Analyses the reasons for separatism within and/or across national boundaries and discuss its consequences Separatism can be defined where within a country, an ethnic group, religion, or regional group tries to gain more autonomy from a central government which can lead to the push for Independence from the mall country. An example of this Is where South Sudan split off from main Sudan following a referendum which 98. 83% of Sudanese voted for its independence. Separatism can occur for many reasons, this may be due to oppression of a minority group (egg. He Kurds), the feeling of being too Raphael to the main country to receive economic or political benefits (egg. Scotland in the United Kingdom) or even historical allegiances can occur (egg. Eastern Ukraine returning to Russia). Separatism can lead to call unrest such as violent protests, or In severe cases call war but separatism can soul ultimately have positive outcomes. Ukraine gained its independence from Russia in 1991 but ever since there has always been allegiances to Russia from within Ukraine and notably Crimea and Eastern Ukraine.
Situations within Ukraine spiraled out of control at the hands of former President Victor Hancock. Victor declined to make European Union association agreements so that Ukraine would secure greater ties with Europe. Instead he proposed that Ukraine would verge more towards ties with the Russian Federation, subsequently this culminated into protests in Kiev by the pro-European union group ‘Remained’ leading to the President’s ousting in February 2014.
This Is where separatism manifested in Eastern Ukraine and Crimea because pro-Russian groups opposed Hunchback’s ousting from presidency. It’s easy to assume that the proportion of Ukrainians In favor of pro-Russian ties Is quite minimal If Ukraine was joking to leave behind It’s Soviet past but within Crimea, Donates, and Lunches over 50% of their population indemnify Russia as their main language and Donates is the largest blast (region) by population in the country showing that there is plenty of support for pro-Russian separatism within Ukraine.
The protests in Southeastern Ukraine had the consequences of leading to Crime’s annexation to Russia and armed Insurgency in Lunches and Donates which has further caused armed conflict between the pro-Russian separatists and the Ukrainian government. Separatism In he Ukraine has had a devastating effect on the Southeastern portion of the country and is expected to plunge Ukrainian economy by 8% for 2014. The violence within Ukraine has therefore crippled it’s infrastructure and economy and the subsequent loss of Donates and Lunches will also have a significant blow on Ukrainian mining industry.
If Donates and Lunches become independent states but reliant on the Russian Federation, there will also be the Issue of covering the costs of the damage, Ana ensuring ten welfare AT people Tolling ten armed conflict. For Don sloes, ten earring outcome is quite negative in the short-term but in the long term it will ensure that there is no longer any ethnically or ideological divide within Ukraine but violence is still unnecessary in the drive for separatism.
There is also a major example of a peaceful separatist movement and this one which is very close to home. Scotland recently had its referendum over whether it should secure independence and 55% of voters voted in favor of ‘no’ but that 45% suggests that an overwhelming amount of Scottish people were seeking independence from the United Kingdom. This may have been inspired by patriotic reasons or driving by Scottish National Party leader Alex Salmons who led the independence campaign in the first place.
Let us say for example that Scotland had become independent, what would that mean for Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom? Wales identifies with its rich but dwindling language and if the outcomes are positive for Scotland it may want to seek independence for its own, which in turn could lead to the full breakup of the United Kingdom. The loss of Scotland could also lead to the loss of
North Sea oil reserves, however if divided by population in England and Scotland, Scotland would only receive 10% of that oil and lose out in the long run. There is also the issue of Scotland needing to rejoin the European Union which could cause it to lose the currency of the Pound and replace this with Euro if formally requested by the EX. but if a country such as Greece which also uses the Euro enters into another money crisis then this could devalue the Euro and in turn effect Scotland economy.
Scotland would of course be allowed to establish its own laws and Scotland may come a more desirable place to study with lower tuition fees and in fact since tuition fees were increased to EYE three years ago, students south of Scotland have bills totaling up to EYE billion, where as Scottish students have altogether saved up to El billion in bills.
In reality there have been positive outcomes after the referendum had occurred and this is because David Cameron has called for greater recognition of Scottish people in the United Kingdom which could result in greater power from within Scotland capital Edinburgh and largest city Glasgow. Separatism may come from an oppressed minority group. The Kurds do not have a country of their own and a majority of them live in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey, where up to 15 million Kurds live in Turkey, which is 25% of the population.
Kurds are systematically abused in Turkey despite a ‘zero-tolerance policy from the government and Kurdish separatism is also silenced in Turkish media. The proposal for a nation for the Kurds ‘Sardinian’ will especially take out large chunks of Turkish and Iraqi land which would most likely cause both countries to deny Kurdish independence from occurring. This is even more difficult since the PACK (Kurdish Worker’s Party) was formed and is trying to establish a communist Sardinian which would isolate the country in a more right-wing political environment.
The push for independence has seen advancements in the Kurdish cause as Iraq has given more autonomy to the Kurds however since they were given more autonomy in Iraq in 1970, Sad Hussein caused the genocide of 182,000 Kurds in 1988 which led to a greater push for independence and a great resentment of what happened. Looking forward to a retirement was Ella n DAY Iraq Ana tans was In conjunction wilt winter an independent Sardinian should be established and despite a majority vote, an independent state never materialized.
Another referendum is to be held late this year and it is suggested that Turkey would recognize an independent Kurdish state, implying that if Sardinian became independent then perhaps Turkey would give the Kurds more autonomy. Separatism has the ultimate goal of giving a region within a country its independence but it can result in a multiple amount of outcomes. The example of the Ukraine shows that violence in separatism can ultimately damage a country’s infrastructure ND economy whilst leaving regions such Donates and Lunches in turmoil.
The example of Scotland shows that holding a referendum over independence can cause central government in London to step up and give Scotland more power which is very positive for the country’s future. Whilst the example of Sardinian shows that oppression can ultimately lead a minority group onto not Just pushing for autonomy but for an independent state. Separatism must be assertive to work and must challenge a central government if it is to also work but taking a violent approach will lead to negative outcomes for both sides.