Innovation and change 2
Understanding management history assists managers to determine the prevailing position of the organization. History is important because it will assist the strategy planner to come up with viable strategies. The business environment changes fast therefore, it is important to keep a record of the past since it will help currently or in future. Understanding the history of management contributes to the development in management. Management has been enhanced by upgrading what was being practiced in the past. This trend continues when business people use historical practices in part of their management. They also derive new management styles from history (Cumming, 12).
Some of the early management practices include those of the Egyptians. In 3000-1000 BC, they had a national Government and they became fully civilized. For example, they developed infrastructure. During 1500BC to 1300AD, the Chinese had started developing scientifically and in arts. They had a good government and strong culture. Others include Babylonians who had Hammurabi law. This is the oldest complete laws in history. The Greeks formed a local government, which was democratic. Venetians were business people and they formed laws on commerce. Venice was the biggest commercial area during 450-1500 AD. Romans established a republic, which had a senate and council (Beerel, 56).
He taught people the importance of scientific management to workers. He showed them how it could enhance productivity. He bought about specialization and division of labor. Taylor formulated some principles, which became useful in the working industry. They include performance standards, mental revolution, various piece rate systems and functional foremanship among others. Using the foundation established by Taylor, scientific management has been enhanced. Scientific management involves motivating employees to work better by giving competitive wages and salary. It enhances job performance by scientifically selecting the best methodology for the work. Employees are also selected using a certain process, which is scientific (Cumming, 27).
Lillian and Gilbreth taught people managing time and motion studies. They formed a theory stating there is no standard way to do any work. All tasks are different hence; method of doing a task will depend with the job. The motion study revealed several things about work eff9iciency. For instance, decreasing motions will improve efficiency. Increase in work efficiency brings work satisfaction and more profitability. This is by making adjustment, which will not require some steps hence, saving time (Kotler, 112).
Scientific management helps managers to improve productivity. This is by using specialization and division of labor. Scientific management comprises of a process like planning, and delegating among others. Managers apply these processes to improve management. Other organizational activities like human resource management, is done using scientific studies. For example, recruiting and selecting employees and training employees. Scientific management enables the management and employees to enhance their work relations (Cumming, 45).
Fayol’s principles include division of work, authority, and discipline among others. These 14 principles assist in understanding management as many activities, which can be identified and classified. Fayol’s principles are applied in almost all the organizations. They guide managers on how to enforce coordination and organize employees and all activities. They also guide organization members on how to conduct themselves in the work place. Managers must apply these principles for them to be successful in their work (Beerel, 78).
Hawthorne studies were a number of experiments done on workers. They introduced the aspect of motivation. When the study was done, it was discovered that motivating employees increases productivity. Different employees are motivated by various factors. Motivators are determined by the needs or situation of employees. Some employees will be motivated by good working conditions and facilities. Others will be motivated by attractive wages and salaries. Human resource management should evaluate and understand the best way to motivate their employees (Kotler, 125).
System approach involves analyzing the problem and identifying its cause. A possible solution is identified later. A school uses this system when the teacher and student have to meet certain expectations, with limited resources. System approach intends to achieve organization’s targets in the most efficient way. This mostly applies if the resources are limited. This is achieved by harmonizing all the activities in the organization (Cumming, 67).
The early management theories were to be applied to all organization settings. It was assumed they should be suitable for all the organization. The contingency approach contrasts with the early management theories. It states there is no specific form of management that could fit all management settings. Due to the dynamics of organizations, they have different structures, which would not correspond with the early theories of management. Every organization has to customize according to the prevailing situation(Cumming, 72).
Current trends and issues helps managers emulate positive trends and deal with the issues. Since the business world is changing rapidly, it is important to pick up useful trends and look for solutions or measure to counter the issues. Current trends enhance the corporate image of an organization. If the organization embraces the trend, it will improve the performance. Issues enable the organization to learn more about the corporate sector or he market. They can make plans in advance to deal with the issues if they come up (Beerel, 110).
Current trends include using software to manage performance of employees. There are software, which enhance employee performance appraisal. Some of the issue faced by managers is financial crisis. High labor turnover is also an issue facing managers because most employees seem to be on transit in search of better working terms. In a large organization, communication can be problematic (Kotler, 201).
The currents strategic changes include delivering programs, which support creativity, sciences, technology and enhance learning and innovation. Another strategy is strengthening the collection and opening it up for current and future generation. The future strategic changes are enhancing the popularity and reach. The museum also intends to expand the place of work culture, skills of the staff and their practices. In the end, it intends to connect and collaborate with other institution or entities. The strategies aim at improving the growth of the museum as a whole. In every area, there is a strategy applicable. The management intends to make the museum convenient for the whole community. This means children, students and adults will benefit from it (Cumming, 88).
The main external trend is being in alignment with the Government priorities. It has to increase visitation and participation in arts and cultural practices. Other trends may be increasing safety measures in the premises. The government may require the facility to add equipment, which will be enough to support large numbers of people. Technological advancements might be another trend. The museum must upgrade it technology for efficiency. For instance, security equipment should include digitized equipment for close monitoring and accuracy. The Government not only wants the museum to be educative but also safe for use. These trends will have a positive impact on the organization and create general opportunities to the management (Cumming, 113).
The changes were prioritized according to their urgency. The most fundamental have been given the priority then others follow. For example, those that are current changes have bee placed first because they have to be implemented before the future changes. Some are dependent so the current changes have to push through before the rest. The museum intends to increase the number of students who use the facility. It is ensuring customer satisfaction is enhanced and increase investment in the business. The management wants more children to learn using the museum and access its services to people in the rural. The environment is also in consideration especially air, water, energy and biodiversity (Kotler, 212).
Making changes in the organization must begin with the need for it. The people affected by the change should be the next consideration. The management should understand the best methods to enforce personal changes. After individuals have embraced their personal changes, it will be easy to embark on organizational change. The management is required to formulate an appropriate communication mode like training. This is the best tool to use when making change in an organization. The employees will learn the new changes through training programs. Those who do not fit in after the changes should be assisted (Beerel, 150).
. Consulting a change specialist will help an organization to make informed decisions. The specialist will have an appropriate plan for the organization to use. Hence enforcing change will be easy. Specialists insist on a contingency plan. They will always direct the management on how to formulate one. A specialist in change will evaluate the operations of the organization and point out specific areas of immediate change. This helps the organization to prioritize the areas of change and first deal with the most important (Beerel 155).
Some of the questions to consider include why the change should take place. Another important question is concern how much cost will be incurred. It is also vital to evaluate the benefits of the changes. Other questions include how to assimilate the organization members to the change. It is fundamental to question about a contingency plan. After confirming change is necessary there should be a question of how it will actually be implemented. The management should have a list of anticipated positive outcomes. They should also raise the question of possible losses and get counter measures for them (Cumming, 120).
Some strategic objectives include increasing productivity, improving corporate image, Enhance customer service and minimizing operation costs. Steps to follow in forming key objectives are taking into account the mission of the organization. Consider areas requiring adjustments or improvement. Formulate objectives, which are specific, measurable, time bound accurate, and reliable. These objectives should be written down and used as reference regularly. Objectives should aim at achieving the mission and vision of the organization. The se objectives should also target to achieve the change an organization is expecting. In case they have loopholes, they should be reviewed and changed to suit the circumstances (Kotler, 230).
The first step in cost benefit analysis is listing all the costs and benefits. The two measures used are the net present value and ratio of cost and benefit. The NPV is achieved by subtracting costs from benefits and then apply discounting to both values. The ratio is calculated by dividing benefits to the costs. Both are supposed to be calculated. The two figures must be compared to determine the conclusion. This process is important because it will determine whether change will be viable or not. The difference of costs and benefits is what determines whether it is wise to implement change. The most important principle when going through the steps is having a common unit when measuring (Cumming, 154).
The first step of a planning process should always be getting ready. The organization must confirm it is ready for change. The second thing is evaluating whether the change contributes in achieving the mission. Evaluate the current situation by confirming necessary resources for change are available. The management should formulate objective to help the success of the change program. After two months, evaluation should be done to ensure things are being done as planned. This plan should be in written because it will be used as reference. The planning process will aim at ensuring change is made with ease and everyone will adjust as soon as possible. Communication plans will be training and workshops. After six months, the management will evaluate the impact of the change and its effect (Kotler, 243).
Beerel, Annabel C. Leadership and Change Management. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2009. Print.
Cummings, Thomas G, and Christopher G. Worley. Organization Development & Change. Australia: South-Western/Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Kotler, Philip. Marketing Management. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall, 2000. Print