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Literature 19-26 Paper

Essay Topic:
CH. 19:
What were Luther’s main complaints against the church? What reforms did he seek? What were the results of Luther’s protests?
Luther’s main complaints about the church were that salvation could not be bought through indulgences but by the grace of God and their faith in Christ.
Luther wanted to be in charge of his own destiny
As a result of this, Luther translated the Old and New Testaments into German for all to read. He was then charged with heresy and refused to back down. He wrote his Address to the German Nobility after that.

CH. 19:
What professions does the speaker (Folly) single out in Erasmus’ The Praise of Folly (reading 19.2)? Do you agree with her?
The professions that the speaker singles out is theologians, naturalists, astrologers, scientists and logicians. In my opinion she is making fun of pompous people, so yes I do agree with her.

CH. 19:
What political and social ideals are set forth in More’s Utopia?
More’s Utopia’s political ideas have to do with cities being divided into four equal parts, no money necessary,
The social ideas deal with family and how the younger is in submission to the elder. There is no need to deny any man

CH. 19:
How do parents in More’s Utopia train their children to scorn gold and silver?
They teach their children that they need to prefer iron over gold and silver. They learn that iron is the necessity for life and that gold or silver are just other metals unnecessary but “extra”.

CH. 19:
How did the age of exploration and expansion influecne More and Montaigne in their wrtitings?
The wondrous land reports by sailors from the “New World” played a big part in More’s writings, as well as Montaigne. More based his writings on the way it was to be in the New World. Montaigne examined how the behaviors and beliefs vary from culture to culture.

CH. 19:
Why does Montaigne use Classical quotations in his essay On Cannibals (Reading 19.5)?
Montaigne uses Classical quotations in Cannibals because it emphasized the questions of the superiority of any one culture over another.

CH. 19:
What was the significance of the following: the Gutenberg Bible; the Peasant Revolt; the Battle of the Armada.
The Gutenberg Bible’s significance was that it was the first bible printed on the printing press and with this helped the Protestant Reformation be a success.
The Peasant Revolt was a result of Christian liberty to go up against the oppression against the reformation of the church in Germany and give rights to the German prince to chose the religion he desired for his country.
Battle of the Armada ?????

CH. 19:
Define the following terms: quatrain, couplet, blank verse.
Quatrain is a 4 line stanza.
Couplet is two 2 successive lines of verse with similar end-rhymes.
Blank Verse is un-rhymed lines of iambic pentameter, that is, lines consisting of 10 syllables each with accents on every second syllable.

CH. 19:
How does the technique of woodcut differ from engraving?
Woodcut is a relief printing process by which all parts of design are cut away except those that will be inked and printed.
Engraving is the process by which lines are incised on a metal plate, then inked and printed.

CH. 19:
How does the art of Brueghel differ from that of his northern contemporaries, Gruewald, Bosch, etc.?
Brueghel differs from the northern contemporaries by that he was deeply concerned with human folly, especially as it was manifested in the everyday life of his Flemish neighbors.His work seems to be more gory and is inspired by biblical parables and expressions of universal truths about human behavior.

CH. 19:
What are the principal characteristics of Hamlet, as reflected in the excerpt in Reading 19.7?
Hamlet, from other heroes of ancient times, lacks the sense of obligation to country and community. He questions the motives for meaningful action and the impulses that prevent him from action. But, at the same time, he contemplates the futility of human action.

CH. 19:
What factors contributed to the popularity of Shakespeare’s plays in his own time and place?
Shakespeare’s plays were so popular because the Bard of Stratford was already familiar with his tragedies and he knew that the contest between good and evil would contribute to this popularity.

How do each of the following illustrate the catholic reformation emphasis on the immediacy of religious experience: Loyola’s Spiritual Exercise, Teresa of Avila’s vision, and Caravaggio’s The Crucifixion of Saint Peter?
The Loyola’s Spiritual Exercise emphasized two elements, mysticism and militant religious zeal. Loyola explains that the spiritual exercise should do for the should what physical exercise does for the body.
Teresa of Avila’s vision is represented in the statue, The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. Teresa is a symbol of the intimacy with God, physical suffering evokes psychic bliss; and her union with the divine.
The Crucifixion of Saint Peter was to represent the torment Saint Peter went through. Just like the Catholic Reformation this painting appealed more to the sense rather than the intellect.

How does the stylistic term mannerism apply to El Greco’s The Agony in the Garden? Pamigianino’s Madonna of the Long Neck?
The Agony in the Garden claims mannerism features based on the pictorial intensity to more emphasis style rather than content. There was greater distortion and uses of dark to light colors.
Madonna of the Long Neck is mannerism for it’s focus and exaggeration on natural body parts, like the neck and the size of the baby. Both distorted to fit the picture. Having unlikely sized humans, both big and small, proved its mannerism feel.

How did Bernini achieve “theatrical effect” in his sculpture and architecture?
Bernini’s The Ectasy of Saint Teresa is booming with theatrical effect. The way he dramatically places his figures, the submissive look on Teresa’s face, following with the gold rods beaming down on them all contribute to this effect.
His sculpture, Fountain of the Four Rivers is another that pours theatrical effect. Dramatic figures, the way the water flows down and it’s marble material are contributions to this effect, too.

What is trompe l’oeil? Show how it works in an illustration of the interior of an Italian baroque church.
Trompe L’oeil is a kind of mind trick that artists use to fool our eyes. In Andrea Pozzo’s Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius he made the ceiling above the clerestory appear to open up, so that the viewer gazes “through” the roof into the heavens that receive the levitating body of the saint.

When, where, and why did opera emerge as a form of artistic expression?
Opera emerged as a form of artistic expression because they were trying to revive the music-drama of ancient Greek theater. They didn’t really know what Greek music sounded like so they sought to imitate the ancient unity of music and poetry.

What luxury items were used to embellish the palace at Versailles?
Embellishes include crafted silver, clocks, lace, brocades, porcelain, and fine glass that was used to decorate the palace at Versailles.

Which royal academies did Louis XIV create? Why were they founded?
He founded the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, the Academy of Dance, the Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Music, and The Academy of Architecture. He created these academies as a symptom of royal efforts to fix standards and to elevate his fame.

Claude Perrault’s design for the Louvre was chosen over what competitor’s?
His design for Louvre was chosen over French architect Louis Le Vau.

Who were the major artistic figures in the creation of the baroque aristocratic style?
Hyacinthe Rigaud, Diego Velazquez, Peter Paul Rubens, and Anthony van Dyck

What are the main features of the aristocratic portrait? Which figures in your text best illustrate this genre?
These artists investigated the personalities of their sitter and more concerned with the outward appearance. This is obvious in the Portrait of Louis XIV by Riguad, Las Meninas by Velazquez, and Rape of the daughters of Leucippus by Rubens assisted by van Dyck.

Who were the Moguls? What kind of art patronage did they provide?
The Monguls were the rulers that the Chinese rebels drove out. They stopped the Chinese tradition of the examination system.

What kinds of literature were available in China to those who could read?
Literature that was still available in China is historical works, almanacs, guides to letter writing, short stories, collections of proverbs and maxims, chronicles, ballads, romances, and novels.

Where, when, and how did formal ballet and choreography originate?
It originated in France in the 1700s by Raoul Auget Feuillet. He established a system of abstract symbols for recording specific dance steps and movements, thus facilitating the art of choreography.

Summarize the action of Moliere’s Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (Reading 21.2).
The plot involves a wealthy tradesman who hires a variety of tutors to school him in the trappings of upper-class respectability. Later in the play he refuses his daughters choice of a partner. Her partner pretends to be someone else in order to gain the blessing he needs.

What were the main features of the aristocratic style in Tokugawa Japan?
The main features of the aristocratic style was the warrior elite (the samurai) recruited in battle.

How, where and why was the King James Version of the Bible produced?
How – a committee of scholars produced the KJV bible.
Where – England
Why – King James ordered it to be done so everyone would have a bible in their home.

What is the theme of Milton’s Paradis Lost? Who are the Central characters?
The theme was to illustrate the comparision of Heaven, Hell, and Paradise to knowledge, sin, and free will. The central Characters are Adam, Eve, God, and Satan.

What models did Christopher Wren draw upon when he designed Saint Paul’s in London?
He drew from Classical, Gothic, Renissance and Baroque Models when he designed St. Paul’s Cathedral.

What is an oratorio? How does it differ fro an opera? How is Handel’s Messiah typical of “the Baroque sensibility?”
An Oratorio is a musical compostion of a sacred text performed with a solosits, chorus, and orchestra. It is different because it was done without scenary, costumes, or dramatic action.

What is the difference between ethching and engraving?
Etching-a metal plate is coated with resin and then images are scratched through the coating with a burin, or graver. (physical)
Engraving – the process by which lines are incised on a metal plate that is inked and run through a printing press. (technological)

For what instruments did J.S. Bach write most of his religious music?
Bach wrote most of his religious music for the Organ.

Briefly explain the contributions of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo.
Copernicus – came up with the theory that all plaets revolved around the sun.
Kepler – confirmed the Heliocentric model with proof and showed how planets had eliciptical paths which ushered in the theory of universal motion.
Galileo – made many contributions including how he prefected the telescope which he then confirmed the Heliocentric Theory and He came up with the Law of Gravity.

Say in your own words how Issac Newton synthesized the scientific work of his predecessors.
Issace Newton synthesized the work of his predecessors by writing and publishing “principia” which later became the basis of modern physics.

Name and identify the “four idols” from Bacon’s Novum Organum. How does the notion of an “idol” serve Bacon’s main purpose in writing theis treatise?
The four idols from Bacon’s Novum Organum included, idols of tribe (mankind), idols of cave (the individual man), idols of marketplace (gossip), idols of knowledge (false knowledge by institution or philospies). The concept of an idol reveals itself by comparting to how we worship these things in the present.

According to Locke, the human mind at birth is a tabula rasa. What did he mean by that?
John Locke is saying that all man is born with a “blank slate.” This means athat we are not born good or bad automatically, but neutral.

What is genre painting? How did Dutch painting reflect the influence of “the new science”?
Genre painting has to do with scenic views of everyday life. Duthch painting reflected “the new science” by its attention to physical detail and fascination with light and dark, much like the scientists of that time.

What is a sonata, a fugue, and a concerto? For what instruments were such pieces written?
Sonata – piece written for a few instruments. It has only 3 movements, fast/slow/fast.
Fugue – a polyphonic compostion for whicha single musical theme is reinstated in phrases.
Concerto – a compostion with 2 groups of instruments (one big, one small) and playing in a dialogue.

CH.24:How does Hobbes define human nature?
Hobbes defines human nature by being selfish, greedy, and warlike.

Why, according to Locke, are men willing to give up their freedom?
Locke said that men are willing to give up their freedom for their rulers protection

Which of Locke’s ideas influenced Montesquieu and Jefferson?
Locke’s ideas on treaties and theories about the ways nature appeared to govern social behavior influenced Montesquieu.
His ideas on ideology of revolt as well as his view that governments derive their just powers from consent of the governed also influenced Jefferson.

What does Diderot wish to achieve in his multi-volume Encyclopedie?
Diderot wanted to dispel human ignorance and transform society by giving them the written knowledge.

Adam Smith says that the division of labor comes from an inborn human tendency. What is that natural tendency according to Smith?
The natural tendency that smith is talking about is the propensity to tack, barter, and exchange one thing for another.

Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication of the Rights of Women has been called “feminism’s founding document.” Why? What were the major aims of this treatise?
In her Vindication of the Rights of Woman she went after the sterotype of woman and said that these theories were misguided. She said that women embraced their roles to “please me” and called for a revolution.

What, according to Condorcet, are the three main causes of the difference between human beings? Did he believe these could be remedied?
The three main causes are inequality in wealth, inequality in status between the man whose means of subsistence are hereditary and the man whose means are dependent on the length of his life, or, rather, on that part of his life in which he is capable of work; and, finally, inequality in education. Yes he believed that these could be remedied. He pushed for equality.

What are the most important literary achievements of Joseph Addison, Daniel Defoe, and Alexander Pope?
Joseph Addison – Published 2 London periodicals, Tatler and Spectator.
Daniel Defoe – Robinson Crusoe, an autobiography
Alexander Pope – The greatest English poet of the 18th century, Homer’s Iiad and Odyssey. His most famous poem was Essay on Man.

Summarize the conditions and circumstances described by Equiano in his Travels.
Equiano was born in West Africa and was kindnapped and enslaved at the age of 11. His spent the begining of his inprisonenment on a ship of slaves. Work was hard and space was limited. They were piled up on the ship like sardines and was treated like dogs. The disgusting oders of urine and fecial matter filled the ships hull, sometimes falling from the slaves above as they couldn’t move from their laying down postion. He was happy to arrive but endured a hard and hated life.

What is the message of Phillis Wheatley’s poem, “On Being Brought from Africa to America”?
The message of Wheatley’s poem was that no matter what she would go through and no matter what color or race she is, she has the promise of equality of God and the Enlightenment promise of reason.

Who is the model for Dr. Pangloss in Voltaire’s Candide? What features of the character refer to this model?
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. His experiences with war, the evils of religious fanaticism, disasters of nature, and the dire effects of human greed.

Describe the character of Candide as he is depicted in the early portions of Candide.
The character of Candide approaches life with the gib optimism but then changes. He goes throughout life experiencing war, religious fanaticism, natural disasters, and effects of human greed. He ends his life settled on a farm with his friends.

What ills in British society are ridiculed by Hogarth?
He was satarizing the poverty, hypocricy of the biritsh society.

What did Rousseau mean when he wrote, “God makes all things good; man meddles in them and they become evil”?
He means that human beings may be good by nature, but they are ultimately corrupted by society and its institutions.

How would Rousseau reform education? Were aspects of your own education “Rousseauian”?
Rousseau would reform education by dividing childhood development into five stages over a 25 year span and outline the type of rearing desirable for each stage.

Name the chief causes of the American Revolution and the French Revolution?
The chief causes of the American Revolution was our burning to protect our rights to life, liberty, and property.
The chief causes of the French Revolution was class inequality and serious financial crisis brought about some 500 years of costly wars and royal extravagances

In Figures 26.1 through 26.6 point out the features that are Rococo and say why they belong to that style.
Rococo style seemed to boast elegance and a sense of purity. The same as through the Baroque time, Rococo preserves the ornate and luxuriant features but they favored elements of play an intimacy that were best realize din works of a small scale, i.e. porcelain figurines, furniture, and painting able for domestic quarters.

Describe a fête galante. Is there any such entertainment in contemporary society?
Fete Galante literally means “elegant entertainment” and is a festive diversion enjoyed by aristocrats. It is a very favored subject in Rococo art. I don’t think that this type of entertainment lives in contemporary society. Not since the 16th century has any painter indulged so deeply in the pleasures of nature or the voluptuous world of senses.

How did the paintings of Greuze and Chardin differ from those of Watteau, Boucher, and
Watteau, Boucher, and Fragonard’s paintings expressed wistful, poetic, sensual, and indulgent. Where as Greuze and Chardin’s paintings tell a story by choosing engaging narratives that were less sentimental.

What events inspired the neoclassical revival of the eighteenth century?
Some events that inspired the neoclassical revival was the resurrection of Classical ideals of clarity, simplicity, and balance,and restraint. Also the excavations of Classical ruins helped usher in the revival as well.

What events are represented in David’s Oath of the Horatii? Why did the painting become a
symbol of the French revolutionary spirit?
Events that are represented in David’s Oath of the Horatti were how military wanted control and 3 sons rose up against those people in a sword battle. 2 brothers died, but one lived that killed all 3 of his opponents. This became the French revolutionary spirit because how how it symbolized the spirit of patriotism and told a story of how to pursue their destiny as defenders of liberty.

In what ways is Ingres’ Apotheosis of Homer the quintessential statement of Neoclassical
Ingres’s Apotheosis of Homer had rought self-consious rigor to the application of Neocalsical principles of clarity and symmetry.

What are the two principal meanings of the term Classical style in music?
Classical style in music shared some of teh essential features of Neoclassical art: symmetry, order and fromal restriant. Also, classical music had to do with heritage of Greece and Rome.

What composers are associated with the refinement of the Classical style in music?
Some composers that are associated with the refinement of Classical music in style could be Johann Stamitz, Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven.

What are the main groups of instruments in the classical symphony?
The main groups of instruments in the classical symphony include woodwinds, strings, precussion, brass, and often time a piano.

Jeremy Bentham
Utilitarianism: The greatest good for the greatest number.

Adam Smith
“…it is by treaty, by barter, and by purchase, that we obtain from one another the greater part of those mutual good offices which we stand in so need of.”
The Wealth of a nation lies primarily in the albor of its people.
Laissez faire.

Benjamin Franklin
An American “renaissance man” and practical-minded Enlightenment thinker; founded the University of Penn.

Frances Bacon
The leading advocate for the empirical method and he published his Novum Organum (“New Method”) that had a plea for objectivity and clear thinking and the strongest defense of the empirical method ever written.

Jean Jacques Rousseau
The “political contract” is based on reason, an idea that became the foundation for modern international law.

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Neoclassical French painting: The Apotheosis of HOmer and La Grande Odalisque.

Spirit of the Law: Slavery is unnatural and evil.

Third of the great classical composers spanned between the classical and Romanitc styles in music.

Rene Descartes
Founder of mondern western philosophy.

french term for the middle-class, the workers.

John Locke
Tabula rasa

Denis Diderot
The Encyclopedie

Hugo Grotius
Proposed an all-embracing system of internation law based on reason, which he indentified with nature. His idea of political contract based in natural law profoundly influenced Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.

Immanuel Kant
The Categorical imperative is defined as an ethical act that, if we could, we would will our action to become the law for all mankind.
Realtiy consists of the mind and its forms of perception and understanding. “Enlightenment is man’s emergency from self-imposed immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one’s understanding without guidance from another … Sapere Aude (“have course to use your own reason”)

Jean-Batiste-Simon Chardin
“The Kitchen Maid” He painted humble still lies and genre scences. They bear a deep concern for comonplace humanity and convey an implicit message that of the ennobling dignity of work and the virtues of domesticity.

Angelica Kauffman
Neoclassical French painting: Zeuxis Selecting Models for His Painting Of Helen of Troy.

William Hogarth
Marriage a la mode: The Marriage Contract and Gin Lane.

Classical period music: The Marriage of Figaro, an opera buffa.

Marquis du Chatelet
The French intellectual woman who translated the Principia

Jonathan Swift
“I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked or boiled, and I make no doubt that it will serve in a fricassee or a rogout.”

Olaudah Equiano
“They told us we are not to be eaten but to work, and were soon to go on land where we should see many of our country people.”

Phillis Wheatly
“On being brought from Africa to America:” “Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land,/Taught my benighted soul to understand…”

Voltaire: Candide
“All the event in this best of possible worlds are admirably connected. If a single link in the great chain were omitted, the harmony of the entire universe would be destoryed.”

Jacques-Louis David
Neoclassical French painting: THe Oath of the Horatii and The Death of Socrates.

Jean-Honore Fragonard
The last of the great Rococo artists and was the undisputed master of translating the art of seduction into paint.

Jean Baptiste Greuze
“Village Bethrothal. His paintings exalted the natural virtues of ordinary people and brought to life moralizing subjects.

Thomas Jefferson
The leading American apostle of the Enlightenment and advocated the establishment of a social contract between ruler and ruled as the principal means of fulfilling natural law – the “unalienable right” to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

Antoine Watteau
A Rococo style painter that attended the Royal Academy of Painting and Scuplpture.
Fete galante.

Marie-Louise Vigee LeBrun
One of the only 4 women elected to the Royal Academy produced refined portrait paintsings for an almost exculsively female clientele.

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