of the phallus – husband or wife. The old man lumberjack at the end of life is able to embody three cherished desire. And then he accidentally wished the kind of blood sausage. In psychoanalytic treatment – is the symbolic phallus, and the desire of anal sex – something that lacks character. His little wife scolds woodcutter, saying that such a wish could only wave (il faut être bien boeuf), – it means castration. Next Lumberjack wish – to the unfortunate sausage stuck to the nose shrewish wife – have sublimated desire to kill her. Having spent his last wish, he could become king, but instead returns to his wife former appearance. P>
Do not endowed with wisdom may not have power. P>