PART A:

INTRODUCTION:

Transducer definition: a device that converts one form of energy into another form of energy is a transducer. Some of the Ex for transducers are the following: 1) The microphone can convert sound into electrical impulses, just as speakers can convert electrical impulses into sound (that is, uncomfortable sound in electrical energy and electrical energy in acoustic energy) . 2) A solar cell can convert light energy into electricity, just as a thermocouple can convert thermal energy into electrical energy. An electronic instrumentation system has a large number of components that can perform the measurement and record the final results.

A generalized measurement system consists of three main components. They are: a device to provide the input, a processing device and a device to record the output. The input device recognizes the measurand or the measurement quantity and provides an electrical signal proportional to or related to the signal conditioning device. The signal will be amplified, reduced, filtered, modulated. Otherwise, it is modified in the format that is carried to the output device.

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Physical trasducer:

CT SCANS:

CT stands for Computed tomography. This is commonly known as a CT or Exploration by CT. Computed tomography is a medical diagnostic test that creates varies images. The images that are created in cross section when a computed tomography is reorganized. In the same way, even three-dimensional images are generated. Computed tomography pitcures of inner organs, rigid bone , smooth tissues, and blood give more information than older radiographs, in part, especially in soft tissues and blood vessels.

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Through the use of specialized equipment and the ability to create and intercalate the body’s CT scans can detect issues like cancer, heart diseases, diseases, traumatisms and musculoskeletal disorders.

“CT scanning,” uses a digital computer.This has a rotating x-ray device rhat provides clear x-ray pictures of various system in the body like kidnys , brains and blood vessels. CT is a best way studyparts in body . CT images are finding their use in diagnosis well as treats heart disease, stroke and some diseases. These may cause strokes and heart diseases that in peat can extend for strokes, failure of kidney .In addition, computed tomography is also useful in the appropreciation of bone density that helps in the finding the osteporosis. All shock-trau specialists has a C T machine in the traum section . C T is widely used to diagnose internal ear problems and the uses of sin due to its ability to generate high resolution images. CT can provide information of these images and diagnostic detail of the body part , which may include: 1) neck, shoulder 2) brain, brain vessels, eyes, inner ear, paranasal sinuses; 3) the chest, the heart, the aorta, the lungs, the mediastinum, etc.

C T Working principle :

C T, that are related to the principle of x-rays: as these rays moves across the parts in bdy , they are seen or reduced todifferent orders, which produces the symentry of varities of intensity. This x-ray account is recorded in the film, hence producing a clear picture on a computer. When consider a C T, a film is exchanged with the detector with a long shape that calculates ax-ray account. A C T scanner can be visualized as a large square. The patient’s opening (opening) measuring 60 cm to 70 cm in diameter. C T cover has a turning equipment . “An X-ray tube is mounted on one side and a detector is mounted on the opposite side”. A thin ray of X-rays occurs when a rotating frame rotates the tube and ray sensor across the patient. Generally, in a 360 round, around one thousand accounts is sampld. At account is spatially divided by the detectors. The crisis is fed to approximately 700 individual channels. Single account is projected backwards a computer in to a 2 D picture samples are observed. Sometimes, the patient should not drink anything for several hours before the test. The preparation time variesin the real exam.The examiner starts instead placing you in an C T scanned chart e, where you are placed on the “back”.

Correct position can be maintained with it straps ,pillows may be used .You must still be under the examing condition.

These devices is so fast that without medication kids can be scanned. The motion will lead to poor quality of the examination.

Depending on the type of exam,if uses differnet material,through intravenous line it will be passed to body

Next to determine the correct starting position for the scans the table will move quikly through the scanner then the table will move through the machine depending in the type of CT scan the machine may take several entries.

Pictures are verified by Technologist and their quality is large required to exact interpretation.

Only 30 mins is taken by The C T device for examining the problem.

b) automated digital blood pressure monitor:

Blood pressure is measured with a mercury manometer. Doctors get enough training in BP measurement with the mercury manometer and the stethoscope. The mercury manometer of trained physicians is still a good tool to produce accurate and observed measurements of blood pressure. During the last decades, aneroid blood pressure monitors have been used in many healthcare settings, but it is still the second choice of trained doctors. Medical care when it is not under control. Paramedics with limited training have the authority to measure blood pressure. The instrument is fully controlled by the machine and the monitor provides the diastolic pressure and the reading of the pulse frequency. Individual blood pressure monitors can not be evaluated accurately compared to standard pressure devices, as the procedure is not decisive and is considered to reduce efficiency, since these machines have been tested by the manufacturer and certified by BHS / EHS for clinical use. The digital blood pressure used is approved by the European Society of Hypertension (EHS) and the British Hypertension Society (BHS)

Specifications:

The oscillometric system is the measurement system with digital screen in the range of 40 to 240 mm Hg. The pulse rate is 40 to 19 bpm. Measure twice with an interval of 5 minutes and record both measurements

Procedure for measuring:

• Insertion of the air connector into the air intake. To measure the person’s BP, the instrument must be at the level of the heart.

• The person’s arms are put through the loops.

• The arm is correctly positioned, that is, the lower edge of the cuff should be almost 1 or 2 cm above the level of the elbow.

• There will be an arrow under the tube, which is the marker. This should be centered in the middle of the inner arm.

• Close the velcro closure when the cuff fits snugly on the upper arm.

• Now, with the START / STOP button, write down the heartbeat reading, the diastolic pressure and the pulse rate.

• The reading should be taken again in five minutes. Record the readings before removing the bracelet. The average of two PA readings is the PA of the individual person. The left arm is placed comfortably on the table, so that the heart, the left arm and the digital PA device are in the same horizontal plane.

• The start button was pressed and the cuff is automatically inflating. The sleeve is aerated after reaching the required inflation level.

• The cuff will begin to deflate automatically.

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c) MRI for head Injury:

What is MRI ?

MRI means magnetic resonance imaging. This is a spectroscopic imaging technique that can be used in medical settings to obtain images of the interior of the human body. Principle: the principles of MRI are based on nuclear magnetic resonance. This is a pectroscopic technique used to obtain chemical and physical microscopic information about molecules. The first MRI exam was performed on a human being in 1977. It took him 5 hours to get an image. A head injury caused by a lesion on the scalp, skull or brain can be classified. This classification is as follows: – closed when there is no cut in the skin, that is, without penetration and when the skin skull bone is cut . it can indication like head injuries immediately after the injury or slowly over time. A physical, neurological and C-head exam, those may be examined to determine the injuri to find the method for cureing it proper . When the patient is observed having small injuriy and medcation is taken properly, there can be major brain problem . as there will be blood clots or pressure in the brain that must be reduced and eliminated.

What is a head injury?

A head injury occurs as a result of injury to the scalp, skull or brain. Head injuries can be classified as: – closed, in which there will be no cuts or tears of the skin, penetration, in which the skin or bone of the skull will be torn. Brain injuries differ from those of mild tosevere. Symptoms of a head injury may appear immediately after the injury or may be noticed slowly for several hours or days. Some particular types and their symptoms of head injuries are the following: Concussion: This is a mild traumatic brain injury. It includes lesions in the brain and are caused by a rash on the head or body, can cause a fall or other injury that clogs or alters the brain inside the skull. People who suffer concussions do not always have the symptoms that are obvious to others. Symptoms of concussion, including minor head injuries, consist of the following: loss of consciousness for a few seconds or a few minutes; Confusion in memory and concentration problems. Dizziness, headache, amnesia of events before or immediately after the injury; illness and vomiting altered in the level of consciousness, drowsiness or difficulty waking up.

How can we detect these head injury?

Depending on what kind of injury nd the condition of the particular person, treatment of head injuries is provided. To evaluate this variety of a head injury, a physical and neurological examination and imaging tests are performed as the following tests are performed:

• MRI of brain : these is based on a strong fields , pulses of radio frequency and a device that produces exact images of, bones. basically rest of remaining inside structures of the body. MRI of the brain of some patients, diffusion-weighted images that are a special MRI, diffusion tensor images and MR spectroscopy, help in the diagnosis of brain injuries and it is exactly known it is crucial to find wheather is a hidden head injury for the exact treatment of the person under. So MRI is perferrd more

How can it be treated?

The consequences of an unrecognized or improperly treated head injury can be potentially serious. Therefore, seeking immediate medical action with any form of head injury is mandatory. Patients with head injuries will be treated for symptoms, which will include pain medications for headache and medications to control pucking. If you have symptoms of a simple concussion, you should avoid being active. More serious, brain injuries will require individualized attention and often, such as removing blood clots and relieving pressure on the brain.

CHEMICALTRANSDUCER:it devices transform a property of a spcific analyte which are chemical to an assessable output, so that the application of the analyte is proportional to magnitude. the diagnosis of gaseous matter, such as the concentration of chemical substances in human bodies. Chemical sensors can be used. A cause of chemical project monitoring in the body are regular by chemical sensor. The high chemical sensitivity of the graphic makes it a very intelligent component in biomedical devices. The photochemical and photometric is the main chemical sensor required to investigate the absorption and transformation in chemical reactions together with the most precise conventional nanocomposites.

Glucometer sensor (test strips).To determine the concentration of glucose in the blood sample, a glucometer is used. It can be the glucose paper strip submerged in a substance and identified with the help of the glucose table. For people with diabetes mellitus is a key element of blood glucose control in the home. By pricking the skin with a lancet, a small amount of blood is drawn and placed in a dispensable test strip that can be read with the meter and used to assess the blood glucose level in the body. The glucometer then shows the level in mg / dl. The sensor used has an electroenzymatic advance towards, which implies that it takes advantage of the oxidation of glucose together with the enzyme glucose oxidase. The chemical reaction of glucose with oxygen is catalyzed by the existence of glucose oxidase catalysts, which leads to an increase in pH and a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen, in addition to the increase in hydrogen peroxide due to the oxidation of glucose in gluconic acid. Changes in one or more of these components are calculated using a dipstick to examine the glucose concentration. It has three terminals or electrodes in the strips used for this purpose. striptermnals:

• Reference , Working and trgger plate.

0.4V negative voltage is given to the reference plate. When a glucose solution is deposited on a strip, a chemical reaction occurs inside it, which produces a small amount of electric current comparable to the glucose concentration

After the stabilization of the chemical reaction, the ADC reads the voltage and compares it with a lookup table to acquire the proportional glucose gain in mg / dL. This gain is recorded by a computer.

 The glucose in the blood sample reacts with the enzyme glucose oxidase on the test strip to give gluconoic acid. This acid reacts with another chemical in the sample called ferricin that combines to provide ferrocin that then runs an electronic stream in the blood sample. the ferrocnaide generated and shows the content of the glucose level in the blood sample on the meter display. These have an advantage of sensitivity over glucose oxidase, but are more susceptible to barge reactions with additional reactions. the most important organized devices that depend on the similar colorimetric reaction that are still used today in glucose test strips for urine. apart from glucose oxidase, it also contains a benzidine derivative, which is to oxidize the hydrogen peroxide formed in the oxidation reaction to a blue polymer. The capillary present in the test strips absorbs a small amount of blood. The coulometric method is a method in which the total amount of charge produced by the oxidation reaction of glucose is calculated over a period of time. The amperometric technique is used for a few meters and calculates the electric current produced at a particular point in time by the reduction of glucose. The coulometric technique may allow different test times, but the test time in a device that uses the amperometric technique is always firm. Both techniques provide an approximation of the glucose concentration in a blood sample.

b)ALCOHOL SENSORS:

An alcohol sensor is a device that warns the warning of the alcohol content in the air and gives an output as the analog voltage.

With the help of a detection device, drivers are, first and foremost, drivers of alcohol content on the road. If the test gives a positive result, once again at the police station the evidential breath test is performed. If the police see an accident on the road, you can stop the driver and ask him not to do so if the police suspect that a driver is driving under the impact of alcohol, or if a driver commits a traffic offense.

• The detection equipment is the size of mobile phones that are of the old type. The driver rushes to a replaceable nozzle for each road. All the measurement technique takes a fraction of time for the device to document the measurement made. The person is arrested if the test fails to take an evidential breath test at the station.

A test of the ambient air is performed as a blank check. This is due to a verification sample of an ethanol standard. The calibration of a device is checked. 35 ?g / 100 ml of air is the concentration of alcohol in the standard sample. Then two breathing routes are taken and analyzed, each one differentiated by a sample of air. • the device registers an error message. If the output of both real samples differs by 15% or 5 ?g, whichever is greater. The driver is then asked to give a blood or urine sample to analyze in the laboratory. If the result is below the two results that are between 40 ?g and 50 ?g / 100 ml of breathing, the driver with all rights can request a blood sample. If the lower outlet is greater than 50 ?g / 100 ml of breathing, the driver is trapped. • The devices use fuel cells or infrared cells for evidential breath tests. An infrared cell provides infrared energy through the path and detects any unabsorbed energy. We get more infrared absorption if the ethanol concentration is higher.

A test of the ambient air is performed as a blank check. This is due to a verification sample of an ethanol standard. The calibration of a device is verified. 35 ?g / 100 ml of air is the concentration of alcohol in the standard sample. Then two breathing routes are taken and analyzed, each differentiated by a sample of air.

• the device registers an error message. If the output of both real samples differs by 15% or 5 ?g, whichever is greater. The driver is then asked to give a blood or urine sample to analyze in the laboratory. If the result is below the two results that are between 40 ?g and 50 ?g / 100 ml of breathing, the driver with all rights can request a blood sample. If the lower outlet is greater than 50 ?g / 100 ml of breathing, the driver is trapped.

• The devices use fuel cells or infrared cells for evidential breath tests. An infrared cell provides infrared energy through the path and detects any unabsorbed energy. We get more infrared absorption if the ethanol concentration is higher.

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