Life on the frontier was
Downright grim for most pioneer families

All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market oriented, national economy in early 19th centuryAmerica except
Government regulations of all major economic industry

In the early 19th century America, population
Was growing at an unprecedented rate

The dramatic growth of American cities b/w 1800 and 1860
resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities

“Ecological imperialism” can best be described as
the aggressive exploitation of the West’s bounty

George Caitlin advocated
The preservation of the nature as a national policy

The influx of immigrants to the U.

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S. Tripled, then quadrupled, in the

1840’s and 1850’s

Ireland’s great export in the 1840’s was

The Irish immigrants to early 19th century America
Were mostly Roman Catholic and hated the British

When the Irish flocked to the U.S. In the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard cities b/c they
Were too poor to move west and buy land

When the “famine Irish” came to America, they
Mostly remained in the port cities of the N.


Native-born Protestant Americans distrusted and resented the Irish mostly b/c these immigrants
Were Roman Catholic

German immigrants in the early 19th century tended to
Preserve their own language and culture

German immigrants to the U.S.
Came to escape economic hardships and autocratic government

When German immigrants came to the U.S., they
Prospered w/ astonishing ease

Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized
The Order of the Star-Spangled Banner

The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigrants was called

Native-born Americans feared that Catholic immigrants to the U.S. Would
“establish” the Catholic Chruch at the expense of Protestantism

Immigrants coming to the U.S. B4 1860
Helped to fuel economic expansion

The “Father of the Factory System” in the U.S. Was
Samuel Slater

Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of the
Cotton gin

Most of the cotton produced in the America South after the invention of the cotton gin was
Sold to England

TheAmerican phrase of the industrial revolution first blossomed
W/ textile mills

As a result of the development of the cotton gin,
Slavery revived and expanded

The underlying basis modern mass production was the
Use of interchangeable parts

The early factory system distributed its benefits
Mostly to the owners

The American work force in the early 19th century century characterized by
Substantial employment of women and children in factories

One reason that the lot adult wage earners improved was
The enfranchisement of the laboring man

In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the Supreme Court of Massachusetts ruled that
Labor unions were not illegal conspiracies

The “cult of domesticity”
Glorified the traditional role of women homemakers

Early 19th century American families
Were getting smaller

The effect of the early 19th century century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage
Specialized, cash crop agriculture

W/ development of cash crop agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West,
Farmers quickly faced mounting indebtedness

In the 1790’s a major transportation project linking East to the trans-Allegheny West was then
Lancaster Turnpike

Western road building faced all of the following problems except
Competition from canals

The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the U.S. was on
Western and southern rivers

The “canal era” of American history began w/ the
construction of the Erie Canal in NY

Construction of the Erie Canal
Forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations

Most early railroads in the U.S. were built in the

In the new continental economy, each region specialized in a particular economic activity: the South….for export; the West grew grains and livestock to feed….; and the East…for the other two regions.
Grew cotton, eastern factory worker. Made machines and textiles

In general,…tended to bind the West and South together, while …and…connected West to East
Steamboats, canals, railroads

All of the following were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy except
Who should own the new transportation network

As the continental market economy grew
The home came to be viewed as a refuge from the workday world

A major economic consequence of the transportation and marketing revolutions was
A steady improvement in average wages and standards of living

The Deist faith embraced all of the following except
The concept of original sin

Desists like Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin endorsed the concept of
A Supreme being who created the universe

By 1850, organized religion in Anerica
Had lost some of its Austere Calvinist rigor

All the following are true of the 2nd Great Awakening except that it
Was not as large as the 1st Great Awakening

Unitarians endorsed the concept of
Salvation through good works

A early 19th century century religious rationalist sect devoted to the rule of reason and free will was the

Religious revivals of the 2nd Great Awakening resulted in
a strong religious influenced in many areas of American life

As a revivalist preacher, Charles Grandison Finney advocated
All of the above

The greatest of the revival preachers of the 2nd Great Awakening was
Charles G. Finney

The 2nd Great Awakening tended to
Promote religious diversity

The Mormon religion originated in
The Burned-Over District of New York

The religious sects that gained most from revivalism of the 2nd Great Awakening were the
Methodists and Baptists

The 2bd Great Awakening tended to
Widen the lines b/w classes and regions

The original prophet of the Mormon religion was
Joseph Smith

One characteristic of the Mormons that angered many non-Mormons was their
Emphasis on cooperative or group effort

Many of the denominational Liberal arts colleges founded as a result of the Second Great Awakening
Lacked much intellectual vitality

Tax-supported public education
Was deemed essential for social stability and democracy

In the 1st half of 19th century, tax-supported schools were
Chiefly available to educate the children of the poor

Noah Webster’s dictionary
Helped to standardize the American language

One strong prejudice inhibiting women from obtaining higher education in the early 19th century century was the belief that
Too much learning would injure women’s brains and ruin their health

Women b/came especially active in the social reforms stimulated by the 2nd Great Awakening b/c
Evangelical religion emphasized their spiritual dignity and religious social reform legitimized their activity outside the home

Two areas where women in the 19th century were widely thought to be superior to men were
Moral sensibility and artistic refinement

N. England reformer Dorothea Dix is most notable for efforts on behalf of
Prison and asylum reforms

The excessive consumption of alcohol by Americans in the 1800s
Stemmed from the hard and monotonous life of many

Sexual differences were strongly emphasized in 19th century America b/c
The market economy increasingly separated men and women into distinct economy roles

One sign that women in America were treated better than women in Europe was
That rape was more severely punished in the U.S.

Neal Dow sponsored the Marine Law of 1851, which called for
A ban on the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor

By the 1850’s, the crusade for women’s rights was eclipsed by

The beliefs advocated by John Humphrey Noyes included all of the following except
Strictly monogamous marriages

The key to Oneida’s financial success was
The manufacture of steel animal traps and silverware

The Oneida colony declined due to
Widespread critism of its sexual practices

The American medical profession by 1860 was noted for
It’s still primitive standards

Most of the utopian communities in pre-1860s America held…… As one of their founding ideals
Cooperative social and economic practices

Of the following, the most successful of the early 19th century century century communitarian experiments was at
Oneida, NY

When it came to scientific achievement, America in the 1800s was
More interested in practical matters

Louis Agassiz, Gilbert Stuart, John J. Audubon
Harvard biologist, portrait artist, Author of Birds of America

America’s artistic achievements in the 1st half of 19th century
Were least notable in architecture

The Hudson River school excelled in the art of painting

A genuinely American literature received a strong boost from the
Wave of nationalism that followed the War of 1812

Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, Ralph Waldo Emerson
The Sketch Book, Leatherstocking Tales, the “American Scholar”

Transcendental it’s believed that all knowledge came through
An inner light

All of the following influenced transcendental thought except
Catholic belief

“Civil disobedience”, an essay that later influenced both Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., was written by the transcendentalist
Henry David Thoreau

The Poet Laureate of Democracy, whose emotional and explicit writings expressed a deep love of the masses and enthusiasm for an expanding America, was
Walt Whitman

The most noteworthy southern novelist before the Civil War was
William Gilmore Simms

One American writer who did not believe human goodness and social progress was
Edgar Allen Poe

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville
“Hiawatha”, The Scarlett Letter, Moby Dick

Virtually all the distinguished historians of early 19th century America came from
New England

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APUSH Ch. 14-15. (2018, Feb 26). Retrieved from

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