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1st Essay Sample on Black death
Since the reign of Emperor Justinian in 542 A.D., man has one unwelcome organism along for the ride, Yersinia pestis. This is the bacterium more commonly know as the Black Death, the plague. Plague is divided into three biotypes, each associated with one of three major pandemics occurring in history. Each of these biotypes are then divided into three distinct types, classified by method of infection. The most widely know is bubonic, an infection of plague that resides in the lymph nodes, causing them to swell.
The Black Death of the 14th century was mainly of this type. Bubonic plague is commonly spread through fleas that have made a meal from an infected Rattus rattus. The most dangerous type of plague is pneumonic. It can be spread through aerosol droplets released through coughs, sneezes, or through fluid contact. It may also become a secondary result of a case of untreated bubonic or septicemic plague.
Although not as common as the bubonic strain, it is more deadly. It has an untreated mortality rate on nearly 100%, as compared to 50% untreated mortality for bubonic plague. It attacks the respiratory track, furthering the cycle. The third type of plague is septemic. It is spread by direct bodily fluid contact.
It may also develop as a secondary result of untreated bubonic or pneumonic plague. A LITTLE HISTORY As mentioned before, the most known incidence of bubonic plague was in 14th century Europe. In 1346 reports of a terrible pestilence in China, spreading through Mesopotamia and Asia Minor had reached Europe, but caused no concern until two years later. In January of 1348 the plague had reached Marseille in France and Tunis in Africa. By the end of the next year the plague had reached as far as Norway, Scotland, Prussia, Iceland, and Italy.
In 1351 the infection had spread to include Russia. The plague was an equal opportunity killer.
2nd Essay Sample on black death
The Black Death discusses the causes and results of the plague that devastated medieval Europe.It focuses on the many effects it had on the culture of medieval Europe and the possibility that it expedited cultural change.I found that Robert S. Gottfried had two main theses in the book.He argued that rodent and insect life cycles, as well as the changing of weather systems affect plague.He claimed that the devastation plague causes is partly due to its perpetual recurrences.Plague ravaged Europe in cycles, devastated the people when they were recuperating.As can be later discovered in the book, the cycles of plague consumed the European population.A second thesis, which he described in greater detail, was that the plagues expedited the process of cultural change.The plagues killed a large percentage of each generation, leaving room for change. The Black Death covers the affects that numerous plagues had on the culture.The cycle of the plagues struck each generation.After a plague ravaged Europe from 599-699, plague killed in 608, 618, 628, 640, 654, 684-686, 694-700, 718, and 740-750.In the early stages of the above series, intervals are apparent.These intervals demonstrate the cycles of the rodent and insect life.Robert S. Gottfried also argues, rightfully so, that plague may have hastened cultural change.Along with plagues came the need for a cure.Plague destroyed the existing medical systems, and was replaced by a modern heir. Previous to the plague, scientists based their knowledge on early scientists such as Hippocrates and Galen.Scientists knew little about what they were doing.The medical community was divided into five parts.These divisions were physicians, surgeons, barber-surgeons, apothecaries, and unlicensed practitioners.These divisions were adequate when Europe was without plague, but were obviously not prepared for plague.
3rd Essay Sample on Black Death
“Comparing the Black Death and modern disease” The similarity of AIDS and the plague are that anyone can get the disease. It doesn’t matter if you are young or old or of a different culture you can get both diseases. The other similarity is that there is no to this day for AIDS or the plague. The difference between the plague and AIDS are that AIDS are transmitted by bodily fluids, such as unprotected sex, and the plague is transmitted by coughing or a bite from a rat or a flea already infested with the disease. Another difference is that the plague originated in Asia and traveled to Europe. AIDS started in Africa and spread all over. The effect that the plague had on the world was only in Europe and Asia, but it was a devastating disease killing over 25 million in one year. The plague is much more severe than Aids in pain and death. To this day there is no cure for the plague. Even though the plague isn’t around today in our country it still has an influential impact on people; just the thought of getting the plague is horrifying. So the plague left a horrifying and disgusting name all over the world. HIV is the virus that can lead to Aids. The symptoms of HIV are fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and diarrhea. However, most people with HIV have no symptoms for one year. HIV is spread though certain bodily fluids such as, semen, breast milk, and vaginal secretions. The virus has also been found in very low levels of saliva, sweat and tears, but in such a small amount that with contact from them will not spread the virus. There is no cure for AIDS, but there is protection, using a condom will greatly reduce your chance of getting the AIDS virus. In 1984 200,000 Americans died from AIDS.
4th Essay Sample on Black Death
Sometime about 1338 AD, an earthquake or some other natural calamity began what would become the most terrible outbreak of any disease known to man.After outbreaks in Asia, which stretched from China to India, Persia, Syria, and Egypt and Asia Minor, this disease traveled along the Silk Road to the town of Kaffa.The disease rode inside small insects, which could live between six months and a year without the benefit of a human or animal host.The insects in turn probably traveled along the Silk Road hidden safely inside marmot furs, which were a popular and ready source of fur of the time.It took many years for the disease to make the long trip over the Silk Road to Kaffa.Traders would bypass towns that had outbreaks of the disease.But by 1346, the plague, Yersinia pestis, had reached the Black Sea port of Kaffa, and was ready to make its final jump via the trade ships to Europe. In the year 1346, war broke out in Kaffa between the Christian Italian merchants and the Muslim citizens in the area.The Muslims asked their Khan for help in expelling the Christians from the city.Yersinia pestis found the ideal situation to spread itself among the population.Rats lived among humans in close proximity.The thatch roofs of the dwellings and poor sanitation of the time caused a dramatic increase of the rat population.Ceratophyllus fasciatus, the fleas that carry Yersinia pestis, migrated easily from rat to stock to human, so that by the end of a year of siege, the plague erupted among the forces of the Muslim army.The Mongol Prince, Janiberg, recognized that the disease that afflicted his forces was extremely infectious, and ordered the dead from his army be catapulted over the walls of the city and into the opposing army.
5th Essay Sample on Black Death
The first country that got hit by this bubonic plague was China in the early 1330’s. As China was one of the busiest in world trading, it wasn’t long before the plague had spread round to Western Asia and Europe. By the next August the plague had spread as far as North as England. There it was given the name of The Black Death. No medicine was invented to cure it; nothing could stop this running machine.In the winter the population re grew again as fleas only come out in Spring, and when that came, down, down population. When 5 years had past of people suffering, 25 million people were dead. But that wasn’t the end of this’Mean Machine’ the plague kept coming up, but not killing half as many people as before. The Black Death didn’t go away until 1600’s. It wiped out most countries, and was a painful way of dieing. It spread fast and killed even faster. It was caused and spread by black rats. Fleas would suck the rats’ blood, the rat would die, and the flea would jump onto a human and bite it so the human gets the rats infected disease and the disease was VERY contagious. The next day you would witness a surprise either under your arm or on your groin.A huge boil like object that can sometimes get bigger than an apple, would be dangling and wobbling under your arm or from your groin. The next day you would suffer vomiting, sometimes as many as 10 times!! After that you would find red blotches of blood under your skin, they would soon turn black though. Spas attacks would kick in the next day. Finally the lump would burst open and foul, green goe would ooze out. Some lived, but for others, it was a sad farewell and a painful death.
6th Essay Sample on Black Death
Black Death was the bubonic plague that struck Europe and the Mediterranean during the fourteenth century. It was known as the Great Mortality, or the Pestilence. The name “Black Death” was not giving until much later. This was also the divider of the central and the late Middle Ages. It’s not the crisis, but it added new problems, which caused this period of time known as the Dark Ages. Popular signs made for the Black Death was either a man on a black horse or of a black giant, towering above all buildings. It caused terror and people’s uncertainty about their beliefs. There were a series of outbreak of bubonic plague during that time. The plague happened in Europe Marseilles in 1722 was the last major outbreak. Plagues originally started during the sixth and eighth centuries AD. It disappeared for almost a millennium, but reappeared in 1348. However, plagues that began in the late nineteenth century and twentieth century were less deadly. It was another cycle of modern plague. Black Death was one of the worst natural disasters that happened. It destroyed cities, and caused the spread of hysteria and death. One third of the Europe population during that time decreased in two years. Some people believed the effect on the future of England was greater then any other countries. During that time, some villages in England were wiped out. None of the people had survived. Italian cities were seriously affected as well. More then half of the people in the city were dead because of plague. This disease was from oriental rat fleas that were carried on the back of black rats. The disease traveled by water and land, it followed the trade route. In a short amount of time, it had hit all the European countries. From the spread of the plague, we could also clearly see the geography of medieval trade.
7th Essay Sample on Black Death
Black Death was the biggest problem in the Middle Ages. It states that, no one (peasant or aristocrat) was safe from the disease, and once it was contracted, a terrible and painful death was almost a certainty. The dead and the dying lay in the streets abandoned by terrified friends and relatives (482). This certainly paints an accurate and horrifying picture of the fourteenth century during the plague. This disease, also known as the Black Death or The Plague, (Hindley 103) was one of the major curses of the Middle Ages. It killed indiscriminately without remorse or thought of consequences. Because the plague was so widespread, theories about causes, blame and a variety of supposed cures abounded. Most of these were without basis or fact and relied on myths and stories. Theories for the causes and blames came from ignorance and hate, two horrifying things married by fear. Some of the cures were not much better than the disease itself. The disease was transmitted to humans by fleas from infected rats that nested in people’s roofs (Matthew 154). Fourteenth century man had no concept of how the disease was spread or how it could be stopped. The disease was transmitted to western Europe from China along trade routes (Matthew 154). Once the disease had reached the coast of Europe, it was soon transmitted to the countryside through the commercial trade networks (Matthew 154). Thefirst cases of the disease occurred in a European colony called Genoa (Blum, Cameron and Barnes 38). It was “overwhelmed in 1347” by Mongols, who flung disease puzzled bodies over the walls of Genoa. This was considered “an early form of biological warfare” (Blum, Cameron and Barnes 38). According to Matthews, “Experts could do nothing to cure or explain the plague” (154). The people of this period had no idea what they were dealing with.
7th Essay Sample on Black Death
In Zieglers’ book The Black Death, he talks about the origins and nature of the bubonic plague.There was another factor in the Black Death.Not only was bubonic plague present, but also primary pneumonic or pulmonary plague which is more lethal.He discussed the fact that the bubonic plague was carried by fleas travelling on rats and that the pulmonary plague was spread through the air.This gave the medieval doctor a lot of trouble because, they didn’t realize they were dealing with two different forms.Therefore, they did not know how to begin to prevent or cure it. The plague was preceded by many natural disasters and met a population that had bred too fast without providing itself with the resources to sustain themselves.The Black Death reduced the population of England to more easily manageable proportions.True that the plague found awaiting in Europe a population that was not equipped to deal with such an illness.They had been distracted by wars, malnutrition, and land that was inadequate to provide its people. The Black Death spread across Europe with no regard to age, class, wealth, or health.It arrived in Italy before it hit the main land and traveled all over Europe killing and astounding massive numbers of people.Everywhere it hit was the same story.Sometimes it hit with immense strength and other times it struck slowly.The medical world, as well as the church just, couldn’t understand how to stop or prevent this plague. The church declared that it was God’s wrath against all those who sinned.But, church officials as well were struck.Others blamed the Jews and accused them of poisoning wells, but they too were hit by the plague.No one could explain this wild phenomenon. The Black Death does not have a thesis statement.