Air pollution Paper
The authors decided to break out embers for specific countries and present the findings at international conferences. The China statistics were offered at a forum in Beijing on Sunday. ‘Vile have been rolling out the India- and China-specific numbers, as they speak more directly to national leaders than regional numbers,” said Robert Coffee, the vice president of the Health Effects Institute, a research organization that is helping to present the study. The organization is partly financed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the global motor vehicle industry.
What the researchers called “ambient articulate matter pollution” was the fourth-leading risk factor for deaths in China in 201 0, behind dietary risks, high blood pressure and smoking. Air pollution ranked seventh on the worldwide list of risk factors, contributing to 3. 2 million deaths in 2010. By comparison with China, India, which also has densely populated cities grappling with similar levels of pollution, had 620,000 premature deaths in 201 0 because of outdoor air pollution, the study found.
That was deemed to be the sixth most common killer in South Asia. The study was led by an institute at the University of Washington and several ratter universities and institutions, including the World Health Organization. Calculations of premature deaths because of outdoor air pollution are politically threatening in the eyes of some Chinese officials. According to news reports, Chinese officials cut out sections of a 2007 report called “Cost of Pollution in China” that discussed premature deaths.
The report’s authors had concluded that 350,000 to 400,000 people die prematurely in China each year because of outdoor air pollution. The study was done by the World Bank in cooperation with the Chinese State Environmental Protection Administration, he precursor to the Ministry of Environmental Protection. There have been other estimates of premature deaths because of air pollution. In 2011, the World Health Organization estimated that there were 1. 3 million premature deaths in cities worldwide because Of outdoor air pollution.
Last month, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, based in Paris, warned that “urban air pollution is set to become the top environmental cause of mortality worldwide by 2050, ahead of dirty water and lack of sanitation. ” It estimated that up to 3. 6 million people could end up dying armature’s from air pollution each year, mostly in China and India. There has been growing outrage in Chinese cities over what many say are untenable levels of air pollution.
Cities across the north hit record levels in January, and official Chinese newspapers ran front-page articles on the surge ? what some foreigners call the “airplanes” despite earlier limits on such discussion by propaganda officials. In February, the State Council, China’s cabinet, announced a timeline for introducing new fuel standards, but state- owned oil and power companies are known to block or ignore environmental leslies to save on costs. A study released on Thursday said the growth rate of disclosure of pollution information in 113 Chinese cities had slowed.
The groups doing the study, the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs, based in Beijing, and the Natural Resources Defense Council, based in Washington, said that “faced with the current situation of severe air, water and soil pollution, we must make changes to pollution source information disclosure So that information is no longer patchy, out Of date and difficult to obtain. ” Chinese officials have made some progress in disclosing crucial air pollution statistics. Official news reports have said 74 cities are now required to release data on levels of particulate matter 2. Micrometers in diameter or smaller, which penetrate the body’s tissues most deeply. For years, Chinese officials had been collecting the data but refusing to release it, until they came under pressure from Chinese who saw that the united States Embassy in Beijing was measuring the levels hourly and posting the data in a Twitter feed, @Beijing. Last week, an official Chinese news report said the cost of environmental degradation in China was about $230 billion in 2010, or 3. 5 percent of the gross domestic product.
The estimate, said to be partial, came from a research institute under the Ministry of Environmental Protection, and was three times the amount in 2004, in local currency terms. It was unclear to what extent those numbers took into account the costs of health care and premature deaths because of pollution. National park Service Air Pollution – Its Nature, Sources, and Effects http://www. Naps. Gob/sheen/intransigence/revolution. HTML Last updated: 04/09/2014 Summer View, mountains in the distance from Skyline Drive. John F.
Mitchell – NAPS Volunteer Introduction Air pollution occurs in many forms but can generally be thought of as gaseous ND particulate contaminants that are present in the earth’s atmosphere. Gaseous pollutants include sulfur dioxide (SIS), nitrogen oxides (Knox), ozone (03), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCE), hydrogen sulfide (HAS), hydrogen fluoride (HE), and various gaseous forms of metals. These pollutants are emitted from large stationary sources such as fossil fuel fired power plants, smelters, industrial boilers, petroleum refineries, and manufacturing facilities as well as from area and mobile sources.
They are corrosive to various materials which causes damage to cultural resources, can cause injury to ecosystems and organisms, aggravate respiratory diseases, and reduce visibility. Particulates come in both large and small or “fine” solid forms. Large particulates include substances such as dust, asbestos fibers, and lead. Fine particulates include sulfates (SIS) and nitrates (ANN.). Important sources of particulates are power plants, smelters, mining operations, and automobiles.
Asbestos and lead affect organisms, while sulfates and nitrates not only cause health problems, but also contribute to acid rain or acid deposition and a reduction in visibility. Particulate matter, a ERM sometimes used instead of particulates, refers to the mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air. Toxic air pollutants are a class Of chemicals which may potentially cause health problems in a significant way. The sources of toxic air pollutants include power plants, industries, pesticide application, and contaminated windblown dust.
Persistent toxic pollutants, such as mercury, are of particular concern because of their global mobility and ability to accumulate in the food chain. More research is needed to fully understand the fate and effects of mercury and the many other toxic Laotians. Primary pollutants are those that are emitted directly into the air from pollution sources. Secondary pollutants are formed when primary pollutants undergo chemical changes in the atmosphere. Ozone is an example of a secondary pollutant. It is formed when nitrogen oxides (Knox) and volatile organic compounds (Voss) are mixed and warmed by sunlight.
Ozone (03) is a major component of what is often referred to as smog. The ozone which is present in the troposphere, or the atmosphere that is close to the ground, should not be confused with beneficial ozone that is located in he stratosphere or upper atmosphere. This beneficial ozone in the stratosphere helps protect the earth from harmful ultraviolet light from the sun. Sources of Air Pollution Stationary and Area Sources A stationary source of air pollution refers to an emission source that does not move, also known as a point source. Stationary sources include factories, power plants, dry cleaners and decreasing operations.
The term area source is used to describe many small sources of air pollution located together whose individual emissions may be below thresholds of concern, but whose collective emissions can be significant. Residential wood burners are a good example of a small source, but when combined with many other small sources, they can contribute to local and regional air pollution levels. Area sources can also be thought of as non-point sources, such as construction of housing developments, dry lake beds, and landfills. Mobile Sources A mobile source of air pollution refers to a source that is capable of moving under its own power.
In general, mobile sources imply “on-road” transportation, which includes vehicles such as cars, sport utility vehicles, and buses. In addition, there is also a “non-road” or “off-road” category that includes gas-powered lawn tools and mowers, farm and construction equipment, recreational vehicles, boats, planes, and trains. Agricultural Sources Agricultural operations, those that raise animals and grow crops, can generate emissions of gases and particulate matter. For example, animals confined to a barn or restricted area (rather than field grazing), produce large amounts of manure.
Manure emits various gases, particularly ammonia into the air. This ammonia can be emitted from the animal houses, manure storage areas, or from the land after the manure is applied. In crop reduction, the misapplication of fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides can potentially result in aerial drift Of these materials and harm may be caused. Natural So races Although industrialization and the use of motor vehicles are overwhelmingly the most significant contributors to air pollution, there are important natural sources of “pollution” as well.
Willard fires, dust storms, and volcanic activity also contribute gases and particulates to our atmosphere. Unlike the above mentioned sources of air pollution, natural “air pollution” is not caused by people or their activities. An erupting volcano emits particulate eater and gases; forest and prairie fires can emit large quantities of “pollutants”; plants and trees naturally emit Voss which are oxidized and form aerosols that can cause a natural blue haze; and dust storms can create large amounts of particulate matter.
Wild animals in their natural habitat are also considered natural sources of “pollution”. The National Park Service recognizes that each of these so races emits gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere but we regard these as constituents resulting from natural processes. Air Pollution at Shenandoah Sources of air pollution that affect Shenandoah National Park are largely outside of the park. These include industrial facilities located throughout the mid-Atlantic region and the Ohio River Valley as well as urban centers in this same region.
Because most areas adjacent to the park are rural and agricultural, it is clear that transport of pollutants from distant locations is an important element upon which park air quality hinges. Even some agricultural activities, such as ammonia from the poultry industry and pesticides that are applied to adjacent fields, may contribute to air pollution in the park. In-park emission sources are relatively small, but do include motor vehicles, maintenance equipment, small boilers and generators. The relative contribution from the in-park sources is very small compared to other sources.
In a July 2002 report describing an emissions inventory for Shenandoah National park, it was determined that less than 1 % of emissions were produced from in-park sources. How does air pollution move? Air transport is the term used to describe the mechanism by which air pollution moves from an emissions source to a receptor. A source is a location (I. E. , smokestack, chimney, exhaust pipe) from which the pollutant emanates and a receptor is the place (I. E. , soil, vegetation, waterbeds, unman lungs) where the pollutant is deposited. The atmosphere itself is the transporter of pollutants from sources to receptors.
If the wind carries the plume of pollution high enough in the air, it may travel for hundreds of miles before being brought to earth. This is known as long-range or long-distance transport. Air Pollution Effects The air is an important component of the natural system of a park in its own right. The presence of pollution in the atmosphere results directly in air quality degradation. Air pollution is also a critical factor affecting the quality of other environmental resources as well as the human-made structures and acclivities in the area.
Polluted air can and has harmed park resources in a variety of ways depending upon the chemistry of the pollutant, weather and environmental conditions, and the nature or sensitivity of park resources. Examples of this harm include vegetative disconsolation and growth disruption from ozone, loss of aquatic species from stream acidification, shifts in nutrient availability from acid deposition, and erosion of building surfaces and rock formations. Air pollution impairs visibility and contributes to climate change. Air pollution can also be detrimental to human health. Schooldays http://schooldays. M/pollution/air-pollution/what-is-air-pollution. HTML Copyright/Updated 201 0 Your Cool Facts and Tips on Air Pollution What causes air pollution? Air pollution can result from both human and natural actions. Natural events that pollute the air include forest fires, volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, pollen dispersal, evaporation of organic compounds and natural radioactivity. Pollution from natural occurrences are not very often. Human activities that result in air pollution include: 1 . Emissions from industries and manufacturing activities Have you seen a manufacturing company before?
You will notice that there re long tubes (called chimneys) erected high into the air, with lots of smoke and fumes coming out of it. Waste incinerators, manufacturing industries and power plants emit high levels of carbon monoxide, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air. This happens almost everywhere that people live. Petroleum refineries also release lots of hydrocarbons into the air. 2. Burning Fossil Fuels After the industrial age, transportation has become a key part of our lives. Cars and heavy duty trucks, trains, shipping vessels and airplanes all burn lots of fossil fuels to work.
Emissions from automobile engines contain both remarry and secondary pollutants. This is a major cause of pollution, and one that is very difficult to manage. This is because humans rely heavily on vehicles and engines for transporting people, good and services. Fumes from car exhaust contain dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and particulates. On their own, they cause great harm to people who breath them. Additionally, they react with environmental gases to create further toxic gases. Click here to see the effects 3.
Household and Farming Chemicals Crop dusting, fumigating homes, household cleaning products or painting applies, over the counter insect/pest killers, fertilizer dust emit harmful chemicals into the air and cause pollution. In many case, when we use these chemicals at home or offices with no or little ventilation, we may fall ill if we breathe them. What are the common air pollutants around? Carbon Monoxide (CO) Fuel combustion from vehicles and engines. Reduces the amount of oxygen reaching the body’s organs and tissues; aggravates heart disease, resulting in chest pain and other symptoms.
Ground-level Ozone (03) Secondary pollutant formed by chemical reaction of volatile organic compounds (Voss) and Knox in the presence of sunlight. Decreases lung function and causes respiratory symptoms, such as coughing and shortness Of breath, and also makes asthma and other lung diseases get worse. More on Ground Level Ozone Here Lead (BP) Smelters (metal refineries) and other metal industries; combustion of leaded gasoline in piston engine aircraft; waste incinerators (waste burners), and battery manufacturing. Damages the developing nervous system, resulting in IQ loss and impacts on learning, memory, and behavior in children.
Cardiovascular and renal effects in adults and early effects related to anemia. Nitrogen Dioxide (NON) Fuel combustion (electric utilities, big industrial boilers, vehicles) and wood burning. Worsens lung diseases leading to respiratory symptoms, increased susceptibility to respiratory infection. Particulate Matter (PM) This is formed through chemical reactions, fuel combustion (e. G. , burning coal, wood, diesel), industrial processes, farming (plowing, field burning), and unpaved roads or during road constructions. Short-term exposures can worsen heart or lung diseases and cause respiratory problems.
Long-term exposures can cause heart or lung disease and sometimes premature deaths. Sulfur Dioxide (SIS) SIS come from fuel combustion (especially high-sulfur coal); electric utilities and industrial processes as well as and natural occurrences like volcanoes. Aggravates asthma and makes breathing difficult-alt also contributes to particle formation with associated health effects. What are the effects of air pollution? Acidification: Chemical reactions involving air pollutants can create acidic compounds which can cause harm to vegetation and buildings.
Sometimes, when an air pollutant, such as sulfuric acid combines with the water droplets that make up clouds, the water droplets become acidic, forming acid rain. When acid rain falls over an area, it can kill trees and harm animals, fish, and other wildlife. Acid rain destroys the leaves of plants. When acid rain infiltrates into soils, it changes the chemistry of the soil making it unfit for many living things that rely on soil as a habitat or for nutrition. Acid rain also changes the chemistry of the lakes and streams that the rainwater flows into, harming fish and other aquatic life.
Transportation: Rain can carry and deposit the Nitrogen in some pollutants on rivers and soils. This will adversely affect the nutrients in the soil and water bodies. This an result in algae growth in lakes and water bodies, and make conditions for other living organism harmful. Ground-level ozone: Chemical reactions involving air pollutants create a poisonous gas ozone (03). Gas Ozone can affect people’s health and can damage vegetation types and some animal life too. Particulate matter: Air pollutants can be in the form of particulate matter which can be very harmful to our health.
The level of effect usually depends on the length of time of exposure, as well the kind and concentration of chemicals and particles exposed to. Short-term effects include irritation to the eyes, nose ND throat, and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Others include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions. Short- term air pollution can aggravate the medical conditions of individuals with asthma and emphysema. Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys.
Continual exposure to air pollution affects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly. Air pollution prevention, monitoring and solution. Solution efforts on pollution is always a big problem. This is why prevention interventions are always a better way of controlling air pollution. These prevention methods can either come from government (laws) or by individual actions. In many big cities, monitoring equipment have been installed at many points in the city. Authorities read them regularly to check the quality of air.
Let’s see more below: Government (Or community) level prevention Governments throughout the world have already taken action against air pollution by introducing green energy. Some governments are investing in wind energy and solar energy, as well as other renewable energy, to minimize ruining of fossil fuels, which cause heavy air pollution. Governments are also forcing companies to be more responsible with their manufacturing activities, so that even though they still cause pollution, they are a lot controlled. Companies are also building more energy efficient cars, which pollute less than before.
Individual Level Prevention Encourage your family to use the bus, train or bike when commuting. If we all do this, there will be less cars on road and less fumes. Use energy (light, water, boiler, kettle and fire woods) wisely. This is because lots of fossil fuels are burned to generate electricity, and so if we can cut own the use, we will also cut down the amount of pollution we create. Recycle and re-use things. This Will minimize the dependence of producing new things. Remember manufacturing industries create a lot of pollution, so if we can re-use things like shopping plastic bags, clothing, paper and bottles, it can help.
Basic Air Pollution Facts Below are some random facts and info on environmental pollution. Air pollutants (dangerous things that make the air unclean)come in the form of gases or particles. In March 201 1, a very powerful earthquake in the sea (tsunami) hit the Japan coast. The sea level rose and water came into the land, damaging 4 of the 6 reactors in the Fuchsia Didactic Nuclear Power Plant. World Health Organization (WHO) experts confirm that there is slight increased risk of some cancer types for some people who were exposed to the radiation. These included people living in that area and some workers at the plant.
Below is a piece of the information given on BBC website: “The biggest lifetime risks were seen in those exposed as infants, compared with children or adults. For girls exposed to radiation from the accident as infants, the port found a 4% increase above the lifetime expected risk of solid tumors and a 6% increase above that expected for breast cancer. Boys exposed as infants are expected to have a 7% increased risk of leukemia above that expected in the normal population. The biggest risk was seen in thyroid cancer, which for infant girls could be up to 70% higher than expected over their lifetime. BBC Website: /news/health-21614722 It is estimated that you breathe 20,000 liters of air each day. This means the more polluted the air is, the more we breathe into our lungs dangerous chemicals. Air can be polluted both indoors and outdoors. Tobacco and other minds of smoking are examples of indoor air pollution. Sick Building Syndrome is a health condition related to pesticides, insecticides and chemicals we use at home and offices. In the great “Smog Disaster” in London in 1 952, four thousand people died in a few days due to the high concentrations of pollution.
Air pollution affects kids more than adults because, for their body size, kids breathe more air and spend more time playing outside. More hazardous pollutants are discharged into the air each year than are released to surface water, ground water, and land, combined. Motor vehicles produce more air pollution than any other single human activity. One full commuter bus can mean 40 less cars going through your neighborhood. In America, vehicle exhaust contributes roughly 60% of all carbon monoxide emissions nationwide, and up to 95% in cities.