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Risk assessment for chicken transportation from a farm to a slaughter house (2 of 2) 12. References 13. References Free – range chicken management system Introduction Poultry is one of the most popular meat products in the I-J. EX. marketing rules require that free-range poultry farming allows chickens to run free giving them a chance to spend at least half of their day in the open air. European marketing standards require that free-range chickens have access to an open-air run in the day time & in the night time chickens are let inside to protect them from predators.
The birds should have the option to go inside when weather conditions are bad. In a free-range management system a chicken’s life span is longer than caged chickens, it also causes less stress to chickens in comparison to any other management system. This system requires minimal Costs, but moralities due to predators are quite high (Amelia J. G. 1999). Free-range chickens have an additional opportunity to show their natural behavior. It gives them more space for exercising and they are able to get natural sunlight (DEFRAY 2001). Access outdoors reduces the level of ridding for birds that choose to stay inside.
Also more space and enrichment prevents chickens from cannibalism and feather pecking. Housing EX. marketing laws require that free-range chickens have access to open-air runs for at least half of their lives. There must be at least alma of range per bird. (Compassion in World Farming – March 2013) Substrate in the shelter needs to be straw like or wood shavings; this is so chickens can display their natural behavior such as digging, dust bathing, pecking etc. Outside substrate has to be free draining and covered mainly in vegetation (DEFRAY 001 ), (Fig. 1).
The area has to have some enrichment for birds like trees, bushes, hay piles etc. The roost must provide shade from the sun & shelter from the wind and aerial predators, real or apparent (planes, other vehicles, humans etc. ). The building has to have plenty of open access for chickens to go in and out as desired. The housing needs to have easy access in all weather conditions for vehicles to park for bird transfers. Fig 1. Free-range chicken farm (Mutton p. 2006) Ventilation The shelter must have natural automatic ventilation control (side vents along he length of the housing, above the windows).
The ventilation system needs to function so the air change rate is adequate to remove the heat from the building during hot weather. This is referred to as the maximum ventilation rate. During periods of low ventilation & cold weather it needs to be able to remove stale/unpleasant air and humidity (minimum ventilation rate). Confirm and draught free distribution of air within the building is important. (DEFRAY Publications, 2001) Ventilation can be produced by natural forces or by powered fans (Fig. 2), either way the birds need to have the right enraptures at all times.
Good ventilation is essential, especially in the summer time when weather gets hot. If ventilation is poor the birds might overheat, this could lead to stress and in the worst case, death. Ventilation helps to lower ammonia levels in closed areas; it also provides fresh air and reduces unpleasant doors. Fig. 2 Building ventilation system (SHEIKH, F. 2012) Layout – feeders perches other equipment It is essential for feeders, drinkers, nest boxes and perches to have the right layout, Otherwise it could cause stress & lower production.
Feeders and drinkers (as shown in a Fig. ) are installed along the entire roost; this gives a chance for every chicken to have access to food and water. This layout reduces chances of starvation and dehydration. Perches should be arranger in such a way that chickens can freely move between them and other equipment, if not the birds could get hurt. Moreover, if the birds were to get damaged it could compromise the resale of the product. All equipment should be mobile and easy to move/remove for cleaning or when gathering the birds for transportation.
Lighting Lighting needs to be designed and installed evenly throughout the building etc reduce an equal amount of artificial and natural light. For health and safety reasons the lighting system must be raised high enough so that the birds cannot reach & peck it. Conclusion Free-range farming is beneficial for birds and consumers. For chickens it means that they will have slightly longer, healthier and more fulfilled life. Moreover, it provides higher quality welfare along with opportunities to go outside and roam, whilst offering a more enriched life inside.
Slower growing bird breeds with access to open-air produces less but better fat and a higher quality product (RASPS, 201 1). Free range farming is beneficial to the consumer as the birds receive higher welfare, tend to be higher quality product, reasonably priced and are kept in an environment that is more natural. There are many issues surrounding the sustainability of agriculture, including restoration of habitats, improving soil health and water quality. The unsustainable practices that are uneaten have an ill effect on the aforementioned and the environment as a whole.
The world population is growing at a fast rate which leads to the demand of agricultural commodities. Moreover, this leads for a call to action in sustainable agriculture management to support demands, an area of concern is water control. Water is the life blood of agriculture and wildlife alike, poor water management can have an impact on crop grow/regeneration to habitat disruption. An example of poor water management affecting crops is in the Irish grasslands, the grasslands have poorly drained soil which impedes the growth and yield of crops.
To resolve the issues surrounding this area it has been suggested to improve the natural flow of the water off of the land by creating properly managed hedgerows, wetlands and buffer zones. Therefore, creating a lance that can see the sustainability of wildlife and crops equally, rather than only focusing on the yield of crops alone. Another area that is causing concern in agricultural water management sustainability is the impact it is having on the habitat of wildlife in general. Agriculture has a deep impact on the water resources within watersheds.
When wildlife habitats are converted into agricultural land the effects alter the diversion of water, through the use of pesticides and removal of plants/water etc. To sustain these habitats plant diversity and water sources in the agricultural surrounding areas should be maintained, this will support a diversity of wildlife. The sustainability of wildlife and agriculture go hand in hand, if a natural ecosystem is upheld in the surrounding areas it could provide a natural source of pest management. In a world that the population could reach 9 billion by 2050, demand must equal supply.
The requirement for agricultural sustainability is fundamental for the future of the environment and human demand. An ongoing strategy must be implemented and upheld to conquer the issues that are present, this will help ensure demand is met but not adversely affecting wildlife or the environment in the process. Agriculture’s deep connections to the world economy, human societies and biodiversity make it one of the most important frontiers for conservation around the globe. ” (World Wildlife Fund 2015) Zoo management nationally and internationally The diagram above is a tree structure of coordination in zoo management.
The following will describe each organization and outline their activities: CNN – International Union for the Conservation of Nature or World Union for the Conservation Of Nature. The JINN is responsible for valuing and conserving nature, it also provides information to attempt to solve major sues in climate change, food and overall development. GAZA – The European Association of Zoos and Aquaria is a community that ensures that its zoo members throughout Europe uphold the highest standard of care. This relates to breeding and protecting endangered species.
PEP – The European Endangered species Programmer has workers collecting vital information on endangered species. They present a plan to ensure the species are protected and are managed correctly in the future. ESP. – The European StudBook keeps data on all births, deaths and transfers of animals in Europe. This data can be used to advise zoos on how to manage healthier environment if required. TAGS – Taxonomic Action Groups advises on how captive rearing should be managed and what space should be allocated for each species, alongside conservation.
PIZZA – British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquaria is an organization that represents the zoo and aquaria community in Britain and Ireland, it provides a voice for its members. WAS -? World Association for Zoos and Aquaria encourages relationships between zoological gardens and aquariums with the intent of promoting the highest level animal welfare, it also represents both communities. ISIS – International Species Information System is a medium for international sharing of knowledge of animal species in animal management and conservation.
Sims – Zoological Information Management System’s goal is to improve local care by promoting population health and international conservation. SPARKS – Single Population Animal Records Keeping System analyzes, records and manages the animal data, usually its focus is a single species. ARKS – Animal Record Keeping System collects key data on animals in zoos to provide a management inventory. Medusas – Medical Animal Record Keeping System works with ARKS to link he animal inventory to medical records. This data can be used to provide medical care advice and when tests are required.
Animal identification methods Identification method Animals the method can be used on Application Use Implications for the welfare of the animals Ringing/ banding Wild domesticated birds. Small, individually numbered/marked metal or plastic tags are put on to the leg or wing of the bird. To identify individual birds, to track bird migration & population. Causes stress in the process of catching and ringing/banding. Ear tagging Domestic livestock: cattle, sheep, pigs & goats. Two plastic or metal tags that have identical numbers are joined through animal’s ear.
To identify individual animals, to record and trace their life since the moment they are born to their death. The procedure might cause stress and pain. Freeze branding Horses & cattle. The iron is cooled to a temperature of between -160 to -ICC. The branding iron is then pressed onto a shaved patch of skin on the animal. Is manly used by farmers to identify animal ownership. Causes pain and stress. Marking is permanent. Ear punching Mainly rodents. Could be used on cats and dogs. Using a special punch to produce a small notch in the animal’s ear.
To identify rodents. Mainly used in laboratories. Causes pain, stress and is permanent. The Microchip Cats, dogs & rabbits. The Microchip is implanted under an animal’s skin. To identify lost pets or other animals. Can cause stress, pain and is Permanent. Chip might move under the skin. Identification collars Companion animals. The collar is placed around the neck with important contact information. To identify individual animals, helps to find the owners of lost animals. Can be easily lost. Can cause damage to the animal or suffocation. Acoustic tag Fish.