Hammarby Sjostad is really ambitious lodging undertaking in Stockholm and regarded as the environment friendly solution of Sweden. This is one of the best and outstanding developments towards sustainability in the universe. In Hammarby Sjostad plans integrated with eco/cycle theoretical account and environmental plan facet. The ends of the Hammarby development undertaking is to cut down entire impact on the environmental facets by half compared to similar developed metropoliss and besides recycling all waste H2O and waste merchandises into renewable energy beginning ( Pruitt, 2009 ) .
Purposes and aims
This survey is aimed to obtain practical cognition about sustainable engineering and development with different systems of energy and stuff flow advancing sustainable environment.
Location and Population
This topographic point is located in Sodertalje Kommun of Stockholms Lan in Sweden. It is situated in the geographical co-ordinates between 59A° 17 ‘ 0 ” North and 17A° 27 ‘ 0 ” East. The country consists of about 250 hectares of land.
The Hammarby Sjostad has planned to supply 11,000 residential units for 25,000 people. A entire 35,000 people will remain for life and working intent in the country. Stockholm City Council, Fortum, Stockholm Water Company and Stockhom Waste direction Authority plans together to construct this metropolis with defferent developers.
History of the metropolis
The Hammarby country was first built due to the demand of developing an industrial country in 1917. In that clip little and some big graduated table industries were established with the seaport activities. Both the seaport activities and unplanned industries caused to high pollution and contaminated country. During the 1990s, the turning demand of lodging required to do a reestablishment of this metropolis for a new residential development. Still that clip the concerns were thriving. After holding several programs with different settled companies, in 1996 and 1997 the initial program was changed to back up for command for Olympic Games 2004 host metropolis. For this intent and ambitious end was set undermentioned ‘twice ( dual ) as good ‘ . Unfortunately Stockholm was unable to be host metropolis for Olympic Games. But it was a good enterprise for be aftering Hammarby metropolis and the environmental end and developing a sustainable metropolis program was kept and further redeveloped. The initial mark to construct this edifice to do certain comfy lodging with lake position sight, beautiful natural landscape and recreational topographic points, good communicated route and transit system near to the Central Stockholm. Until today half of the metropolis is developed and the whole undertaking will be complete within 2016.
The methodological analysis of the survey contains three facets:
A field survey to the Hammarby sjostad territory
A field visit was carried out in 14 September, 2010 at Hammarby Sjostad. An debut talk was organized by the infocenter ‘GlasshusETT ‘ . The talk was focused on the history, development and different be aftering scenario of sustaianblity of the territory. There was a field visit with group after the talk to see the different system of the Hammarby Model practically.
As the undertaking work is divided into different groups, different undertakings were distributed among the group members and organize all together to finalise the study. There were several group meetings were arranged prior to subject this study.
The whole instance survey was carried out by the supplied reading stuffs. Besides library plants with relevant field provide particular cognition about sustainable environment and metropolis planning. Internet beginnings besides play a critical function for informations and information aggregation.
Environmental Aspects of the Hammarby Sjostad
The methodological analysis to specify the most of import factors, are based on the urban ecosystem appraisal. The urban ecosystems satisfy human demands by moving as a beginning for resources and a sink for waste ( Meirong et al, 2010 ) . As ecosystem, to a big extent, the most of import environmental facets of the Hammarby Sjostad territory are the waste, energy and H2O system. The precedence list is given below:
Waste as resource:
Presents wastes are considered as resources if it managed and followed by environmental solutions. In hammarby Sjostad waste
District warming and colling system chiefly gets energy from the production of domestic wastes. Solar cells, solar panels and fuel cells installed to supply the energy required for public country.
Less H2O cleansing agent sewerage
The initial end of the Hammarby Sjostad is to cut down H2O ingestion by 50 % . Eco-friendly installing with ingestion degree of H2O makes it different by cut downing the emphasis of H2O demand burden. Cleaner sewerage is treated and reused on agricultural land. Biogas from sewerage sludge is produced. Storm H2O of street ensures decontamination rate as it treated locally and so dispatch into Hammarby sjo . Green roofs with sedum workss adsorb rain H2O without blending it to the lake.
Eco-design and building stuff
The design of the edifice substructure and its building stuffs are healthy and environment friendly.
Well communicating system through ferry, SL coach, and ropeway system has connected with the major countries of the metropolis with the cardinal Stockholm. Private vehicle auto pool system and broad rhythm lane and foot way plays an of import function to cut down green house gas.
To hold a balanced ecosystem, there are two ecoducts are installed covering with flora.
Reserve forest and diversion topographic point
The Parkss and forest in the metropolis besides plays an of import function of the urban system for following ground:
The wood and Parkss serve as pathwaies for occupants, but besides for corridor for animate beings and workss.
Green infinite could be compensated for in signifier of biotopes that benefit the biological diverseness in the immediate country.
Energy Beginnings of the Hammarby
Several sorts of energy are used in Hammarby metropolis country: electricity, heat, fuel. The electricity is provided both by the national grid and by the Hogdalen ‘s combined heat and power works. The electricity of the grid comes from outside of the territory. The fuel beginning of the power works is combustible waste. Those wastes are composed by nutrient, packaging and paper waste.
The heat usage in the territory warming comes from the Hammarby heat works and the Hogdalen works. The Hammarby heat works is powered by the biofuel produced by the organic waste and the H2O waste of the territory. The warming system for the full Hammarby country is supplied from 2 beginnings:
Energy recovery from waste incineration
Energy recovery from waste H2O intervention procedure
Energy beginning in:
Hogdalan heat and power works.
Hammarby heat works
Biofuel from nature
Drinking H2O plant/ lake Malaren
Sjostaden ‘s and Henriksdal ‘s waste H2O intervention works
Energy beginning out:
electric / biogas vehicles
Purified waste H2O to the sea
Treated storm H2O through lake Hammarby Sjo
Different System Borders within the Flow Model
The Hammarby theoretical account defines different system boundary lines through it differnt material flow. The three chief systems contain and command all these flow. These are describes below:
Biofuel from nature is converted into territory warming and electricity
District warming system and electricity is converted from combustible waste
Treated effluent converted into territory warming and electricity
Solar energy is converted into electrical energy and heating H2O.
Water and Sewage system
Biogas is produced from the sewerage sludge
Residual from biogas production, the biosolids is used for agribusiness as fertiliser
Rain from roofs either adsorbs by green roofs or drained into Hammarby Sjo
Storm H2O from street is treated and so drained into Hammarby Sjo .
Lake Malaren provides the supply H2O of the territory.
Auomatic waste disposal system is installed
Combustible waste is converted into warming and electricity of the territory
Biosolids are produced from organic wastes and used as fertiliser
All reclaimable stuffs are recycled.
The energy system of the hammarby theoretical account is truly a good illustration for advancing sustainability and likely the best system. For each individual item utilizations of energy is conserdered for the user ingestion. Producing of heat and electricity from the combustible wastes is of import which can cut down the emphasis of demand of the electricity supply. Biofuel is used for warming and electricity intent every bit good as fuel in public conveyance. Solar energy is besides introduced for energy production though it is non suited with the Swedish clime status and expensive procedure. But the attempt for using every individual advantage from the nature without haltering environment provides the metropolis excess ordinary value for energy ingestion facets. All the electricity is considered as ‘Good environmental pick ‘ labeled and eco-friendly. The waste and H2O system is besides of import and has similar direction in other developed metropoliss but the energy ingestion and flow system of Hammarby territory makes itself distinguishable and function theoretical account for others.
To cipher the full energy ingestion of the territory, it is necessary to place all the energy entities and its consumer such as house, office, conveyance etc. Then it is calculated the measure of energy ( electricity, heat, Sun radiation, waste, nutrient, fuel ) for all the entities devouring. Another manner is merely to see the energy come ining through the boundary line of the territory but making this the energy coming from interior beginnings ( or energy transmutation ) of the territory will be omitted. But this energy is besides consumed. To hold the largest attack the energy used to construct and level the territory must besides been taken in history. The energy ingestion end within 2015 was fixed during the clip of the rebuilt of Hammarby Sjostad.
Table 1. Energy Consumption Goal Set
Kwh / M2
Heating & A ; electricity, initial end ( 2000 )
Heating & A ; electricity, updated end ( 2005 )
Achieved warming & A ; electric, best 2006 ordinances for new edifice ( BBR ) , end
( Beginning: www.secureproject.org )
The high energy marks did non carry through its end. The measuring informations is non available to the populace. For the H2O ingestion, the chief mark was set to entree 100 l/person/ twenty-four hours and during the period from July 2006 to July 2007, the mean ingestion was 141,9 l/person/day. Though the end was non achieved still it was better than other country while in Stockholm on mean ingestion is 200 l/ person/day ( www.secureproject.org ) .
The initial ends for energy were set to 60 KWh/m2 which was updated to 100 KWh/m2 in 2005 ( Table 1 ) . Biogas merchandises, RES and reuse of waste heat coupled with energy ingestion expeditiously in edifices. About 23000 dozenss sludge treated with the production of 3,500,000 M3 biogas ( www.hammarbysjostad.se/glashusett ) .
The best public presentation was achieved so far from two multifamily constructing blocks, holmen and Grynnan, where PV cells were installed in frontages, balconies and Windowss with the entire peak power 46 KW and production 32 MWh. The sum of produced energy is used to necessitate of 70 % of the energy for icebox and deep-freeze.
An energy balance equation is frequently used for ciphering energy ingestion which can be implemented here
Where Ein is the energy that flows in to the system, Prod is produced energy, Eout is the energy that flow out from the system and Ack is the accrued energy in the system.
Local Inhabitants ‘ Influences
With the increasing population and economic growing of the Hammarby Sjostad, there is an inevitable influence by the occupants of the territory. As the territory has good developed transit system including different foot way and bike lane. Private auto utilizing is non encouraged here. So about 80 % of the occupants and workers are utilizing public conveyance, bike or on pes. Thus they are playing a important function to cut down traffic burden and dodo fuel consume to guarantee the pollution free environment. The eco-friendly auto of auto pool system provides the personal demand of holding auto in pressing period.
The dwellers of the metropolis is good known about the waste direction and they do their regard about screening of wastes until today and eventually to gain it ethier automatic vacuity system or manus over the risky waste to GlashusEtt waste aggregation point. Thus they are playing an of import function to cut down the energy loss for screening waste every bit good as to recycle it for bring forthing biogas.
The H2O ingestion of the country is 100 to 140 l/person/day whereas otherpart of Stockholm dwellers use 200 l/person/day. The ingestion manner of H2O usage reveals about their consciousness about sustainability. The low flower system of the lavatory, rinsing machines and dish washers, air sociable lights-out is installed for eco-friendly environment comparison to those of Stockholm metropolis or other metropoliss.
The imhabitants response with any acitivities or run organized for the eco-friendly environment. For illustration, in 2005 a run organized against the usage of bacteriacide triclosan, a risky substance used in toothpaste. After the run the analysis of triclosen was found with smaller sum comparison to old clip.
Sustainable Urban Planning and Design
Design for Sustainability
At the planning and designing of the metropolis, the first precedence was given to advance sustainability of the environment without hamering the nature. The optimisation of the resources and the coordination of different energy systems with high tech sustainable engineering make its end closer and easier.
The chief focal point of the industrial ecology is sustainable development and environment by optimizing the use of natural resources. The life rhythm of the merchandises and resources and its proficient systems defines the sustainability of industrial society. The design of the edifice substructure and its building stuffs are environment friendly. Fuel cells and the edifice double-gazed facade heighten the eco-design of the edifice.
Most of the edifices roofs are designed as green roofs covering in stonecrop or sedum workss. This particular eco design non merely brings the attractive force but besides has sustainable impacts. The workss on the roof protect drain to cloacas by adsorbing rain H2O.
Vacuum system for solid waste and garbage sorting
The solid domestic wastes fractions are sorted and collected through an belowground waste aggregation system. The waste is collected in the belowground room through vacuity suction, one fraction at a clip. The containers in the resistance are collected without lorries that cut down vehicle traffic in the country. It besides avoids workers to transport heavy burden. Hazardous wastes are collected in GlasshusEtt edifice.
All the stuffs used for the building was considered for environmental position. For illustration, the seeable stuffs for facade and on the land of the edifice, stuffs used inside the edifice shell, all the equipments and installing procedure are tested as sustainable, healthy, dry and eco-friendly merchandises.
Solar panels and Cells
In some of the edifices solar panel has installed to heat the H2O system of the full edifice which reduces the energy ingestion from the cardinal beginning. Some edifice is designed with the solar cells in which Sun visible radiation is harnessed and produces electric energy. A individual solar cell system consists of one square metre can supply 100 kWh/yr. This sum is tantamount to 3 square metre of family energy.
Storm H2O from street
Storm H2O ( rain H2O, snowmelt H2O ) from the street is collected, purified and released into Hammarby Canal. For purification sand filters and unreal filter wetland is used. Storm H2O besides infiltrated in to the land or drain to Sickla Canal, Hammarby Canal or Danvik Canal.
Storm H2O Drain
Channel is constructed to have rain H2O from environing houses and gardens via drainage system. This channel H2O besides enhances the beautification of the country. The H2O so runs to Basins named ‘equiliser ‘ and eventually to the lake.
All the domestic organic waste and sludge are used to bring forth biogas. Biogas is used for the cookery intent in the country and besides as fuel in eco-friendly autos and coachs. A individual family can bring forth such sum of waste stuffs that can supply sufficient sum of biogas for gas cooker. Biogas is the most environment friendly and sustainable signifier of fuel at nowadays.
Hammarby Sjostad has eco friendly communicating system and energy salvaging vehicles. Private autos are non encouraged here. Well communicating system through ‘Tvarbanan ‘ ropeway, coachs, ferry, auto pool etc has less environmental impact in the transit system cut downing traffic burden every bit good as devouring without fossil fuel.
Heating and Cooling System
Domestic wastes are used as energy beginning in the heat and power works which is used to go around territory warming and chilling system in Hammarby Sjostad.
It is the most advanced and efficient solution to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem without any perturbation. In this territory two ecoducts are installed covering with flora. This two broad Bridgess connects two different side of the route in such a manner that animate beings can travel without holding job due to broad route and traffic system.
Industrial Ecology Approach
All the eco-friendly urban planning and design promotes the sustainability towards industrial ecology attack. Since 1917, it has been developing as an industrial country that had led to a higher pollution rate of the country including dirt, H2O and air. The whole environment became unhealthy and menace to the dwellers. After reconstructing the metropolis, until today it is one of the environment friendly sustainable metropoliss of the universe. So the design and planning has a great function to accomplish this end. The land uses converted from old brownfield sites to attractive residential countries with batch of recreational topographic points including green public infinites. The energy used in the metropolis is from the renewable fuels and biogas produced from the domestic waste. All the edifice has efficient energy ingestion. Water supply is maintained with the standard high quality with new engineering and reuse of H2O and sewerage after handling with maximal degree and released into nearby canals. The possible upper limit recycling system is introduced for the domestic wastes with the latest automatic vacuity. Transportation system of the metropolis is besides considered for the sustainable environment and less fuel ingestion rate. It has fast, attractive conveyance system including ferry, auto pools, eco-friendly auto, pes and rhythm way promoting cut down of private auto uses. All the stuffs used for the building of the edifice are healthy and environment friendly. Soil decontamination and ecoducts guarantee biodiversity of local flora and insects. Now this metropolis is regarded as the decontaminated country announced by the Stockholm ‘s Environment and Health Administration. All these installations and sustainable development of the Hammarby Sjostad promotes the industrial ecology attack guaranting the undermentioned standards:
Dematerialization and decarbonisation
Reuse, Recovery and Recycling
Cleaner production and clean Technology
Life rhythm and environmental impact appraisal
Integrated planning, advanced eco-solutions and engineerings.
To construct an environment friendly lodging undertaking it is necessary to concentrate and see many different facets that influences the environment. Hammarby Sjostad undertaking tried to convey concentration to every individual issue. It was non easy to reconstruct a extremely contaminated unplanned metropolis into a developed and wholly uncontaminted and pollution free metropolis. Hammarby Sjostad provides a alone illustration of wastrel direction and biogas production. The modern engineering of vacuity system makes easier to command waste direction and decline transporting vehicle that cut down traffic burden and fuel. The best production comes through the organic wastes bring forthing biogas which is used for cooking intent of the edifices. Combustible wastes are used to bring forth energy at Hogdalan combined heat and powerplant as a beginning of the power coevals and warming system of the territory. Private vehicle auto pool system and broad rhythm lane and foot way plays an of import function to cut down green house gas. All the families are equipped with low blushing lavatory to cut down H2O ingestion. Hammarby Sjostad present a alone and different system to roll up storm H2O and rain H2O in the street and to handle it before let go ofing it to the lake while it is non considered in any other metropolis allowing storm H2O straight release to lake. However, all the building stuffs used for constructing up this metropolis are healthy, dry and environmentally sound. Energy ingestion process besides enhances the sustainability of the metropolis utilizing renewable energy. From the above treatment on this instance survey of Hammarby Sjostad, it can be easy recommended for constructing any sustainable metropolis to see following major standards:
Eco-design for the metropolis sing environmental impacts during its whole life rhythm
Eco-efficiency following maximal usage of ferenewable wer resources and making less waste and pollution
Introducing industrial metamorphosis
Eco-industrial park effort to cut down waste and pollution by sharing resources expeditiously collaborating with concern and local community
Ensure industrial mutualism
It is said that developing metropoliss ever destroy the natural environment but in the instance of Hammarby Sjostad wholly go different. Allready the metropolis is proved its achievement towards sustainability without haltering the natural environment every bit good as pollution and taint free country. The metropolis provides the best engineering with incorporate environmental solutions. Though the metropolis has long manner to turn out itself as a existent sustainable metropolis, still it can be regarded as a function theoretical account of existent estate development in industrial ecology attack.