African American History
Convict Lease System: The ideology of the convict lease system dates back to the 1880s when private correlation organizations began creating perhaps the first private prison systems in the United States. This system was implemented in the southern parts of America where the private organizations would normally lease out the inmates to provide labor for railroad companies and construction companies. The significance of these prison systems is that they freed states from the burdens of formulating budgets to run the prisons.
John Mercer Langston: John Langston is deemed to be among the most prominent and influential African American prior to and in the course of the Civil War in the United States. Langston was made famous through the limelight political battles with Fredrick Douglas. His historical significance is that he managed to establish himself among the first African Americans in the United States to hold effective office (township clerk in 1855).
Caste System: The caste system is an old social institution practiced in many parts of India. This system serves to bring many primitive ethnic groups together and convert them into a one cultural system. Its impact has led to Indians being divided into unbridgeable and innumerable groups.
Scramble for Africa: This term refers to the period when the African continent was being rapidly colonized by European powers. The relevance of this colonization is that it led to numerous African countries attaining independence.
Buffalo Soldiers: This was an African American soldier unit in west America that a played a major role in influencing the Civil war. Black soldiers were notably good in battle that they were used more in military operations (Boyd, 24).
Ninth and Tenth cavalry: The ninth and tenth cavalries were units of the Buffalo Soldier regime. These two units made history through their sacrifice and combat services.
Springfield Riot 1908: This involved a large civil commotion in Springfield Illinois in 1908. This riot was sparked by the county sheriff’s action transferring two black prisoners from the city jail. The riot led the formation of a civil rights organization that recognized colored people (Boyd, 45).
George H. White: George White was the fourth African American representative of United States second district in North Carolina. White made history through his bold actions of soliciting for mob violence and disfranchisement through legislative proposals in the South.
In case between Plessy and Ferguson, Plessy served a jail sentence for violating the segregation laws applying in rail road cars. However, Plessy was one eighth black seven eighth white, but the law in Louisiana implied that he be treated as an African American. Plessy opted to appeal to the Supreme Court after he lost his first case and the decision stood. This case has a major significance in the United States history as it gave rise to the separate but equal legal standing. This doctrine established that equal quality had to apply to separate facilities (Boyd, 37).
Grandfather clauses were formulated with the intension of preventing black people from exercising their voting rights. These amendments opted to deprive a person’s voting right through difficult requirements. For example, this included requirements such as large amounts of land ownership, ability to write and read parts of the federal and state constitutions. Exceptions made by veterans who participated in the civil war gave rise to the grandfather clause. Therefore, if an individual’s grandfather was allowed to vote, they could also vote as well with no restrictions.
The term Jim Crow is normally used when describing the segregation rules, customs, and laws. It arose in 1877 after the reconstruction was done and its use was dominant up until the middle 1960’s (Boyd, 82). The term gained popularity through a common song originally done by an unknown black man, and was later sang by Rice, a white man who donned black make up that portrayed him as an African American. His performances spread popularity for the term as it gradually substituted the term “nigger” as it was less offensive.
Scott Joplin: Scott is regarded as the king of ragtime was a talented African American pianist and composer. Joplin’s compositions were talented and popular; he received modest recognition and royalties for his works. His music was incorporated in a motion picture that later won an academy award.
Jack Johnson: This is an American surfer, folk rock writer and musician popular for his acoustic and soft rock genres. His achievements involve producing an entire album on 100 percent solar energy to promote social responsibility on the environment.
Black self-determination: This is a form of self spirited effort by African Americans in their attempts of acting against racism and police brutality. History has seen numerous black activists stand against this kind of oppression (Boyd, 18).
Atlanta exposition speech: This is an address given by Booker T. Washington in 1895 on race relations topic. This speech established the Atlanta Compromise that brought together African American leaders and white leaders in the south.
National Negro Business League: This is foundation started by Booker T. Washington with the intention of enhancing the economic and commercial prosperity of individuals of African decent in America. The foundation managed to expand numerous black businesses.
Fisk University Jubilee Singers: This is an assembly of students studying various disciplines in Fisk University. Their achievements include global performances representing Fisk University while singing Negro tunes.
The Niagara Movement: This was a African American civil rights movements established in 1905. Its main view was to oppose disenfranchisement and racial segregation. Booker T. Washington was the main supporter of this movement (Boyd, 74)
Booker T. Washington’s approach on black advancement was one that focused on education and self help. His belief was that African Americans could work and earn respect from the white community. Washington also argued that black education would benefit both the African American and white communities (Boyd, 56). On the other hand, William E.B. Dubois though that Booker T. Washington’s strategy was incorrect. He thought that African American should never have to stomach the turbulence they were being subjected to by the white people.
Yes he would agree. In his view, double consciousness implied two separate identities of being American and African at the same time. This resulted to tensions in a psycho social manner where individuals would identify themselves through two social words, black or white. Having such consciousness has a harming effect on the psyche of African American people as dual existence has a damaging effect on their morality sense. The life of an African American in history is one filled with strife. This is because of the separate identity with other Americans.
Benjamin Singleton “Pap” was born a slave and later managed to escaped and managed tom open a boarding house that served as temporary shelter for run away African American slaves like him. His influence in the west involved holding state convections that encouraged west black emigration in the west. On the other hand Bishop Henry McNeal Turner had a similar impact. He solicited or the idea of black emigration in the west. His ideology lied behind a dream of creating a homeland for escaped African American Slaves (Boyd, 62).
Boyd, Herb. Autobiography of a People: Three Centuries of African American History Told by Those Who Lived It. New York: Doubleday, 2000. Print.