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Words: 2191, Paragraphs: 76, Pages: 8

Paper type: Project , Subject: Organ Donation


Report on

Waiting line system at Golden temple – guru – ka – langar By

N.Saibaba (E.No:18BSPHH01C0756)

In the partial fulfilment of

Master of Business Administration

Under the Guidance of Faculty Mentor

Dr.Venkateswara Rao Korasiga

Department of Operations (IBS Hyderabad)

ABOUT GOLDEN TEMPLE :The Golden Temple, also known as Darbar Sahib or Sri Harmandir Sahib  is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is the holiest Gurdwara and the most important pilgrimage site of Sikhism. The temple is built around a man-made pool (sarovar) that was completed by Guru Ram Das in 1577.

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The temple is spiritually the most significant shrine in Sikhism. It became a center of the Singh Sabha Movement between 1883 and 1920s. In the early 1980s, the temple became a center of conflict between the Indian government led by Indira Gandhi, some Sikh groups and a militant movement led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale seeking to create a new nation named Khalistan. In 1984, Gandhi sent in the Indian Army as part of Operation Blue Star, leading to deaths of over 1,000 militants, soldiers and civilians, as well as causing much damage to the temple and the destruction of Akal Takht. The temple complex was rebuilt again after the 1984 damage.

Golden Temple: Background and Significance:

Golden Temple, Amritsar is famous for its beautiful architecture and dazzling combination of Golden domes and pure white marble. All visitors to the shrine, whether pilgrims or tourists, are equally stunned by the soothing peace and tranquility of the Temple. The Golden Temple has four entrances in the North, East, South and West. This symbolizes how all people from all four corners of the earth are welcome and free to enter. About 45% of the pilgrims visiting Darbar Sahib are from other faiths and regarded as equals. The stairs entering the temple go down, rather than up like traditional holy places. This is designed to bring a sense of humbleness rather than haughtiness to people lucky enough to visit it. The whole temple complex itself is purposely built on a lower level to the rest of the city. The temple is beautifully decorated with gold and has some of the best Mughal and Indian architecture. The idea of Sangat mooted by Guru Nanak got a boost when the construction of Harmandir was in progress. Thousands of people, irrespective of their social standing and financial background worked together to build the heaven of their dreams in which there would be no distinction on the basis of caste, colour, creed, race, or sex, and where everyone would partake of food together in the Guru Ka Langar (free kitchen) and serve it in turn . This promotes the concept of voluntary work and social equality, which were later to become the pivot of Sikh ethos.

Golden Temple darshanHOW TO REACH TEMPLE :

You can reach Amritsar by air, road or by rail. The closest airport to Amritsar is the international airport near Rajasansi, known as the Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport. Amritsar airport is about 11 kilometers away from the city centre; which can be covered in approximately 20 minutes by road. There are daily domestic flights to and from Delhi, Mumbai and Srinagar; besides an increasing number of international flights to select destinations. If you are visiting from overseas and landing in New Delhi, the Amritsar airport is a convenient hour’s flight away from IGI Airport in New Delhi. A host of tourist bus service providers offer package tours to the Golden Temple from most major cities within Punjab and its neighbouring states.

Best time to visit:

 Depending on your level of religious fervour, any time is a good time of day to visit. If you are the kind who wishes to avoid getting into endless queues, then early morning at 4 AM or late at night are great times to go to the temple. You will get to witness the installation or returning ceremony of the holy book of the Sikhs, the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, which is a pleasant bonus. Weekends should be avoided, as should all Sikh and Hindu festivals – faithful from the entire city and around descend upon the city to celebrate anything from a Gurupurab to Diwali; and everything in between.

Visitor Timings of Golden Temple, Amritsar

Timings: 2:30 a.m. to 10:00 PM (all days of the week.) The Kiwad (door/portals) opens at 2:30 a.m. and the First Hukamnama is given at 5:00 a.m. The temple closes with the departure of Palki Sahib from Sri Harimandir Sahib.

Waiting Line System :A Waiting line system also known as a Queuing system is exactly what it sounds like. Its When a person or object spends time waiting in a line for an activity or transaction to happen. Queuing systems or waiting lines exist throughout society and their adequacy has strong effect on quality of service and productivity. Queuing theory is concerned with mathematical study of queues or waiting lines, formulating mathematical models of queues and measuring performance using these models. Queuing theory does not directly solve this problem, but tries to provide vital information required for taking decisions..Basically Service pattern consists of two types 1) constant example: Items coming down an automed assembly line. 2) Variable example : people spending time shopping.

Types of Waiting Lines ;There are two main types of waiting lines:

Finite : where new customers can only be added to line once others move out of the line, Infinite : where new customers are not affected by the number of customers already in the system.

Lines can also be set up so that there is one single or multiple lines for service. A single line system often presents a view of fairness to the customer because it typically works on a first come, first serve basis.

A multiple line system, such as the one you see at a grocery store, may be used to allow customers with fewer items to check out more quickly. Multiple line systems often provide different transaction types by customer type.

There are three ways that customers may behave when they’re unhappy with waiting in a line:

Balking – when a customer chooses not to enter the waiting line.

Reneging – when a customer enters the line, but leaves.

Jockeying – when a customer changes from one line to another.

Kitchen at Golden Temple :Guru Ram Das Langer or the community kitchen is located inside the complex. The kitchen, spread across an acre, has three machines to make chappatis .This kitchen holds a dining hall too. Food is served every day to all visitors. Vegetarian food is only served. People have to sit on the floor in rows to eat. It?s open round the clock and seven days of the week. The hall with a seating capacity for 3000 people at one time serves nearly 80,000 people everyday on an average while on weekends and special days the number may be as high as 1,50,000 .

Entire operation has very limited automation and the thrust is on „Seva? or volunteer service without any expectations of return.

It’s 5 am, and the langar at Golden Temple in Amritsar is ready to serve its first meal of the day — tea and snacks. Devotees sleeping on the premises are stirring awake and making their way to the two spartan halls at the Guru Ramdas Community Kitchen building. The community kitchen, having taken a break for 30 minutes — from 4.30 am to 5, its only break in a 24X7 operation.

The sheer volume of raw material used and food prepared in a day is mind boggling. Mr. Harpinder singh, the 46 year old manager of this huge operation informs “2.5 lakh rotis are prepared everyday on an average. About 50 quintal wheat, 18 quintal dal, 14 quintal rice and seven quintal milk is daily consumption in the Langar hall. Vegetables and milk products are purchased on a daily basis. Devotees make donations in the form of raw material or funds for the Langar. The per day budget of running the community kitchen is around Rs 11 lakh, going up to Rs 16 lakh on weekends and special occasions.Any deficit is fulfilled by the The committee spends Rs 30 crore every year on running the langar at Golden Temple from its annual budget, which was Rs 1,106 crore in 2017-18.

Some more Important points about kitchen:

Langar meal is served at ALL HOURS

Meals in the langar are vegetarian and are simple, nourishing and nutritious.

The kitchen has a capacity of 5000 people.

 There are two kitchens in which the food is prepared.

On normal days, all the dishes are handmade by the sewadars.

Hygiene is of utmost importance, both before and after meals. Dirty plates are handed over to another set of volunteers. Each plate is washed 5 times before being used again.

The kitchen receives a lot of donations too, either in cash or kind

Items , facilities and Manpower they have to serve people :

A total of 495 SGPC employees work at the kitchen in three shifts, apart from 150 sewadars and 250 volunteers at a time. Volunteers are allowed to perform all the tasks except cooking, for which there are 13 cooks, four of whom are working today.Thousands of volunteers join everyday to assist them. Volunteers ensure that each visitor gets the complete meal. The whole thing is highly organized. It?s an endeavor that is remarkable in scale, the clockwork efficiency with which the kitchen is organized and the fact that all the people manning the kitchen are volunteers who are inspired to undertake the heavy labour all by-self motivation and inner conviction.

The Langar at Sri Harmandir Sahib is prepared in two kitchens. They have 14 hot plates (tawa), several burners, machines for sieving and kneading dough and two specially imported chapatti making machines which are used on days of heavy rush. The machine can make rotis of 20 kg flour in just half an hour. There are two machines in the basement which knead one quintal of flour in just 5 minutes. It is this coordination of man and machine that makes it possible for the Gurudwara to provide 24 hour Langar on all days. You find organized row of people at the utensil washing area with their hands dipped in soap water up to elbows. 40,000 plates, bowls and spoons are a part of Langar inventory. These utensils are continuously re-cycled and neatly stacked. The sense of ownership, devotion and satisfaction on their faces is seen to be believed. The whole atmosphere provides a humbling experience to the visitor.

Some of the Other Facilities Like :

Free shoe-keeping zone outside the premises.

Tourist information office.

Free bus facility for the airport, railway station, and bus stand.

Toilets and bathrooms.

Free dispensaries.

ATM, railway booking, and postal facilities

Offerings in cash and kind are accepted in the Golden Temple.

Please get a receipt on offering donations for langar (community kitchen), building.

It is strictly prohibited to serve or eat any eatables in the Parikrama or to loiter about with uncovered head.



Menu at Golden temple:

The menu for the day is dal, lauki (bottle-gourd), rice and kheer, along with chappatis. It changes every day and sometimes has to be changed at the last minute if a devotee offers, for example, a lot of vegetables, or for a certain dish to be served.

Queuing systems or waiting lines exist throughout society and their adequacy has strong

effect on quality of service and productivity. Queuing theory is concerned with mathematical

study of queues or waiting lines, formulating mathematical models of queues and measuring

performance using these models

Queuing systems or waiting lines exist throughout society and their adequacy has strong

effect on quality of service and productivity. Queuing theory is concerned with mathematical

study of queues or waiting lines, formulating mathematical models of queues and measuring

performance using these modelTypes of Waiting Lines

Flow Chart of a Typical pilgrim to Guru-Ka-Langar6191253759835006572253638550right3388360004257675284543500180022528575000074295023977600080962524168100561975021590000043243511721485001809750174053500762000110236086677511214105562600749935572452526035Food is being served by volunteers (Usually 3 times/Day)

00Food is being served by volunteers (Usually 3 times/Day)

420052526416000179070024511000left4019550After drying, these bowls, plates, spoons and glasses will be used to serve pilgrims by volunteers

After drying, these bowls, plates, spoons and glasses will be used to serve pilgrims by volunteers

24669752616835Rewash of Bowls, Plates, Spoons and Glasses by Volunteers

Rewash of Bowls, Plates, Spoons and Glasses by Volunteers

left2607310Bowls, Plates, Spoons and Glasses will be washed by volunteers

Bowls, Plates, Spoons and Glasses will be washed by volunteers

24955501388110Plates and bowls will be handed over to volunteers at the end of meal

Plates and bowls will be handed over to volunteers at the end of meal

left1473835Water will be served to pilgrims by volunteers

Water will be served to pilgrims by volunteers

239077519050Plates and Bowls will be given to Pilgrims

Plates and Bowls will be given to Pilgrims

-3810054610Enter into Guru-Ka-LangarEnter into Guru-Ka-Langar

57150002268855After rewash, these bowls, plates, spoons and glasses will be kept for drying

0After rewash, these bowls, plates, spoons and glasses will be kept for drying

57150001078230Volunteers will sort out plates, bowls and spoons

0Volunteers will sort out plates, bowls and spoons


The way to manage the queues is by either reducing the inflows or increasing the rate of outflows or Both. Inflows can be controlled by one of the way prior booking but this temple doesn’t have it. So estimate the average number of pilgrims waiting for Food and take regarding measures.

Determine the maximum amount of time that customers will have to wait for service.

Apply the theory of waiting lines to reduce the delays wherever possible by introducing additional service place to sit and eat and enhancing the service production capacity.

To control the piligrims visit of guru-ka-langar by allotting the time during darshan itself (Example: Token-system)

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