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AP Psy Chapter 10 part 2 Paper

Words: 2265, Pages: 8

Paper type: Essay, Subject: Other

Parent topic:

Cognitive psychologists are most directly concerned with the study of:
thinking

Professor Thompson’s research activities involve the use of computers to simulate human decision-making strategies. Which specialty area does this research best represent?
cognitive psychology

A mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people is a(n):
concept

When we use the term Hispanic to refer to a category of people, we are using this word as a(n):
concept

To promote cognitive efficiency, concepts are typically organized into:
hierarchies

A best example of a category of objects, events, or people is called a(n):
prototype

Prototypes are especially important in the process of:
classifying objects.

Christmas is to holiday as ________ is to ________.
prototype; category

When someone mentions Ivy League colleges, Trisha immediately thinks of Harvard University. In this instance, Harvard University is a:
prototype

Most people take less time to identify a cow as a mammal than a mouse as a mammal because a cow more closely resembles their ________ of a mammal.
prototype

People more easily detect male prejudice against women than female prejudice against men because the former more closely resembles their ________ of prejudice.
prototype

In testing thousands of different materials for use as lightbulb filaments, Thomas Edison best illustrated a problem-solving approach known as:
trial and error

Logical, methodical step by step procedures for solving problems are called:
algorithms

Darla systematically tried each successive key on her dad’s key ring until she found the one that unlocked his office door. This best illustrates problem solving by means of:
an algorithm.

Heuristics are:
rule of thumb strategies for solving problems quickly and efficiently.

In trying to solve a potentially complicated problem quickly, we are most likely to rely on:
heuristics

Ruth resisted changing her answer to a test question after reminding herself that “it’s always best to stick with your first answer.” Ruth’s decision best illustrates the use of:
a heuristic.

A sudden realization of the solution to a problem is called:
insight

The sudden comprehension of the double meaning of a humorous pun best illustrates:
insight.

The tendency to search for information consistent with our preconceptions is called:
confirmation bias.

Fred cites his cousin Millie’s many car accidents as evidence that women are worse drivers than men. He overlooks the fact that his wife and three daughters have had far fewer car accidents than he and his two sons. Fred’s prejudicial conclusion about women’s driving skills best illustrates the effects of:
confirmation bias.

Business managers are more likely to track the career achievements of those they once hired than the accomplishments of those they once rejected. This best illustrates:
confirmation bias.

Myra has such a low level of self-esteem that she is typically on the lookout for critical comments about her appearance and behavior. Myra best illustrates the dangers of:
confirmation bias.

Brainstorming sessions that encourage people to spontaneously suggest new and unusual solutions to a problem are designed to avoid:
fixations

Professor Santos talks very loudly in her unsuccessful efforts to get her students to listen carefully. Her failure to recognize that speaking softly would be a more effective way to gain her student’s attention best illustrates the negative consequences of:
fixations

A mental set is a:
tendency to approach a problem in a way that has been successful in the past.

Stress and anxiety are most likely to contribute to:
overconfidence

The Korean War paratrooper who fell to his death with a left handed parachute apparently suffered the consequences of:
a mental set.

When given a candle, tacks, and a box of matches and asked to mount the candle on a wall, people often fail to think of using the matchbox as a candleholder. This best illustrates:
functional fixedness.

Raul and Sophia were having a picnic when it started to rain. They did not think of using their big plastic tablecloth as a temporary rain shelter and so were drenched within minutes. Their oversight best illustrates:
functional fixedness.

Judging the likelihood that things fall into a certain category on the basis of how well they seem to match a particular prototype refers to the use of the:
representativeness heuristic.

The tendency to conclude that a person who likes to read poetry is more likely to be a college professor of classics than a construction worker illustrates the use of:
the representativeness heuristic.

Jerome believes that his 4 year old grandson is a hyperactive child because the boy’s constant movement resembles Jerome’s prototype of hyperactivity. Jerome’s thinking best illustrates:
the representativeness heuristic.

Because Ken is 66, people often mistakenly assume that he must be a member of his college’s basketball team. This mistaken judgment best illustrates the impact of:
the representativeness heuristic.

The availability heuristic refers to our tendency to:
judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered.

Many people overestimate how long they actually remain awake during restless nights because their moments of wakefulness are easier to recall than their moments of sleep. This best illustrates the impact of:
the availability heuristic.

The tendency to estimate that the letter “k” appears more often as the first letter of words than as the third letter best illustrates our use of:
the availability heuristic.

State lottery officials send residents a facsimile of a contest-winning check for over $5 million so as to encourage them to imagine themselves as possible winners. The lottery promoters are most clearly exploiting the influence of:
the availability heuristic.

After learning that her two best friends had recently lost their jobs, Julia began to grossly overestimate the national rate of unemployment. Julia’s reaction best illustrates the consequences of:
the availability heuristic.

Which of the following contributes most directly to people’s exaggerated perceptions of the likelihood of air travel disasters, nuclear power accidents, and terrorist violence?
the availability heuristic

The human tendency toward intellectual arrogance is best demonstrated by:
overconfidence

Although Steve was certain that he answered between 70 and 80 items correctly on his biology test, he actually was right on only 55 items. Steve’s misjudgment of his test performance illustrates:
overconfidence

After taking two years of college economics courses, Lionel thinks he knows enough about business to become a millionaire. Lionel should become more aware of:
overconfidence

In studies where people have judged whether another is lying or telling the truth, participants have demonstrated high levels of:
overconfidence

College students routinely underestimate how much time it will take them to complete assigned course projects. This best illustrates the impact of:
overconfidence

Framing refers to:
the way in which a problem or issue is phrased or worded.

Ojinska sold many more raffle tickets when she told potential buyers they had a 10 percent chance of winning a prize than when she told them they had a 90 percent chance of not winning. This best illustrates:
the framing effect.

A woman is more likely to abort a pregnancy when informed there is a 50 percent chance of producing an abnormal child than when told there is a 50 percent chance of producing a normal offspring. This best illustrates the significance of:
framing

Professional pollsters and survey takers are especially likely to be aware of:
the framing effect.

We often consider illogical conclusions that happen to agree with our personal opinions to be logically valid. This is known as:
belief bias.

Mr. Potter thinks that all socialists are political liberals and that the governor of his state is a political liberal. Mr. Potter’s fear of socialism is so strong that he readily accepts the clearly illogical conclusion that his state governor must be a socialist. His difficulty best illustrates:
belief bias.

Experimental participants reviewed two research studies, one supporting and the other refuting the crime-deterring effectiveness of capital punishment. Afterwards, the opinions of those who initially favored the use of capital punishment became ________ favorable toward its use. The opinions of those who initially opposed the use of capital punishment became ________ favorable toward its use.
more; less

Anderson, Lepper, and Ross gave experimental participants evidence that either risk prone or cautious people make better fire fighters. Participants were later informed that the evidence was fictitious. This experiment was designed to illustrate:
the belief perseverance phenomenon.

Despite overwhelming and highly publicized evidence that Senator McEwan was guilty of serious political corruption and misconduct, many who had supported her in past elections remained convinced of her political integrity. Their reaction best illustrates:
the belief perseverance phenomenon.

Encouraging people to explain why their own personal views on an issue are correct is most likely to promote:
the belief perseverance phenomenon.

The difficulty involved in efforts to modify an unrealistically negative self-image best illustrates:
the belief perseverance phenomenon.

A computer program that employs heuristics to correctly solve a crossword puzzle illustrates an application of:
artificial intelligence.

Unlike conventional computers, people are capable of:
processing numerous informational units simultaneously.

The most exciting feature of computer neural networks is their capacity to mimic the human ability to:
learn from experience.

Phonemes are:
the smallest distinctive sound units of a language.

When Fred pronounced the words “this” and “that,” he noticed that they share a common:
phoneme

The English language has ________ letters than phonemes, and the consonant phonemes generally carry ________ information than the vowel phonemes.
fewer; more

The smallest speech units that carry meaning are called:
morphemes

In the words “lightly,” “neatly,” and “shortly,” the “ly” ending is a(n):
morpheme

When her teacher mentioned the arms race, Krista understood that the word “arms” referred to weapons and not to body parts. Krista’s correct interpretation best illustrates the importance of:
semantics

Syntax refers to the:
orderly arrangement of words into grammatically sensible sentences.

A European visitor to the United States asked a taxi driver, “Can you please a ride to the airport me give?” This visitor has apparently not yet mastered the ________ of the English language.
syntax

Word meaning is to word order as ________ is to ________.
semantics; syntax

The spontaneous utterance of a variety of sounds by infants is called:
babbling

During the earliest stage of speech development, infants:
make some speech sounds that do not occur in their parents’ native language.

At 17 months of age, Julie says “wada” whenever she wants a drink of water. Julie is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.
At 17 months of age, Julie says “wada” whenever she wants a drink of water. Julie is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.

Two year old Stephen’s sentences—”Dad come,” “Mom laugh,” and “Truck gone”—are examples of:
telegraphic speech.

Children begin to demonstrate appropriate use of syntax during the ________ stage.
two word

Behaviorists such as B. F. Skinner have emphasized that the acquisition of language can be explained in terms of:
the association of word sounds with various objects, events, actions, and qualities.
b. children’s imitation of the words and grammar modeled by parents and others.
c. the positive reinforcement that adults give children for speaking correctly.

Which linguistic theorist was most impressed by the underlying similarities of all human language systems?
Chomsky

According to Chomsky, the fact that young children overgeneralize certain rules of grammatical structure suggests that:
language skills are not developed simply through the processes of imitation and reinforcement.

Four year old Sarah told her mom, “The doggy runned away.” Which theory would most likely emphasize the significance of Sarah’s misapplication of a grammatical rule?
Chomsky’s language acquisition theory

After two minutes of exposure to an unbroken, monotone string of nonsense syllables, infants could recognize three-syllable sequences that appeared repeatedly. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in language development.
statistical learning

The statistical learning explanation of language development ________ claims for an inborn universal grammar and ________ claims for a built-in readiness to learn grammatical rules.
challenges; supports

Research suggests that humans can most easily master the grammar of a second language during:
childhood

The principles of learning emphasized by behaviorists would be most helpful in explaining why children:
add new words to their vocabulary.

The suggestion that language determines the way we think is known as the ________ hypothesis.
linguistic relativity

The linguistic relativity hypothesis is most consistent with the suggestion that “words are the ________ of ideas.”
mothers

Which of the following would most likely be cited as evidence in support of the linguistic relativity hypothesis?
Which of the following would most likely be cited as evidence in support of the linguistic relativity hypothesis?

Leland’s language does not distinguish between “family love” and “romantic love,” so he has difficulty realizing that he deeply loves his sister. Which of the following is most relevant to Leland’s difficulty?
the linguistic relativity hypothesis

When English-speaking Canadian children were taught by a French-speaking teacher during their early school years, researchers found that they experienced a(n):
improvement in intellectual aptitude.

Many successful athletes prepare for contests by imagining themselves performing their events. This mental rehearsal best illustrates the effectiveness of:
thinking without language.

The chimpanzee Sultan used a short stick to retrieve a long stick, then used the long stick to retrieve a piece of fruit. Sultan’s successful acquisition of the fruit was said to be the result of:
insight

Psychologists are most likely to question whether chimps have the capacity to:
infer another chimp’s mental states.

Karl von Frisch discovered that ________ communicate by means of an intricate dance.
honeybees

Chimpanzees are capable of learning to:
understand spoken words.
b. string signs together into a meaningful sequence.
c. use computer keyboards to communicate with other chimps.

Research on the language capabilities of apes indicates that they cannot:
grammatically order language symbols as well as most 3 year old children.

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AP Psy Chapter 10 part 2. (2017, Dec 28). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/paper-on-ap-psy-chapter-10-part-2/

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