Рousekeeper, provider of basic needs, etc. , largely determine the type of work men and women do. For example, given their traditional role as homemakers, more female than male workers tend to combine economic activities with household (non-economic) activities, to work intermittently over the year and to work closer to home, often even at home for pay or in a family enterprise for family profit.
Furthermore, because of their assigned role as dependent members of the household, women tend to be relatively more active than men in non-market activities and in the informal sector; to be considered by others and even by themselves as economically inactive; to receive less education, and thus to be more confined in occupations requiring lower skills and paying less well; to be considered as secondary workers in their family enterprise even when they have equal responsibility; and, in times of economic downturn or structural adjustment, to be amongst the first dismissed from their paid jobs.
In addition, women find it hard to break through the “glass ceiling”, which blocks their access to managerial or decision-making positions. Given structural constraints due to family responsibilities, women who are available and willing to work tend actively to seek work much less than men in the same situation and employers tend to be reluctant to employ women outside typically female occupations. Another area of gender differentiation is the allocation of resources and benefits among the members of a household.
It has been observed, for example, that women who are self-employed have more limited access to production resources than men, which lowers their income (Loutfi, 2001). Furthermore, women do not necessarily have control over their use of the resources available to them, nor do they necessarily reap the full benefits accruing from their efforts. Women’s and men’s gender roles also determine their different needs and constraints.
For example, the degree to which women actually participate in and contribute to the production process is highly dependent on their marital status, on whether they have small children, and on whether they have to care for other persons in their households. It is recommended that companies should strive to improve their policies regarding the work-family balance of the working mothers in their workforce. The government should also look into ways how to effectively legislate these policies so that working mothers will have more leeway as they take their shoes to assume several roles at home and at work.
It is about time that opportunities and recognition should be truly bestowed to women. At their best, the growing number of working moms should be assisted when they want to attain their goals in workplace and at home. These cannot only relieve them with their multiple roles they possess, but these recommendations could help define, energize, reward, and expand their own lives as self-actualized individuals.
Bailey, Maria T. Trillion-dollar Moms: Marketing to a New Generation of Mothers.
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