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An Annotated Bibliography of The Effects of Recess on-task Classroom Behaviors Paper

Annotated Bibliography of the Effects of Recess on-task Classroom Behaviors

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The paper gives the perspectives of different authors regarding the importance of recess for children. the different authors highlighted in the paper note that recess is important for children as it gives them a chance to develop physically, emotionally, socially, as well as enhance their cognitive development. Children learn different things as they engage in different forms of play. The authors differ concerning their definition of play and the involvement of adults during recess. The paper highlights these differences. The paper also includes the sentiments of those who are opposed to recess, noting that some schools have reduced the time they allocate to recess and to physical activity because they see them as disruptions to their curriculum. The annotated bibliography includes different researchers and work from different publications. Some of the authors are interested in education, and they focus on the educational aspect of a child’s development. Other authors are focused on psychology, and they are interested in the way the children develop.

Annotated Bibliography of the Effects of Recess on-task Classroom Behaviors

Bjorklund, D., & Brown, D. (1998). Physical play and cognitive development: Integrating activity, cognition, and education. Child Development, 69 (3), 604-606.

The authors note the importance and role of physical development in ensuring social and cognitive development. They note that rough and tumble play involves cognitive mechanisms and enable the encoding and decoding of social signals. Play is beneficial, as it enables the children to pause from intellectual tasks that are often demanding. Some brain modules may have evolved to become gender sensitive and others may be developmentally sensitive. This makes the children biased towards specific types of social information in a rough and tumble play context.

Bjorklund, D., & Harnishfeger, K. (1990). The resources construct in cognitive development:

Diverse sources of evidence and a theory of inefficient inhibition. Developmental Review, 10 (1)

48-71.

The researchers found out that there is a relationship between brain growth and cognitive processing; hence, people with a more developed brain are able to process more than children or people whose brain is less developed. The speed at which children process information increase as the transmission of nerve impulses in the association area of the brain increases. The study shows that people’s mental capacity depends on their ages, as this mostly determines their level of brain development. The researchers observe that mental resources affect different developmental functions. Thus, a person with adequate mental resources will develop fully compared to one with limited mental resources. This helps people in understanding the limited developmental functions of children, since they are still developing their mental capacities. As children grow, their neurological systems change and this enhances inhibitory processing. This leads to an increase in selective attention, and children develop the ability to separate the working memory from the task irrelevant information.

Blatchford, P., Creeser, R., and Mooney, A. (1990). Playground games and playtime: The children’s

view. Educational Research, 32 (3), 163-174.

The research focused on the children’s perspective concerning play, and the researchers interviewed eleven-year-old children. The children indicated that they liked recess because they got a break from work, they had the chance to play their own games, they liked being outside, and they liked the fact that they had the chance to socialize. The children noted that some factors such as unfavorable weather conditions, not knowing what to do during playtime, and the disruptive behavior of some discouraged children from playing. The researchers noted that play has changed over the years. The children noted that they preferred ball games and chasing games, but they rarely played with materials and neither did they sing or engage in play involving playground markings. The children noted that having quality supervision during recess, suspending bullies from the playground, and having more staff to resolve the problems, would help in dealing with negative behavior during recess.

Jambor, T. (1994). School recess and social development. Dimension of Early Childhood, 23 (1), 17-20.

The author highlights the importance of recess for all people irrespective of their age. He notes that children cannot function well when forced to sit for prolonged periods, thus recess is necessary to ensure that they concentrate more. Recess affects the child’s classroom behavior as it helps the child to develop cognitive skills. It is helpful for a child’s social development because it helps children learn how to interact with each other. Recess is also beneficial for teachers. It enables them to observe how the children interact with each other and the problems that the children encounter.

McMune, L. (1998). Immediate and ultimate functions of physical activity play. Child Development, 69 (3), 601-603.

The author notes that recess does have an effect in the social and cognitive lives of children. The ability to monitor the children’s performance during academic activities and physical activities enhances their development. Children are able to learn as they play, especially when given the chance to choose their own activities. They develop their reasoning ability and improve their creativity. In addition, they are able to come up with innovative solutions whenever they have a problem.

Morrison, G. S. & Rusher, A. S. (1999). Playing to learn. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 27 (2), 3-8.

The authors note that children benefit a lot from play. They note that although playtime should have minimal adult supervision, teachers can plan a successful play program to assist young children. Teachers can learn how to assess different development skills such as emotional, social, and cognitive skills during play. Families and administrators need to understand the importance of play for children, and they can benefit from the approaches used by the teachers. Children learn different things as they engage in play. They learn how to negotiate and compromise and they learn how to share their resources with other people and to take turns doing different things. These are essential skills that benefit the children in the playground, classroom, as well as in life. Children learn how to create their own experiences during recess, and they learn how to make their own choices, since there is minimal adult supervision.

Nelson, J. R., Smith, D. J., & Colvin, G. (1995). The effects of a peer-mediated self-evaluation procedure on the recess behavior of students with behavior problems. Remedial and Special Education, 16 (2), 117-126

The paper focuses on safety of children with behavioral problems during recess. He notes that schools record a high number of injuries during recess. He lists some of the injury causes as the inadequate space available for children, little supervision, faulty equipment, and debris. The author failed to conduct more research on the effectiveness of control and self-management procedures in reducing injuries. The authors noted that peer interaction is important to children. It noted that children who have a hard time initiating social interactions with others could use their peers to show them how to interact.

Patrick, Teri. (1996). Play: An important component of preventative behavior management

(Report No. PS024611). Annual Conference of the Southern Early Childhood Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 400 951).

The author defines play as a spontaneous activity that is self-motivated and does not have any rules. He notes that there is a relationship between play and social and emotional development. He lists reasons such as insecurity in neighborhoods, reduced time in physical education, and elimination of recess time in some schools, and adult-controlled day care and after school programs, as some of the reasons why children no longer engage in play. He notes the significance of play in behavior management, and adds that lack of play could be the reason why there has been an increase in juvenile violence. The author further adds that play is important as it helps the children to develop their physical and social skills, enhance their creativity, learn and practice cooperation, help in alleviating tension and anxiety and give the children a sense of freedom and power. In addition, play helps in helping the children have a sense of belonging and in improving their self-esteem.

Pellegrini, A. (1995). School recess and playground behavior: Educational and developmental

roles. Albany, NY: State University of NY Press.

The author notes the importance of recess to children, as it offers them a chance to play and interact with other children, with minimal adult supervision. This way, they are able to do things on their own terms, and it offers them an opportunity to grow and develop. Recess enables spontaneous peer interaction, which does not happen in a classroom. Play is important for educational and social development of children, and it also enables the children to develop their cognitive skills. The author points out some of the reasons why recess has become a controversial subject. Some people oppose the idea of recess, claiming that it disrupts the children from their lessons and schedules, and that it encourages aggressive and antisocial behavior. They argue that playtime excites the children and this makes them inattentive and hard to control. Different schools have different methods of engaging children in recess and they have different rules for the teacher’s involvement. Thus some teachers may find recess a disruptive activity while other teachers find recess a time to get a much needed break from their schedules. Despite the negative sentiments regarding recess, the authors conclude by noting that recess offers many benefits to the children as well as to the teachers

Pellegrini, A., and Bjorklund, D. (1996). The role of recess in children’s cognitive performance. Educational Psychologist, 31 (3), 181-187.

The authors note the importance of having recess for the purpose of improving the cognitive development of children. They note that educators can use the children’s immaturity to promote their classroom work, by developing their cognitive abilities during recess. Young children’s cognitive performance is affected when they have to do a particular task for a long time because they are not able to focus. They argue that it is necessary to give children frequent breaks especially when the children are highly focused on academic tasks as this will improve their performance.

Stevenson, H. W., Lee, S., Chuansheng, C., Stigler, I., & Kitamura, S. (1990). Contexts of achievement: A study of American, Chinese, and Japanese children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 55 (1-2), 1-123

The authors note that the children’s ability to focus so well on their academic activity is not only because of the highly structured class time, but also because of the vigorous play that takes place in between class activities. In Asian schools, children break after every ninety minutes of academic time and the schools have many after school programs. Schools in Taiwan and Japan organize their activities according to the developmental level of the children. The recesses enable the children to relax after schoolwork and they make schools interesting. The schools are able to balance academic work, social interaction, play, and other extra curricula activities, and this makes learning more pleasant and enjoyable for the teachers and the students.

Toppino, T., Kasserman, J., and Mracek, W. (1991). The effect of spacing repetitions on the recognition memory of young children and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 51, 123-138.

In a study involving preschoolers, first and third graders, the authors observed that as the spacing between repetitions increased, the performance in recognition tests improved. The researchers observed that children had poor memories during tests when they received information collectively, without any breaks. However, as the repetition of information and ideas were spaced with breaks, the learners were more likely to have better memories and to resolve their problems. The researchers found out that increasing the spacing of instructions resulted to the improvement of memory of the repeated information. The authors concluded that children would learn better if they had smaller increments of information than if they were forced to take on tasks for a long time, as this would cause lack of concentration, fidgeting, and restlessness.

Wassermann, S. (1992). Serious play in the classroom: How messing around can win you the Nobel prize. Childhood Education, 68 (3), 133-139.

Wasserman notes the significance of play in enhancing creativity. The author notes that people are able to create different things when they are not afraid of failure, and when they mess around and play with different objects. Creativity does not come from following established rules. Play gives the children a chance to do this because they do not have to be supervised when they play. Children do not have to be afraid of failure. In many cases, play gives the children a chance to make errors, and this is essential in enhancing creativity. Children who are not afraid of failure have more self-confidence and they become risk-takers.

References

Bjorklund, D., & Brown, D. (1998). Physical play and cognitive development: Integrating activity, cognition, and education. Child Development, 69 (3), 604-606

Bjorklund, D., & Harnishfeger, K. (1990). The resources construct in cognitive development:

Diverse sources of evidence and a theory of inefficient inhibition. Developmental Review, 10 (1)

48-71.

Blatchford, P., Creeser, R., and Mooney, A. (1990). Playground games and playtime: The children’s

view. Educational Research, 32 (3), 163-174.

Jambor, T. (1994). School recess and social development. Dimension of Early Childhood, 23 (1), 17-20.

McMune, L. (1998). Immediate and ultimate functions of physical activity play. Child Development, 69 (3), 601-603.

Morrison, G. S. & Rusher, A. S. (1999). Playing to learn. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 27 (2), 3-8.

Nelson, J. R., Smith, D. J., & Colvin, G. (1995). The effects of a peer-mediated self-evaluation procedure on the recess behavior of students with behavior problems. Remedial and Special Education, 16 (2), 117-126

Patrick, Teri. (1996). Play: An important component of preventative behavior management

(Report No. PS024611). Annual Conference of the Southern Early Childhood Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 400 951).

Pellegrini, A. (1995). School recess and playground behavior: Educational and developmental

roles. Albany, NY: State University of NY Press.

Pellegrini, A., and Bjorklund, D. (1996). The role of recess in children’s cognitive performance. Educational Psychologist, 31 (3), 181-187.

Stevenson, H. W., Lee, S., Chuansheng, C., Stigler, I., & Kitamura, S. (1990). Contexts of achievement: A study of American, Chinese, and Japanese children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 55 (1-2), 1-123

Toppino, T., Kasserman, J., and Mracek, W. (1991). The effect of spacing repetitions on the recognition memory of young children and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 51, 123-138.

Wassermann, S. (1992). Serious play in the classroom: How messing around can win you the Nobel prize. Childhood Education, 68 (3), 133-139.

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An Annotated Bibliography of The Effects of Recess on-task Classroom Behaviors. (2018, Jun 29). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/paper-on-14870-an-annotated-bibliography-of-the-effects-of-recess-on-task-classroom-behaviors/

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