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Literature Chapter 6: Irony

Author of “The Golf Links Lie So Near the Mill”

Author of “Earth”
John Hall Wheelock

Author of “A Special Occasion”
Joyce Cary

Author of “A Considerable Speck”
Robert Frost

Author of “Letter from a West Texas Constituent”
J. B. Lee Jr.

Author of “Scylla Toothless”

Author of “At the Aquarium”
Max Eastman

Author of “A Germ Destroyer”
Rudyard Kipling

Author of “The Grave Grass Quivers”
Mackinlay Kantor

Author of “Yet if His Majesty”

Theme: Children working, men playing
“The Golf Links Lie So Near the Mill”

Theme: Human intelligence does not guarantee common sense or virtue

Theme: Misunderstood children
“A Special Occasion”

Theme: Sarcasm about “not raising hogs”
“Letter from a West Texas Constituent”

Theme: Something so small can show more intelligence than man can sometimes
“A Considerable Speck”

Theme: Gossip is hurtful
“Scylla Toothless”

Theme: Truth is found in the seemingly contradictory humans, when viewed with detachment, are not all different from the animals they pay to see
“At the Aquarium”

Theme: Small mistakes cause great confusion
“A Germ Destroyer”

Theme: Past actions will always be found out
“The Grave Grass Quivers”

Theme: If we would prepare for an earthly king, why not prepare for God? *Biblical allusion to Christ’s birth*
“Yet if His Majesty”

Influenced by Spinoza (author)
John Hall Wheelock

Raised by patient adults; wrote about misunderstood children (author)
Joyce Cary

Fictitious, naive speaker (author)
J. B. Lee Jr.

New England’s “poetic bard” and Americas unofficial poet laureate (author)
Robert Frost

Rejected the religion of feminist mother and family to be influenced by John Dewey and become a pagan (author)
Max Eastman

Wrote stories about India (author)
Rudyard Kipling

Wrote about the values of small town life in America and traditional American hopes and dreams (author)
Mackinlay Kantor

contrast between what is reasonable to expect and what actually happens
situational irony

the reader is aware of the contrast between what is reasonable to expect and what actually happens but the character is ignorant
dramatic irony

language that means other than what it states
verbal irony

words identical in sound with different meaning

corrective ridicule

verbal irony throughout a work
structural irony

exaggerated account of a phenomenon

saying less than what you mean

verbal irony that is mock praise

prophetic irony

conducted routinely, with little care or interest

severe paleness

harsh, disorderly

occurring randomly


wall-hung candleholder


unnecessary and therefore unwise

“gazing off into the air” (quote)

“He was suffering from a large and complicated grievance” (quote)
“A Special Occasion”

“No one can know how glad I am to find/on any sheet the least display of mind” (quote)
“A Considerable Speck”

“But her tongue hath wrong her teeth away” (quote)
“Scylla Toothless”

“But his guest did not bore the viceroy” (quote)
“A Germ Destroyer”

“Shovel struck something” and “Murdered” (quote)
“The Grave Grass Quivers”

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