Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the ecosystem as a whole.
The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Air pollution leads to many problems, one major problem being the depletion of the ozone layer. Pollutants A substance in the air that can be harmful to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary.
Usually, primary pollutants are directly produced from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone ? one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants.
Major primary pollutants produced by human activity include: Sulfur oxides (SOX) especially lupus dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula ASS. ASS is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of ASS, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NON, forms HOSTS, and thus acid rain. This is one of the causes for concern over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power sources.
Nitrogen oxides (Knox) – especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion, and are also produced naturally during hindquarters by electric discharge. Can be seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NON. It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. NON is one of the most prominent air pollutants. Carbon monoxide (CO)- is a colorless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas.
It is a product by incomplete combustion Of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of ca ribbon monoxide. Volatile organic compounds – Voss are n important outdoor air pollutant. In this field they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CHI) and non-methane (Moves). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming. Other hydrocarbon Voss are also significant greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere, although the effect varies depending on local air quality.
Within the Moves, the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene and Selene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia through prolonged exposure. ,3-butadiene is another dangerous compound which is often associated with industrial uses. Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), atmospheric particulate matter, or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and the gas together.
Sources of particulates can be man made or natural. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants ND various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of aerosols. Averaged over the globe, anthropogenic aerosols?those made by human activities?currently account for about 10 percent of the total amount of aerosols in our atmosphere.
Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart disease,altered lung function and lung cancer. Chlorofluorocarbons (CIFS) – harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use. Ammonia (NH) – emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers.
Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis Of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. Odors such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes Radioactive pollutants – produced by nuclear explosions, nuclear events, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay f radon. Secondary pollutants include: Particulates created from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog.
Smog is a kind of air pollution. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. Ground level ozone (03) formed from Knox and Voss. Ozone (03) is a key constituent of the troposphere.
It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer. Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities (largely the combustion of fossil fuel), it is a pollutant, and a constituent of smog. Approximately nitrate (PAN) – similarly formed from Knox and Voss. Minor air pollutants include: A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants.
A variety of persistent organic pollutants, which can attach to particulates. Persistent organic pollute ants (Pops) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, fasciculate in human and animal tissue, abominating in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. Sources of Air Pollution.
Sources Of air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants into the atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories which are: 1 Anthropogenic sources (man-made sources) mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel -“Stationary Sources” include smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices.
In developing and poor countries, traditional biomass burning is the major source of air pollutants; traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and dung. -“Mobile Sources” include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc. -Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and forestry management. Controlled or prescribed burning is a technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for foresters.
Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desirable forest trees, thus renewing the forest. -Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other elevens -Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane. Methane is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxia’s and may displace oxygen in an enclosed space. Asphyxia or suffocation may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below 19. 5% by displacement. -Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry 2.
Natural sources -Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation -Methane, emitted by the digestion Of food by animals, for example cattle -Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth’s crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is formed from the decay of radium. It is considered to be a health hazard. Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as the basement and it is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking. Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates [pick] Air Pollution in Industry. Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that people attempt to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages.
A lack of ventilation indoors concentrates air pollution where people often spend the majority of their time. Radon (Urn) gas, a carcinogen, is exuded from the Earth in certain locations and trapped inside houses. Building materials including carpeting and plywood emit formaldehyde (HOC) gas. Paint and elevens give off volatile organic compounds (Voss) as they dry. Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. Intentional air pollution is introduced with the use of air fresheners, incense, and other scented items.
Controlled wood fires in stoves and fireplaces can add significant amounts of smoke particulates into the air, inside and out. Indoor pollution fatalities may be caused by using pesticides and other chemical sprays indoors without proper ventilation. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and fatalities are often caused by faulty vents and chimneys, or by the burning of charcoal indoors. Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning can result even from poorly adjusted pilot lights. Traps are built into all domestic plumbing to keep sewer gas, hydrogen sulfide, out of interiors.
Clothing emits transcontinental, or other dry’ cleaning fluids, for days after dry cleaning. Biological sources of air pollution are also found indoors, as gases and airborne particulates. Pets produce dander, people produce dust from minute skin flakes and decomposed hair, dust mites in bedding, carpeting and furniture produce enzymes and micrometer-sized fecal droppings, inhabitants emit methane, old forms in walls and generates nominations and spores, air conditioning systems can incubate Legionnaires’ disease and mold, and houseplants, soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen, dust, and mold.
Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne pollutants to accumulate more than they would otherwise occur in nature. CASE STUDY. Air pollution in the Asia/pacific Area Air pollution in the Asia/Pacific region of the world is a serious problem, not only because it’s so bad, but because the region is such a large portion of the world. The pollution problem impacts not only the huge numbers of people paving there, but people all over the planet because of air currents mixing the polluted air with clean air found elsewhere. This air pollution problem effects health, agriculture and even water.
The area known as Asia/Pacific includes many different countries. The countries that are usually included in this area are Australia, the far eastern parts of Russia, and East and South Asian countries that are close to the Pacific Ocean and the island nations within the Pacific Ocean (including my country, Fiji). This area is full of different religions, races, languages, and customs, but they all have one very important thing in moon air pollution. The air pollution in the Asia/Pacific region not only affects the environment, but also the health of the people today and for many generations to come around the world.
Unfortunately, air pollution in the Asia/Pacific region was not an issue that received much attention until the last few years. This issue has come to the forefront of the attention of many different people due to the rapid population growth and economic expansion that has occurred over the last decade. These two things have caused the air pollution in the Asia/Pacific geographic area to significantly increase and, in urn, the health problems of the people of this region have increase.
The air pollution in this area can possibly be responsible for up to 500,000 premature deaths each year and this number is steadily increasing. Sources of Air Pollution in the Asia Pacific Region. There are a great number of sources that they have in common with the rest of the world, including car emissions and other emissions from fuel and industries. The Asia/Pacific area is also greatly impacted by the increased burning of coal to help fuel the greatly increasing economies of China and India and the burning of trees and other brush on the island of Borneo to alp clear the land.
These reasons are considered to be large contributors to the air pollution in the Asia pacific area. The smog has become so bad in some cities that it causes many people to have to stay inside their homes, because it causes severe breathing difficulties for them. For example, Beijing and Shanghai have pollution that are sometimes so severe that one cannot see anything more than 50 feet away. This focuses worsens during the winter season, when air pollution and smog is at its worst. Measures Being Taken to Help Reduce Air Pollution in the Asia/Pacific Region
The most important step is from officials in countries that are affected most by the Asia Pacifism’s air pollution problems who are coming together to create a plan for decreasing the air pollution. The most common ways they are suggesting is to enact regulation reforms. These reforms include stricter fuel quality and tighter fuel efficiency requirements, and other air quality regulations. Strong political reforms will need to be put into place by the different countries, however, to make sure that these regulations are enforced. Alternative electric generation is being installed all over Asia.
Hydro- rower, like damming the Yanking River, has great potential in helping clean up air pollution in Asia/Pacific areas, but care needs to be taken to prevent far-reaching environmental impacts. Wind farms are being erected in Australia, India, China, Japan, Fiji and other countries, increasing wind-power capacity by 25 percent, without increasing air pollution. Solar energy is also making a difference in this region of the world. Not only are there large installations that can impact large populations of people, but there are also small installations that help remote communities and resorts.
Each of these tepees helps reduce air pollution. Air pollution in the Asia/Pacific is a huge problem. If the reforms are not put into place, it will continue to make it more difficult for people to live in this area. And because of air currents stirring up the globes’ air supplies, the pollution will impact people all around the world. This doesn’t even take into consideration the impacts Of air pollution on the environment, from crops and animals, to water and man-made structures. With the large number of people concentrated this area, more needs to be done to reduce air pollution in the Asia/Pacific region.