Topics: Other

Group – 5

Ashutosh Naik PGP/22/345Rahul Kalbhut PGP/22/355Niloy Mukherjee PGP/22/365Sagar Mantur PGP/22/375Skanda P PGP/22/385Samridh Arora PGP/22/425

Lean in Manufacturing: Recent Trends

Lean Manufacturing presently being executed by all the cutting edge manufacturing companies, which is helping them to accomplish upper hand. Lean assembling confirmations waste elimination end streamlined the procedures and esteem expansion. Applying lean ideas in assembling evacuates all non-value included exercises and its emphasis just on improving the client esteem. Lean aides in reducing or expelling the exercises that don’t include client esteem.

Lean likewise helps in accomplishing cost decrease as non-esteem included exercises are wiped out. Current Manufacturing engineers are fundamental to understanding the significance of lean manufacturing.

Albeit mobile applications and shrewd gadgets will have an effect on manufacturing technology, a couple of other ongoing patterns will drastically reclassify industry gauges in manufacturing innovation. Practical options in contrast to conventional assembling will presently supplant existing procedures, and keeping away from the Industrial Internet of Things will wind up unimaginable.

For any business to succeed, we have to apply these lean standards to assembling tasks and furthermore consider what every last one of the ongoing patterns in Lean Manufacturing innovation implies for target markets.

1. Digitalization: Role of IT & IOT

IoT: Experts are considering it the fourth mechanical transformation. The Internet of Things (IoT) is assessed to be around a $14 billion incentive in the market at present and gauges guarantee it will reach $50 billion by 2020 according to specialists. Lean assembling won’t just blur away in this fourth mechanical unrest, yet a remarkable inverse will likewise occur.

Get quality help now
Sweet V

Proficient in: Other

4.9 (984)

“ Ok, let me say I’m extremely satisfy with the result while it was a last minute thing. I really enjoy the effort put in. ”

+84 relevant experts are online
Hire writer

IoT bolsters the lean procedures and it empowers a really lean venture by conveying better measurements to drive the expanded effectiveness and furthermore increment profitability in work, more tightly mix with the key customers and providers. It will be additionally useful for better coordination among divisions, expanded assembling security and diminished downtime, as indicated by Bill Morelli, executive of the web of things, M2M and computerized for IHS.

In the event that makers can hit the nail on the head, IoT offers huge efficiencies and can noticeably improve lean procedure

How it can be implemented

• Real-time data analysis can be used for faster optimization

• Process can be control with real time data

• Supply can be integration with the exact customer demand

• Strong supplier integration, which will help to custom manufacturing

Problems may be encountered

• The process will be costly (R & D Cost will be high)

• Will have to hire technology experts (Lack of experts in the field)

• No space for error, (As the process is data-driven, even a single mistake will lead to big issue)

2. 3-D Printing

Nowadays 3-D printing is increasing high acclaim as lean assembling is on the ascent. As a matter of fact lean assembling and 3-D printing go together normally. While 3-D printing is certainly not another innovation, it’s getting more consideration recently, in light of the potential cost suggestions for everybody engaged with it. The more slender you are, the more you can save money on it and make. The impetus is 3-D printing. These days’ clients and organizations are getting to be mindful of the efficiencies that 3-D printing is making it conceivable. This expands the client’s energy about modified items. It additionally results in potential cost investment funds related with it, for both the maker and to the client.

How it can be implemented

• 3D print is easier for prototyping

• It can be used in customized products easily

• We can go for more creativity in design

• More efficiency and consistency can be achieved

• 3D print comes with a shorter lead time, which will also lead to time & cost saving

• 3D-Printing manufacturing vendors are available locally

Problems may be encountered

• The 3D printing process is an expensive process

• It’s good for prototyping, but financially not suitable for production

• Different skill set required to design and run a software

3. Green Manufacturing

Green manufacturing is a strategy for assembling that decreases waste and contamination. Lean assembling is the framework, which points towards the disposal of the loss from the framework with a productive and constant methodology. Activities supervisory groups additionally endeavor to offset costs with income to accomplish the most astounding net parity.

How it can be implemented

• Reduce carbon footprint by adopting a digital way

• Use of E-vehicle and E-comers

• Focus on Renewable energy

• Water Management projects

• Focus on 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle)

• Follow ISO and Green standards

Problems may be encountered

• In India, Green Accounting is not the compulsory norm

• It’s not easily adopted by all sectors

• External Auditing is essential and it leads to additional cost

• Standardization of Green Accounting will be required

4. Lean Labor

In a competitive market margins are going thinner and thinner nowadays, so companies are facing competition from existing vendors, as well as new players entered in the market, especially when it comes to gaining a true competitive edge. So, it is extremely important for manufacturers to increase productivity, control the costs, optimize the labor resources, and align them with the most important project or goal. Lean labor can help manufacturers to improve the way, they line up employees with production demand.

In an aggressive market edges are going more slender these days, so organizations are confronting rivalry from existing merchants, just as new players entered in the market, particularly with regards to picking up a genuine focused edge. In this way, it is critical for makers to expand profitability, control the expenses, enhance the work assets, and adjust them to the most essential undertaking or objective. Lean work can assist makers with improving the way, they line up representatives with generation request.

How it can be implemented

It can be implemented by scheduling the applications, which is a basic part to a bigger workforce the executive’s arrangement.

Create a move with the correct blend of representatives and abilities. This will build a complete generation and accomplish income targets.

Fill a whole procedure will diminish additional time costs for any supplanting lineup workers with creation request.

Problems may be encountered

More focus on revenue generation activities

Extensive training to the workforce is required

It will again increase the cost to the company

5. Customization in Inventory Management

Global Dispatch says that customary stock administration tasks will change in some time. Stock administration will turn out to be progressively subject to cutting edge PC examination frameworks (IT) to oversee stock continuously framework. This will dispose of the risk from burglary, harms and mistakes amid transportation, decreasing overhead and improving tasks. Besides, organizations will almost certainly oversee stockrooms all the more productively by taking out overloading or understocking issues.

How it can be implemented

• Use of advanced data analysis for forecasting the demand

• Which will help to maintain the optimized inventory

• Use of new technologies for 3D printing to make customized inventory

Problems may be encountered

• Traditional companies find it difficult to implement new techniques (customization)

• Skillset like big data analysis is required, to the element the error

• Which will again increase the cost to the company

Applications of Recent Trends of Lean in Manufacturing


The company taken for reference is JCB India Pvt ltd. It is a English Multi National Company which specializes in construction equipment’s such as Back Hoe Loaders, Excavators, Compactors etc. The company has 3 State of the art Manufacturing facilities in India at Ballabgarh, Pune and Jaipur. It is the market leader in the construction equipment sector in terms of Volume and commands over 80% market share in the Backhoe Loader segment. It strives on the immense trust the customers have in it’s products due to the reliability and quality. These are a result of excellent manufacturing and quality process. Indian Market contributes to over 30% of the its total revenue, Highest of any regions the company operates in. The company is a fast mover in adopting new technologies and heavily invests in keeping its manufacturing setup up to date with the latest developments and improvements in the manufacturing engineering domain.

Application of Digital IOT at JCB Pune

The Pune Site has 3 factories one of which is the Excavator/Loader manufacturing plant and we are taking the example of it in this Paper and the current applications will be discussed here.

1047752557780Final Inspection/Rework

Final Inspection/Rework

7096122276794480980710810893752215282892517049742828925170497517005303686175170053037528504718051704975471805109855186055Sanding and body preparation of the Main body of the Excavator

Sanding and body preparation of the Main body of the Excavator

2114550186055Shot blasting and Painting of the Body

Shot blasting and Painting of the Body

4152265186055Assembly of the Excavator over 18 Assembly stations

Assembly of the Excavator over 18 Assembly stations

41529001386205Inspection Stage and Oil setting

Inspection Stage and Oil setting



1092201386205Hot Testing the Excavator

Hot Testing the Excavator

21101052533650Paint Touch up and Waxing

Paint Touch up and Waxing

41529002533650Pre Dispatch Inspection and Dispatch to Delivery Yard

Pre Dispatch Inspection and Dispatch to Delivery Yard

Above is the Basic Flow of the Entire Process

What was the problem the Company facing?

i. Brief explanation of the process

The Sleeve bearing or the turntable bearing is one of the most important of any Excavator it’s fitment is a crucial to the overall integrity and strength of the machine. It connects the Upper body of the Excavator knows as the Revolver to the Lower half known as Undercarriage. It’s connected to each via 32-36 M20/M24 10.9 Bolts bolts and each requiring a torque of close 870-1250 Nm depending of size. The circular shape requires torqueing in a sequence (Torqueing opposite bolts in pairs) to avoid accumulation of tension on one side and is crucial that all bolts are tightened and torqued failure to do so will lead to failure of the entire machine.

3248024104139900261937521653490036957002251075Under Carriage

00Under Carriage



36957001651000Sleeve Bearing

00Sleeve Bearing


ii. The scenario

During the end of 2016, A lot of failures were noticed in the field. The typical failure was the bolts loosening and falling, compromising the integrity and structure of the entire machine. This was causing considerable repair cost and denting the brand image. After a lot root cause analysis, it was observed that it was due to incorrect torqueing of the bolts. It may have been due to carelessness or fatigue that sequence wasn’t maintained or some of the bolts weren’t tightened. Too much manual dependence was noted and this problem could only be checked by rechecking all the 32/34 bolts manually during the inspection stage. This meant the machine had to be bought back for rework thus causing congestion in the flow and wastage of fuel. (Excavators consume between 20-30L of diesel per hour).

Why this solution was implemented?

The main reason was to ensure to eliminate manual control and have an alert system to ensure the Standard Operating Process is adhered to. Digital IOT was a promising option due to the fact that the process can be automated and manual intervention is not required. Also the Payback/Return on investment was higher when compared to conventional solutions such as providing extra manpower for checking etc. Also the problem of machine coming back for rework would be eliminated as the process control would ensure no defective machine would leave the assembly line.

i. Solution in Brief

The below mentioned solution as implemented. A DC Tool with pneumatic arm was given which had a program in it to register the sequence the torqueing of the bolts and adjust torques automatically according to the model using a Poka-Yoke implementation. The DC was routed to a PLC (Programable Logic Controller) which in return controlled a HMI or a Human Machine Interface device. The HMI Device had printer which used to print the OK receipt while storing the data and transmitting any anomalies via SMS to the concerned engineer. If the process was OK then machine moved forward with the sticker if not a SMS was sent so that engineer is aware and can check later. This ensured a faulty machine would not leave the assembly line and thus there was no need for a rework at a later stage and also eliminate manual intervention or constant monitoring thus achieving both the goals.



342900155194000295275155194000-47625231394011430001132840-4762512090401990725320929019907251209040-476253152140-43815021710652409825220916599060035902901019175742315-257175942340Diagram of the Solution

44100753251835OK sticker is given and Machine Moves Forward

OK sticker is given and Machine Moves Forward

4410075165735Process to be repeated. Alert sent via SMS

Process to be repeated. Alert sent via SMS

52578001032510NOT OK




4876800269303504874895901065045815251470660HMI MODULEHMI MODULE31940501823085020859754991108














Challenges Faced

The main challenge was with respect to Cost. Electric DC Tools have a very a accurate torque delivery but the costs are astronomical when compared to conventional types costing about 25-30x more. Also, the maintenance cost is high. A through Return on Investment analysis was done to ensure the project was feasible financially.

The next problem was the issue of changing the process and disturbing the line balance. Since there process time changed due the change in process the line balancing had to be done again to optimize the manpower deployment. Some amount of disruption was observed in the initial runs but things were smooth after 3 to 4 days after the implementation.

The safety and maintenance of the device was also a challenge as they were delicate electronic components and could be easily damaged. In a factory set up this was very likely thus sufficient protection had to be given to the devices to ensure they weren’t causing any damage and crippling the entire assembly line.


Failure related to this particular problem reduced to zero. And in further evaluation of close to 100 Machines, none of them over were over the Upper control and lower control limit Which were set at +/- 3 Sigma (10% was the sigma according to engineering guidelines. Thus, adhering to Six Sigma standards. Considerable cost was saved due to elimination of rework and also service claim costs. The system runs without any manual intervention from the engineers thus saving valuable time to be used in other valuable activities. The process is also future proof for a quite while and will not require any considerable investments to change the process to upgrade it.


Cite this page

OM_Lean_Manufacturing_0. (2019, Dec 07). Retrieved from

Let’s chat?  We're online 24/7