Reform movements emerged in America in the mid-nineteenth century in part because of a
desire for social stability and discipline in the face of change.
The most important and popular American paintings of the first half of the nineteenth century set out to
evoke the wonder of the nation’s landscape.
In the mid-nineteenth century, the general European attitude toward American art and literature
was that American artists had little to offer Europe.
The Hudson River School of painters emphasized in their work the importance of
All of the following painters were associated with the Hudson River School EXCEPT
Which of the following features was NOT a characteristic of the Hudson River School?
a belief that democracy was the best source of wisdom and spiritual fulfillment
All of the following people helped create a distinct American literature EXCEPT
Through novels such as The Last of the Mohicans, James Fenimore Cooper examined the significance of
the disorder of America’s westward expansion.
celebrated the liberation of the individual.
Herman Melville’s most important literary work was
The writings of Edgar Allan Poe were
primarily sad and macabre.
Southern writers such as Augustus B. Longstreet, Joseph G. Baldwin, and Johnson J. Hooper
developed a realist tradition that focused on the lives of ordinary people.
regarded reason to be the most important human faculty.
The transcendentalist writer Ralph Waldo Emerson
asserted that through nature, individuals could find personal fulfillment.
The transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau
argued Americans had a moral right to disobey the laws of the United States.
The transcendentalist movement
anticipated the environmental protection movement of the twentieth century.
The goal of the 1840s community experiment known as Brook Farm was partly to
help individuals link the world of the intellect to the world of instinct and nature.
Who among the following was NOT a participant in American communal living?
One of the most enduring of the pre-Civil War utopian colonies was
In redefining gender roles, the experimental 1840s Oneida Community
carefully monitored sexual behavior in order to protect women.
Which of the following was arguably the most distinctive feature of Shakerism?
saw women exercise more power than men.
believed in human perfectibility.
Which statement about Mormonism is FALSE?
It developed a very fluid, loose social structure.
Nineteenth-century Protestant revivalists such as the New Light revivalists
argued that personal salvation could be achieved by individual effort.
In the 1840s, the organized movement against drunkenness in the United States
linked alcohol to crime and poverty.
In the 1830s and 1840s, cholera epidemics in the United States
typically killed more than half of those who contracted the disease.
According to the nineteenth-century “science” of phrenology, what could be discerned from the shape of an individual’s skull?
character and intelligence
During the nineteenth century, the largest obstacle to improved medical care in America was the
absence of basic knowledge about disease.
In the 1840s in the United States, an initial understanding of germ theory was developed by
Oliver Wendell Holmes.
Prior to 1860, public education in the United States
gave the nation one of the highest literacy rates in the world.
The nineteenth-century reformer Horace Mann believed that education should promote
The Massachusetts reformer who built a national movement for new methods of treating the mentally ill was
Prior to 1860, prison reform in the United States
included the practice of solitary confinement.
The nineteenth-century practice of placing American Indians on reservations was partially designed to
allow them to develop to a point where they could assimilate into white society.
In 1840, one catalyst for an American feminist movement was a London convention that dealt with
the abolition of slavery.
The 1848 Seneca Falls, New York, convention on women’s rights
issued a manifesto patterned after the Declaration of Independence.
Prior to the Civil War, the religious denomination most active in feminism was the
Which of the following nineteenth-century leaders is primarily known for her pioneering work in the American feminist movement?
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
In the early nineteenth century, the American Colonization Society
was founded by white Virginians opposed to slavery.
The American Colonization Society helped to transport blacks from the United States to
William Lloyd Garrison believed the abolitionist movement should
stress the damage that slavery did to blacks rather than to whites.
Prior to the Civil War, free blacks in the North tended to be
strongly opposed to southern slavery.
The black abolitionist who called for uncompromising opposition to and a violent overthrow of slavery in his 1829 pamphlet was
spent years lecturing in England against slavery.
In the 1830s, abolitionists in the United States constituted
a small percentage of the national population.
One leading abolitionist who was murdered for his activism was
In the 1830s and 1840s, abolitionists were divided
All these answers are correct.
In the 1840s, William Lloyd Garrison spoke against
The Supreme Court ruling in Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842)
led to the passage of “personal liberty laws.”
Prior to the Civil War, the Liberty Party
promoted “free soil.”
The effect of Uncle Tom’s Cabin on the nation was to
spread the message of abolitionism to an enormous new audience.
Above all, nineteenth-century reform movements in the United States promoted racial equality.
The romantic movement was invented by American intellectual circles.
Hudson River School artists felt America had more promise than Europe.
Many of the Hudson River School artists expressed a nostalgic view of nature.
James Fenimore Cooper thought Americans should become more like Europeans.
Herman Melville was less exuberant in his celebration of the human spirit than was Walt Whitman.
Edgar Allan Poe’s writings focused on the bleak nature of the human spirit and emotions.
Mark Twain was the leading writer in the southern romantic tradition.
American transcendentalists borrowed heavily from European thinkers.
Ralph Waldo Emerson started as a minister and became a transcendentalist philosopher.
Henry David Thoreau favored the solitary life, but was publicly against civil disobedience.
Both Brook Farm and New Harmony were essentially failures as communal experiments.
The Oneida Community sought to redefine gender roles and engage in “free love.”
Both the Oneida Community and the Shakers were committed to celibacy.
Like other mid-nineteenth-century experiments in social organization, Mormons believed in human perfectibility.
The Mormons were forced to abandon their settlement at Nauvoo due to persecution from neighbors.
The search for social discipline was particularly clear in the battle over prohibition laws, which pitted established Catholics against new Protestants immigrants, to many of whom drinking was an important social ritual and an integral part of the life of their communities.
Evangelical Protestantism was at odds with the reform spirit of the pre-Civil War period.
Nearly a quarter of the population of New Orleans died in 1833 as a result of a cholera outbreak.
Sylvester Graham encouraged people to eat more fruits and vegetables and less meat.
The study of the human brain through phrenology was the origin of modern psychology.
Most early nineteenth-century American physicians opposed efforts to regulate the profession. They considered the licensing of physicians to be “undemocratic.”
By the 1850s, the principle of tax-supported elementary schools had been established in every state.
By 1860, public schools in the United States had failed to produce significant improvement in education.
By the beginning of the Civil War, the United States had one of the highest literacy rates of any nation of the world.
Horace Mann believed public education should promote both democracy and social order.
Many reformers of the pre-Civil War period thought it was possible to rehabilitate criminals through solitary confinement.
Reformers that supported the concept of Indian reservations believed them to be beneficial to both whites and Indians.
By the 1840s, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott sought to apply the equality of treatment they received in the abolition movement to all aspects of female life.
The Seneca Falls “Declaration of Sentiments” included a demand that women have the right to vote.
The American Colonization Society called for the gradual freeing of slaves and monetary compensation to slaves’ former owners.
Many blacks rejected the American Colonization Society’s offer to return them to Africa.
In the North, abolitionists were a small, dissenting minority of the total population.
William Lloyd Garrison was assassinated for his advocacy of abolitionism.
William Lloyd Garrison was a harsh critic of the United States government.
Not many abolitionists believed that Congress could constitutionally interfere with a “domestic” institution such as slavery within the individual states themselves.
The antislavery Liberty Party never campaigned for outright abolitionism.
Americans in the free-soil movement sought to open up sections of the West to blacks.
The events depicted in Uncle Tom’s Cabin were taken from news accounts.