Egypt and Mesopotamia
Because of different geographic locations, different exposure to outside invasion and prior beliefs, two of the great civilization differed in many ways.
Egypt emphasized strong a strong central authority while Mesopotamian politics shifted more frequently over a substructure of regional city-states. Mesopotamian art focused on less monumental structures, while embracing a pronounced literary element that Egypt art lacked.
These cultural differences can be explained by geography: Mesopotamians lacked access to the great stones that the Egyptians could import for their monuments.
The differences also owed something to politics, for Egyptians ability to organize masses of laborers followed its government structures and strong bureaucracy. The differences owed something, finally, to different beliefs, for the Mesopotamians lacked the Egyptian concern for preparations for the afterlife, which so motivated the great tombs and pyramids.
Both societies traded extensively, but there was a difference in economic tone.
Mesopotamia was more productive of technological improvements, because their environment was more difficult to manage than the Nile Valley. Trade contacts were more extensive, and the Mesopotamians gave attention to merchant class and commercial law.
Social differences were less obvious because it is difficult to obtain information on daily life for the early civilizations. It is probable, though, that the status of women was greater in Egypt than in Mesopotamia. Egyptians paid great respect to women at least in the upper classes, in part because marriage alliances were vital to the preservation
And stability of the monarchy. Also, Egyptian religion included more pronounced deference to goddesses as sources of creativity.