What factors led to US involvement in World War I?
Public opinion against Germany & a traditional connection to Britain;
German submarine warfare against American ships – interfering with trade
List one result of the US entry into WWI?
Resurgence in US patriotism
How did South Carolinian’s support the war effort?
volunteered for the military, bond drives, and conserved food & fuel
What happened in SC as a result of anti-German prejudice?
Closed a German newspaper; changed name of town from Hamburg to N. Augusta
How did the war affect SC’s economy?
US government built bases which provided jobs & federal money; prices for cotton rose
What was the importance of the new military bases in SC?
bases provided jobs & federal money; Farmers saw an increase in crop prices
Why did a large number of South Carolinian’s leave the state during the war?
Moved to areas with better job opportunities
Why did many African Americans emigrate?
Moved to areas with better job opportunities and to escape racial discrimination & violence
How did race relations change in SC during the war?
African Americans who had served their country wanted to claim equal rights; white violence escalated
Even though African Americans volunteered for service in WWI; they returned to racist South Carolina. What laws were in place to allow continued discrimination against African Americans?
Jim Crow – voting restrictions
How did WWI affect the economy in SC?
Improved the economy, federal jobs & money, higher crop prices (food & cotton)
Why did cotton and tobacco prices begin to fall?
Overproduction and Loss of markets
What changes took place in industry in the early 20th century?
Mill villages – electricity & running water, fewer workers needed, faster methods
What had happened to SC’s economy by the end of the 1920’s?
SC was in an economic depression
How did new technology affect daily life in urban areas of SC?
Sanitation – electricity -trolleys (suburbs) – appliances (refrigerators, stoves)
How did new technology affect daily life in rural areas of SC?
It did not change in most areas
What new technologies were available in SC during the early 20th century?
Automobiles, washing machines, radios
How did SC respond to the decline and agriculture and industry?
Boost tourism – opening hotels, promoting development along the coast, and beginning the national historic preservation movement
Why did tourists begin to come to SC?
increased number of automobiles (travel possible), warm climate/weather, and history/culture
Why did prohibition fail?
Made average citizen a criminal, led to an increase in organized crime,
and “bootleggers and “moonshiners” violated the law
What social problems developed as a result of prohibition?
Bootleggers,organized crime,flagrant violations, bribery, revival of KKK, increase in crime in general, average person became a “lawbreaker”
How did Ku Klux Klan react to prohibition?
They found new Targets – movement against immigrants & lawbreakers
How did the development of mass media impact SC?
Mass Media – radios & movies led to a nationalization of culture;
Tourist Industry develops
What was the Southern Literary Renaissance?
Revival of interest and emphasis on the arts and literature in SC
What impact did the Poetry Society of South Carolina have on the Southern Literary Renaissance?
Led to a revival of Southern literature and celebration of Southern culture;
Julia Peterkin won the Pulitzer Prize for literature
What was the Harlem Renaissance?
The Harlem Renaissance exalted the unique culture of African Americans and brought recognition and pride to black artists in a variety of genres, particularly musicians
How was South Carolina connected to the Harlem Renaissance?
This cultural renaissance was the result of the Great Migration that brought African Americans to the cities of the Northeast and the Midwest and furthered the development of a growing black middle class.
Why was there a resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920’s?
Movie Birth of a Nation depicted the origins of the KKK as the Redeemers of the Reconstruction era, saviors of white womanhood, and employed traditional racial stereotypes
Why did South Carolina experience a brief period of prosperity in the early 20th century?
the state’s farmers supplied food and cotton for uniforms to meet the wartime demand
Why did South Carolina farmers suffer after World War I?
South Carolina farmers suffered as demand for their crops plunged and so did prices. The agricultural economy sagged further when the boll weevil, an insect pest, attacked the cotton crop. Drought, erosion and soil depletion further exacerbated the dire conditions in the farming sector.
What happened to cotton production in South Carolina by the end of the 1920’s?
By the end of the 1920’s, cotton was no longer a viable crop in the Low country.
What factors led to a decline in south
Carolina’s economy in the 1920’s?
Farmers cannot pay back loans or pay taxes, banks are failing, farmers losing farms and moving to the North or mill towns
What happened to the textile industry during the 1920’s?
. less demand (loss of war production), development of synthetic fiber, protective tariffs reduced
Why do mill owners move factories to South Carolina during the 1920’s ?
cheap labor and no labor unions
How did mill owners attempt to keep production costs low?
(help increase profit) during the 1920’s
speed ups – run machines faster and stretch outs – use less workers
What happened to factory workers during the 1920’s?
mills hiring less workers (use machines to replace people), low wages, reduced work week, mills lay off workers
What economic factors led to the decline of both agriculture and industry in South Carolina during the 1920’s?
Decline in demand and overproduction
What event is generally recognized as the beginning of the Great Depression?
Stock market crash in October 1929
When did the depression begin in South Carolina?
Many years before in the early 1920’s
(never really completely recovered from the Civil War)
What happened as a result of the depression in South Carolina?
banks failed, mills closed, farms were foreclosed on, Railroads went bankrupt, 25% unemployment rate, marriage & birth rates dropped
Why did people begin to look to the government for help during the depression?
Charitable organizations could not help people – the demand for help was too high
What Franklin Roosevelt promise in his campaign for president in 1932?
New Deal for the American People
Which South Carolinian’s advised Roosevelt?
James F. Byrnes and Mary McLeod Bethune
How did Roosevelt use new technology to keep in touch with the American people?
Radio – Fireside Chats
How many South Carolinian’s were employed by the CCC?
Over 50,000 people
What did the CCC do in South Carolina?
Reforestation, soil conservation, built state parks
What did the PWA do in South Carolina?
Built public buildings (school, libraries, courthouses)
What did the WPA do in South Carolina?
Built public facilities (highways, airports, bridges, playgrounds, hospitals),Artists & Writers – painted murals, recorded oral histories, wrote plays
How did government employment programs help South Carolina?
Put people to work – money into the economy – alleviated despair and economic hardship
What was the Social Security Act designed to do?
Prevent future depressions and provide protection for the elderly, orphaned, disabled, & unemployed
What was the largest New Deal project in South Carolina?
Santee-Cooper electricity project
How did this program impact South Carolina?
Provided jobs for people – electricity for industry & people
What impact did the Rural Electrification Act have on the lives of the people of South Carolina?
Brought power to many farms and rural areas of SC
How many farms in South Carolina had electricity by 1940?
What was the National Recovery Act?
The National Recovery Act set up codes for industries that would regulate prices for consumers and hours and wages for workers.
What led to the development of labor unions in South Carolina?
workers dissatisfaction with wages and working conditions
What is a strike?
Workers refuse to work to force mill owners to raise wages and improve working conditions
What happened as a result of the textile workers strike in 1934?
violence broke out between union members and strike breakers (scabs).
In South Carolina deputies fired on the crowd in Honea Path killing seven workers and injuring others.
What led to the collapse of unions in South Carolina?
Strike – after the strike mill owners refused to reopen mills in retaliation
**intensified anti-union feelings in SC
What laws were passed by the government in response to the strike?
laws that established a minimum wage and maximum hours for industrial workers and recognized their right to form a union and bargain collectively
Did the New Deal end the Great Depression?
What did end the Great Depression?
World War II
What event brought the United States out of isolationism and into the war in Europe as well as the Pacific?
the bombing of Pearl Harbor
Who was James Doolittle?
He trained a group of bomber pilots in Columbia. They led an air attack to be launched from aircraft carriers on Tokyo.
Why was the United States government drafting young men into the armed services?
preparing for war
How does government spending on war preparations help SC?
economy of South Carolina and the United States began to climb out of the Great Depression
Who were the Tuskegee Airmen?
African American pilots who were trained at the air base at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
What was the importance of the Tuskegee Airmen during the war?
Several of the Tuskegee airmen earned the Distinguished Flying Cross and the airmen proved that African American pilots could shoot down enemy aircraft as well as or better than white air crews.
What was the most significant contribution of the Tuskegee Airmen?
The Tuskegee Airmen and the bravery and sacrifice of other African American members of the military opened the doorway for other African Americans to serve in the military and for the desegregation of the military in the postwar period.
What was revealed about South Carolina’s population during the war? (result of long term poverty)
One third of young white men and one half of black men were either illiterate or in such poor health that they could not serve in the military.
How did the war impact South Carolina?
War mobilization meant more jobs at home and the wartime population of South Carolina cities grew with a resulting impact on area businesses. Farmers were shorthanded but women and children worked in the fields to bring in bumper crops.
How did the people of South Carolina contribute to the war effort?
South Carolinian’s collected scrap metal and rubber for the war effort. They used ration books to get their share of the short supply of food and fuel and they bought war bonds to fund the war effort.