This essay uses the ecological and the psychodynamic theories to explicate societal behavior, predict the results and explicate the hypothesis therefore doing an initial appraisal on the Banks household. The essay will discourse the advantages and disadvantages of each of the theories, the similarities and the differences between both of them and it will reason that human life and behavior is such a strong illustration that a individual theory can non satisfactorily history for all events across the life span. However, it will asseverate that in respect to the Banks household, the ecological theoretical account has an advantage over the psychodynamic theory because it holistically encompasses figure of issues such as fiscal security, stuff benefits, lodging, and parents ‘ history among others which do have effects on the hazard of kid maltreatment.
The issues identified in the Banks household include ; Mark ‘s intimidation, individuality issues, and Ken ‘s negative early life minutess and his relationship with Mark.
To turn to these issues, the societal work will utilize the ecological theory.
The ground for taking the ecological theory is because it is compatible with the appraisal model ( 2000 ) ( DOH 2000a ) as it links household history, cistrons, parents and their off springs relationship, economic factors, parental relationship experiences, persons ‘ ability to get by or pull off the emphasis and the synergistic consequence of hazards ( Ciccheti and Valentino: 2006 ) . Therefore, establishing on the ecological position, the societal work will hold to work within Mark ‘s ecology ( Bilson & A ; Ross: 1999 p.70-71 ) to happen out the troubles that the household might be confronting and to besides happen possible solution ( Ward: 1995 ) .
The societal worker will research the three ecological dimensions which are ; Mark ‘s developmental demands, Mel and Ken ‘s parenting capacity and household environmental factors ( D.O.H 2000a ) .
The societal workers will originate an honest and unfastened partnership with the household with an purpose of safeguarding and advancing the public assistance of Mark and his siblings. This will be for the parents to experience confident therefore prosecuting in the appraisal by supplying relevant information about Mark, Mel and John, themselves. He should besides endeavor to happen out about Mark ‘s paternity and any familial heritage or disposition issues that might be between Mark and his biological male parent ( Aldgate and Bradley 1999 ) .
The societal work will research the parents ‘ history by bespeaking them to depict who they are and the tendency of their relationship with Mark. This model will assist the societal worker to mix the historical and current information about the household, its operation, jobs and relationships ( Reder and Duncan: 1999 p.98-101 ) with the position of happening out what is go oning to Mark in the context of the full Banks household and the environmental factors and how they affect the household relationships.
Other issues that will hold to be looked into are ; the household income, vicinity and Mark ‘s friendly relationships with his equals. This is because there is a nexus between the household ‘s economic disadvantage and the opportunities that kids in the household will non thrive ( Utting:1995, Jack: 1997 )
It is besides noteworthy that Ken is firmly attached to his biological kids ( Mel and John ) and non to Mark who is his step-child. That should trip the societal worker ‘s wonder thence researching both the parents ‘ emotional handiness, reactivity, and their attributions to Mark and compare it with the manner they interact with Mel and John. This can be done through direct observation, oppugning and garnering testimonies from other important people including professionals such as the general practician and the instructors ( Department of Health 2000a ) .
The societal cubic decimeter worker will besides research Ken ‘s childhood experiences because they might be act uponing or doing consequence to his relationship with Mark ( Sroufe et al 2005: p.10 ) . This implies that the quality of attention that Ken is supplying Mark might in itself be a merchandise of his ain developmental history which is characterised by holding been in attention during childhood, holding no male parent figure, therefore his labored relationship with his female parent ( Cicchetti and Valentino: 2006 p.148 ) .
It is besides noteworthy that all Mark ‘s attempts to cognize his biological male parent proved to be ineffectual. And because of this, Mark might be sing identity issues such as low self- regard, hapless self-image and a hapless sense of belonging and credence by the household hence his negative behavior ( Draper & A ; Draper: 1982, p.26 ) . For this ground, the societal worker should guarantee that he gathers every bit much information about Mark ‘s biological male parent as possible merely in instance Mark expresses wants to see or to cognize about him.
In respect to Mark ‘s intimidation job, the societal worker would transport out direct work with him. In order to understate the anti discriminatory and anti subjugation pattern, the societal worker will hold to see his age, gender and civilization, faith and any disablement or developmental issues. He will hold to admit and esteem Mark ‘s wants, feelings and his apprehension of the deductions of the state of affairs in which he finds himself therefore doing the appraisal kid centred ( DOH 2000a ) . The societal worker would besides research Mark ‘s friendly relationships and how the interaction therein influences his negative behavior ( Rutter et al, 1998 ) .
At the terminal of the session, depending on what the societal worker makes out of Mark ‘s behavior and his social-emotional status he may mention Mark for psychological appraisal to farther set up his emotional well-being. The result of the psychological appraisal will so be used during the nucleus appraisal to inform the appropriate program of intercession to guarantee Mark development, safety and well-being ( Department of Health 2000a )
Advantages of the ecological theory.
The advantage of utilizing ecological attack is that it focuses on the relationships in minutess between the systems in the ecology therefore understating the sensitivity of the professionals to believe entirely in additive footings therefore accommodating a broad scope of intercession hence researching issues such as societal support, societal capital and socio-economic troubles that people experience ( Garbarino 1990 ) .
The ecological position is an incorporate theoretical account which acknowledges the effects of the biological, psychological societal and economic factors that affect the wellbeing of persons ( Payne, 1994 ) .
Disadvantages of utilizing the ecological theory?
Despite all the advantages of the ecological attack, it is a long procedure for households or persons who need speedy solutions for their jobs ( Payne 1997 ) .
Another theory that can be used to construe the Banks ‘ household ‘s phenomena, predict the results and explicate the hypothesis is the psychodynamic theory. The ground for taking the psychodymic theory is that it emphasises back uping the self-importance which is a world component of the head hence supplying stableness and equilibrium to the service user. Through utilizing this attack, the societal worker will be able to back up Ken and Mark to develop equal self-importance strength which will enable so to pull off their emotional struggles and the snags that they may come across in the life span ( Goldstein: 1984 ) .
It is noteworthy that both Mark and Ken do hold unresolved issues or struggles which do have roots from their single childhoods. For that ground, the societal worker will research Ken and Mark ‘s witting and unconscious parts of the heads at that place by doing any reserved painful stuffs therein witting hence gaining their impact on their surface behavior ( Bee and Boyd, 2006 ) .
By concentrating on Mark and Ken ‘s yesteryear and present unconscious and witting feelings, the societal worker may to be able to foretell and explicate how Mark and Ken may act during certain state of affairss or conditions. This is underpinned by the psychodynamic rule that all behavior is motivated ( Bee and Boyd, 2006 ) .
Due to the emotional issues already identified, the societal worker may research the how both Mark and Ken ‘s egos map and their defense mechanism mechanisms. Through respecting and working with their defense mechanisms, the societal worker is ought to recognize the menaces that both Mark and Ken face in life and he will discourse the effects and confusion of their feelings. The societal worker would besides happen out how both Mark and Ken have already tried to decide the struggles before make up one’s minding either to look for other possible ways of covering with it for illustration utilizing sublimation or to modify the ways that they have already tried to utilize ( Hollis, 1972 ) .
In respect to anti-discriminatory and anti-oppressive pattern, it is helpful to give the appraisal within the model or position of recognizing the deduction of structural and persons ‘ oppressive pattern which leads professionals into an autocratic and stiffly prejudiced pattern ( Davis, ed. , 2000:12,14 cited in Becket & A ; Maynard: 2005 p.158 ) . This implies that during appraisal, professionals are ought to listen and besides regard and take into consideration the service user ‘s and carer ‘s positions, picks, age, civilization, faith and needs as this makes them experience valued and respected ( Brandon, 1990: p.59 cited in Becket & A ; Maynard, 2005: p.158 ) .
Additionally, Payne ( 1997: p.89 ) advises that in professional relationship, societal work values involve being tolerant to service users ‘ behavior, advancing healthy client-social worker relationship, instead than personal emotional responses to serve user ‘s demands. This may intend that professionals are ought to make professional alternatively of personal relationships with the service users which might negatively impact their independency and nonpartisanship.
Advantages of the psychodynamic theory
The advantage of the psychodynamic theory in societal work is that it recognises the impact of past painful life transactional procedures and helps to make good intuitions about them in relation to the current discernible behavior ( Milner & A ; O’Byrne 2009 ) .
The psychodynamic theory besides lays accent on modifying the self-importance through originating good client-social worker relationship ( Goldstein: 1984 ) , therefore bettering people ‘s relationships within their environment ( Payne 1997:80 ) .
The disadvantages of the psychodynamic theory.
However, critics of the psychodynamic theory such as Dorfman ( 1998: P.70 ) contend that it is an andocentric theory. This implies that the psychodynamic theory is based on research that was done entirely on males and so taken to intend all human behavior which itself is a prejudice in favor of males and therefore partial.
Similarity and differences btn the psycho and eco theory.
One of the similarities between the psychodynamic and the ecological theory is that both of them consider age and phase rightness of behavior. While the psychodynamic theory takes into history the anal, unwritten and phallic phases of development, the ecological- transactional position positions child development as a progressive sequence of age and phase -appropriate undertakings in which success at each developmental degree must organize and incorporate with the environment and other issues such as emotion ordinance, and formation of attachment relationships among others that emerge across the lifetime ( Cicchetti and Valentiono 2006 p.143 ) .
Although these two theories do hold the above similarity, they besides have differences. For illustration, while the psychodynamic theory upholds the construct of the being of the unconscious head or consciousness ( Payne 1997 ) , the ecological position focal points on the rule of interaction among the persons and it besides depicts persons as bing in relation to others in the ecology ( Reder and Duncan 1999 p.98-101 ) .
In relation to child maltreatment, Sidebotham et Al ( 2002 ) argue that the psychodynamic theoretical accounts are lacking to give account in this respect and he calls for the usage of the ecological theoretical accounts because they include a figure of issues such as fiscal security, stuff benefits, lodging, and parents ‘ history among others which do have effects on the hazard of kid maltreatment.
Given the complexness of the Banks household phenomena, the quest to explicate the behavior, predict the results and explicate the hypothesis requires one to utilize theories otherwise ; the appraisal would be adrift and woolly. Therefore, this essay has used the psychodynamic and the ecological theory to discourse how an appraisal would be done to back up the Banks household. It has explored the ethical rule of anti-discriminatory and oppressive pattern. It has besides discussed the advantages and disadvantages of each of them before placing the similarity and the difference between them and it has given the complicity of human life, all theories work in a complimentary manner to give societal workers an eclectic apprehension of issues in the phenomena with one theory assisting to explicate certain issues more clearly than the other. And in instance of kid ill-treatment, the ecological theoretical accounts has been has had an advantage over the psychodynamic theory because it has holistically encompassed figure of issues such as fiscal security, stuff benefits, lodging, parents history among others which do have effects on the hazard of kid maltreatment.