I chose this peer reviewed article to use in my research, because here are a great deal of facts, and information in this article. This article is very informative, and it has great facts in it. For example, there were reports of animal experiments designed to investigate the orientation of tumors by chemical agents as early as 1915 (Buyer, Beck, and Landowners. 322). In the next few decades, animal studies were also conducted to explore the health effects of cancer-causing agents.
After the observations were published, it was clear that the animal experiments were not commonly used for assessing the potential health effects of chemicals, but rather for studying the disease itself.
Safety evaluations were sometimes conducted, frequently with lethality as the outcome. The idea of using animal testing to screen for the potential to cause chronic effects such as cancer was not discussed. Testing for foods and drugs became a higher priority In 1937, because of the well-known poisoning episode.
This event caused 105 deaths: many of these Individuals were children.
This event brought to light the need to verify the safety of chemicals in foods and drugs prior to being sold to the public. The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938, which had previously diminished for several years in Congress, was quickly eased due to public pressure. Beginning in 1943, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientists published a series of Journal articles and reports discussing the use of long term tests for safety assessment of food and drugs.
Because of the presence of potential toxins in drugs, and especially in foods, could result in potentially wide spread exposures with effects that would be challenging to observe directly.
FDA scientists relied on animal studies to evaluate new food and drug ingredients. This information is important and dependable in relation to my topic, because it gave me the history of the topic. It gave me information that I hadn’t Known Deteriorate year, Beck, Allowance. 3 My second source is an article I found on Procom. Org, called “Animal Testing Pros and Cons. ” This was published in 2011.
I chose this article to use in my research, because it is also very informative, and has great facts in it. For example, 95% of the animals used in experiments are not protested by the federal Animal Welfare Act (AWAY). This excludes birds, rats, and mice bred by research, and cold-blooded animals such as reptiles and most fish. A 2011 poll of nearly 1,000 Biochemical scientists conducted by the science Journal Nature found that more than 90% agreed that the use of animals in research is essential. ” Chimpanzees share 99% of their DNA with humans, and mice are 98% genetically similar to humans.
The United States and Gabon are the only two countries that allow experiments on chimpanzees. In 2010, Minnesota used more cats than any other states (2,703), New Jersey used the most dogs (6,077), and Massachusetts used the most primates (7,458) (Did You Know. 4). Some Pros of animal testing are that animal testing has contributed to many life- saving cures and treatments. The California Biomedical Research Association says hat almost every medical breakthrough in the last 100 years has resulted directly from research using animals.
Experiments where dogs had their pancreases removed was the cause of the discovery of insulin, which is critical to saving the lives of diabetics. The polio vaccine, tested on animals, reduced the global occurrence of the disease from 350,000 cases in 1988 to 223 cases in 2012. Animal testing has also contributed to major advances in understanding and treating conditions like breast cancer, brain injury, childhood leukemia, cystic fibrosis, malaria, multiple sclerosis, tuberculosis, and so many others. It was also instrumental in the development of pacemakers, cardiac valve substitutes, and anesthetics (PRO Animal Testing. 1).
Some Cons of animal testing are that animal testing is cruel and inhumane. According to Humane Society International, animals used in experiments are commonly subjected to forced feeding, forced inhalation, food and water deprivation, extended periods of physical restraint, the infliction of burns and other wounds to study the healing process, the infliction of pain to study its effects and remedies, and “killing by carbon dioxide asphyxiation, neck-breaking, decapitation, or other means CON Animal Testing. 1). ” The Drained eye test is used by cosmetics companies to evaluate irritation caused by shampoos and other products.