This sample of an academic paper on Acid Rain In China reveals arguments and important aspects of this topic. Read this essay’s introduction, body paragraphs and the conclusion below.
Acid rain is any type of precipitation that has high acid content. This precipitation can be wet (rain, snow, or fog) or dry (gases or acidic salts). Normal rain is slightly acidic with pH 6. 5 but we call it acid rain when it is pH is between 2 and 5. 5. It is formed by chemicals created by the burning of fossil fuels, power plants, factories and auto mobiles. These chemicals are sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide. Sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide react with water in the atmosphere and eventually fall back to earth’s surface as an acid deposition.
Shanghai is a city which is located on eastern coast of China. It is a strong commercial and industrial base city in China. Most of industries in Shanghai use 80 percent of electricity and 70 percent its total energy from burning of high sulphur coal. Coal is the main source of air pollution in Shanghai as well as most of other cities in China. The air pollution in Shanghai is sometimes terrible that air ports are shut down because of poor visibility. Nitrogen oxide is mainly released by power plants and automobiles in Shanghai.
The high coal fuel consumption from urbanization and industrialization and the rapid increase of vehicles from motorization resulted in the high emission of sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide in Shanghai. The annual mean pH value of rain in Shanghai is 4. 4 and the frequency of acid rain is 71 percent. Acid rain in Shanghai with high sulphur and nitrogen contaminates all water bodies there will lead to water pollution. The high nitrogen in water increase the growth of blue green algae, will pollute whole water body will prevent using water for drinking, cleaning.
Also it changes the aquatic ecosystem. Acid rain is very toxic to species in water which can reduce the fish population and could eliminate all fish species form water body and decrease biodiversity. In addition, it may cause constant stress that may not kill individual fish, but will lead to lower body weight and makes fish less able to compete for food and habitat. Natural vegetation and crops are also affected by acid rain in Shanghai. Trees are an extremely important natural resources.
They provide timber, regulate local climate and forest are homes for wildlife. The plants can absorb toxic chemicals from acid rain by direct contact with water or from soil. When acid rain is absorbed by the soil the acid empties the soil from important nutrients that plants need to survive. Without these nutrients the trees are more vulnerable to infections and damage cause by extreme climate. This will make plants and trees suffer from stunted growth, damage bark, loss of leaves will ultimate lead to rapid reduction of vegetation in Shanghai.
Acid rain allows aluminum to soak into the soil. If the amount of aluminum in the soil is high the trees wouldn’t be able to collect water from the ground. Acid rain damages outer coat of the leaf and when the coat finally wears down the acid makes its way in to the tree which prevents photosynthesis from taking place. Since photosynthesis makes food for the plant without it the plants will eventually die. According to the research report of Shanghai Agriculture and Forestry Bureau, 2004, the area around Shanghai was rich in biodiversity.
In the present, there is considerable loss of biodiversity and found decline in native species and an increase in number of alien species. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide can cause serious problem to human health such as asthma, dry coughs, headaches, eye, nose, and throat irritations. Acid rain affects the human respiratory system and cause liver problems. Human skin has an oily coating which protects from bacteria and keeps the skin moist. Acid rain breakdown that oily protective coat which give us a result of dry skin and bacterial infection.
Also the final effect on humans is to drinking water. As the content of our water becomes more acidic, it can react with lead and copper water pipes, which eventually contaminate water. Too much copper in drinking water also causes kidney damage as well as liver damage. An indirect effect of acid is the precipitation on human is that the toxic metals dissolves in the water are absorbed in fruits, vegetables and in the tissues of animals. Although these toxics metals do not directly affect the animals, they have serious effects on humans and they are being consumed.
As an example, mercury that accumulate in the organs and tissues of the animals has been linked with brain damage in children as well as nerve disorders, brain damage and Alzheimer’s disease. The harm to people from acid rain is not direct as for plants, animals, air, soil and water. Acid rain can be absorbed by both plants and animals through direct contact or from water or soil. When people eat these plants or animals, the toxins inside of their meals can affect them and cause problem in human health.
According to the world health organization reports around 300,000 people die per year in China due to out door and indoor air pollution mainly due to high sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide and another particulate matter. A study of visibility, air quality and daily mortality in Shanghai in 2009 has showed decrease visibility and high air pollution in Shanghai significantly increased death due to cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Conclusion Acid rain forms in Shanghai mainly due to air pollution by industries and automobiles.
It causes severe affect on Shanghai life. By educating shanghai public about the affect of acid rain, the damage caused by acid rain to the public will be reduced. However to minimize the damage on plants, soil and water, the air pollution of Shanghai should be reduced. BIBLIOGRAPHY “Acid Rain Facts, Acid Rain Information, Acid Rain Pictures, Acid Rain Effects – National Geographic. ” Environment Facts, Environment Science, Global Warming, Natural Disasters, Ecosystems, Green Living – National Geographic.
National Geographic. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. . / “Acid Rain – How Is Acid Rain Formed? – Learn More – Our Changing Planet – UMAC. ” UMAC – Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. . Huang, K. , G. Zhuang, C. Xu, Y. Wang, and A. Tang. “The Chemistry of the Severe Acidic Precipitation in Shanghai, China. ” Atmospheric Research 89. 1-2 (2008): 149-60. Print. Zhao, Shuqing, Liangjun Da, Zhiyao Tang, Hejun Fang, Kun Song, and Jingyun Fang. “Ecological Consequences of Rapid Urban Expansion: Shanghai,