How may an author’s tone have a persuasive effect in literature?
Tone may influence the reader’s attitude toward people and events.
What helps create the tone of a work of literature?
What is the most powerful advantage of using literature as a persuasive tool?
Literature can be persuasive without seeming pushy or preachy
What is generally considered the purpose of literature?
Which element of literature is most often used as a persuasive tool?
a plot that reinforces the story’s message
Which statement describes a way in which literature is often persuasive?
Readers begin to think differently about an issue after seeing it from a character’s point of view
What did Star City offer the town in exchange for not having to pay taxes for ten years? How long did the company actually keep the factory open?
Star City offered ten tax-free years in return for local jobs for unskilled workers. The company kept the factory for another few years, before they used up their ten tax-free years
What made a job at Star City particularly exhausting for the narrator’s father and the other workers?
What made the job at Star City exhausting for the narrator’s father and the other workers was that they had three different shifts of line workers. One week, they would work during the Midnight Shift, once their bodies would adjust to sleeping in the day, the next week they would work during the morning shift, which made them all confused and exhausted.
How does the author describe the sights and sounds of the Star City factory? Are these descriptive words generally negative or positive?
The author describes the sights and sounds of the factory by using intense, noisy words that give a negative feeling of what it’s like working in the factory. For example, the narrator says this “A constant hungry noise came from the plant. It was the combined clamor of the roaring furnace, of thousands and thousands of bottles clattering down the metal roller-belt, the box machine thumping-thumping and bad bottles crashing onto the reject heap, to be fed back into the furnace.”
What does the narrator’s mother try to warn her about as they wait outside the Star City factory at night?
The narrator’s mom warns him that if you don’t get a education, you won’t have good language, you won’t know how to save your money, and your life will be wasted by gambling, drinking, and partying too much. Also, she says not to fall in love too young.
What do you think is the theme or main message of the story Star City ?
I think the theme of this story is when you don’t have any education, your life will be spent by being stuck in a dead-end job, and will be wasted by gambling, drinking, and partying too much.
What words in the story Star City help create a tone that supports the story’s theme? Copy and paste some examples below.
Words in the story that help the story create a tone are hard-luck, tiredness, slump shoulders, slug bottoms, confused, exhausted, restless, shuffling, sweating, strutting, twangy accents, divorce, trouble, gambling, drank too much, stuck, and NO education.
The evidence that the author of the article provides is mostly
Persuasive nonfiction writing is typically
rational and straightforward,stating a clear position and providing reasons and evidence for it
In the article about Chinese factory workers, what is the first indication of the author’s position on cheap Chinese labor?
The article’s title because it indicates that the author believes the “cost” of cheap Chinese labor is too high.
Literature is powerful as a persuasive tool because it is subtle
What does the author want to convince American consumers to do?
to accept a small increase in the cost of electronics
The author of “11 PM at Star City” makes a persuasive point mainly through
characters and plot – by telling a story about the lives of particular people
According to the writer of “What Does Your Cell Phone Cost”, who really “pays” for our cheap electronics?
According to the writer, who really pays for our cheap electronics are the Chinese workers, men and women of all ages that work in factories to make electronics that we use every day.
What kind of picture does the author of “What Does Your Cell Phone Cost” paint of the lives of Chinese factory workers?
The author paints the picture the lives of Chinese workers as being a very stressful job, because they’re forced o work long hours, and in fact, live there inside dorms, and have to work months at a time, without a day off to see their families.
What evidence does the author of “What Does Your Cell Phone Cost” provide to support that picture?
The evidence that the author provides to support the picture of a stressful life is that in paragraph 2, the author says “Can you imagine being forced to work in a sweltering factory, standing on your feet for eleven hours or more each day, and performing the same simple task over and over for the entire length of your shift? How working for months at a time without a single day off? And what if you knew that taking a bathroom break longer than two minutes could get you fired? Once your shift is over, you don’t get to go back to your own spacious house to relax and recover. Instead, you trudge the short distance to your factory dorm room, where you and a dozen other workers fight for limited floor space to catch a few hours’ sleep.”
What does the author of “What Does Your Cell Phone Cost” think American companies should do to help improve the lives of the workers?
That author believes that the companies should start to offer classes for their workers, because it gives the workers’ motivation increase their education for higher paying jobs, and for better working conditions.
What does the author of “What Does Your Cell Phone Cost” think American consumers should be willing to do to help the situation?
The author thinks American consumers should accept the increase cost of making new electronics, because that will help the Chinese workers have a less-stressful life
What point do both the story “11 PM at Star City.”and the article “What Does Your Cell Phone Cost”make about the relationship between workers’ well-being and their employers’ policies?
Both the article and the short story make the point that the relationships between the Chinese workers and the Star City factory workers have long, stressful hours, and the employers don’t pay them much money.
What persuasive message do you think the short story “11 PM at Star City.” has in common with the article “What Does Your Cell Phone Cost”?
The persuasive message that the short story and the article have in common is that having a good education will give you opportunities to have a better job, and a better life.
How does the story “11 PM at Star City.”make its point about the effects of corporate greed?
The story makes it point about the effects of corporate greed by saying in paragraph 1 by telling us that the Star City factory company only moves to the family’s city because the Town Council gave the company ten-tax-free years, in exchange for hiring local unskilled labor.
What is the main difference between the way the article of “What Does Your Cell Phone Cost delivers its message and the way the short story “11 PM at Star City.” does?
The main difference between the way the article delivers its message and the way the short story does is that; the article delivers its message by giving us facts and details about Chinese people working in factories in general, while the short story engages readers to emphasize with a particular family, whose father works at a factory.
Persuasion in writing is an effort to
convince someone to believe or act in a certain way
What is one of the main ways that a literary author may try to persuade us?
by inspiring us to sympathize with a character
Compared to persuasion in informational writing, persuasion in literary writing is
Which of these sentences is most likely from a literary work?
Looking into the eyes of that hungry little boy changed Sharon forever.
The medium of a creative work is
the format used to express ideas
A graphic novel is a complete story in
An example of audio format is
A radio broadcast
An example of visual art is
What reason, if any, does the narrator the story “The Cask of Amontillado,” give for his crime?
The narrator says that the reason for his crime is that for the thousands of injuries and insults that he received from Fortunato.
Do you think the narrator of “The Cask of Amontillado,” is insane? Explain why or why not.
I think the narrator is insane because most normal people don’t want to kill somebody, just because they don’t want to be insulted. Typical human nature wants to save or help another human being, instead of killing him/her.
How might your sense of the narrator’s mental state in the story “The Cask of Amontillado,” change if you knew more about Fortunato and his “insult” against the narrator?
If I knew more about Fortunato and his “insult” against the narrator, my sense of the narrator’s mental state would change because I would have a better understanding of why he was so angry, and wanted revenge.
Which elements of the story “The Cask of Amontillado,” might be enhanced by visual images? Which do you think are better left to the imagination?
Some elements of the story might be enhanced by visual images are: 1. The part when they’re walking back the narrator’s palazzo, and he describes the scene as “I took from their sconces two flambeaux, and giving one to Fortunato bowed him through several suites of rooms to the archway that led into the vaults. I passed down a long and winding staircase, requesting him to be cautious as he followed. We came at length to the foot of the descent, and stood together on the damp ground of the catacombs of the Montresors. The gait of my friend was unsteady, and the bells upon his cap jingled as he strode.” 2. When they are walking through the caverns, and down to the crypt. The narrator describes “We had passed through walls of piled bones, with casks and puncheons intermingling, into the inmost recesses of the catacombs. I paused again, and this time I made bold to seize Fortunato by an arm above the elbow.” and “”Be it so,” I said, replacing the tool beneath the cloak, and again offering him my arm. He leaned upon it heavily. We continued our route in search of the Amontillado. We passed through a range of low arches, descended, passed on, and descending again, arrived at a deep crypt, in which the foulness of the air caused our flambeaux rather to glow than flame.” I think the part at the end, after he leaves him in the tomb, and the narrator describes the succession of loud and shrill screams, coming from Fortunato in the tomb, would be left to the better imagination.
How does the setting of the TV version of “The Cask of Amontillado,” differ from Poe’s written story?
The setting of the TV version differs from Poe’s written story, because the TV version takes place during World War II of the 1940s, and the narrator is confessing to his murder to the police, after the war’s over, and the murder takes place at the bottom of the general’s palace. The story seems to take place in the narrator’s palace after lring Fortunato there during carnival season in Italy, and Fortunato is a wealthy wine connoisseur.
How would you describe the mental state of Count Montresor in the TV episode of “The Cask of Amontillado,”?
I would describe the mental state of Count Montresor in the TV episode as being calm and nervous at the same time. He sort of had a smile on his face, knowing that he did something evil.
What details are you told about Fortunato that don’t appear in the original version of the story “The Cask of Amontillado,”? How does this background information change the story?
Details that didn’t appear in the story about Fortunato are: 1. He was a general in Nazi Germany during World War II. 2. He was having an affair with Montresor’s wife, and wanted to kill the narrator, so that he could marry him. 3. Fortunato took the narrator’s palace from him. This information changes the story that I understand that the narrator was angry and hated Fortunato.
In the TV version of “The Cask of Amontillado,”, what reasons does Montresor give for killing Fortunato? How do his reasons compare to those of the narrator in the original story?
In the TV version, the reason why Montresor kills Fortunato is because he thinks that Fortunato was going to kill him because he wanted to marry his wife, because of his fear, he wanted to kill Fortunato first. And in the original story, Montresor wanted to kill Fortunato for insulting him, and we don’t really know what the insults were.
What do most authors try to do when adapting a work of literature for another medium
Remain true to the spirit or message of the story, if not all of its details.
What is a good reason the creators of a film adaptation might have for changing the setting of a story?
to make the setting more contemporary to the film’s viewers
What is a medium?
the means or method used to create a work of art
Which of the following are examples of five completely different types of artistic mediums (media)?
novel, film, stage play, visual art, radio
What is literary adaptation?
changing, source material in some way, into a difference medium—from a novel to a film,
Why should we be on the lookout for logical fallacies?
Because they try to influence how you think.
The first paragraph of “Coming Soon to a Neighborhood to You” makes a number of generalizations or assumptions. Which ones do you spot?
The generalizations or assumptions of the first paragraph are: 1. It’s not as hard as you may think, and start-up costs are surprisingly low. 2. The most interesting do-it-yourself-trend in recent years may be that of keeping chickens as pets.
The author of “Coming Soon to a Neighborhood to You”maintains that creating a coop for the chickens is simple and inexpensive. What evidence does he include to support this?
The evidence that supports creating a coop for the chickens are simple and inexpensive is by stating that bedding material is cheap, the chickens can eat bugs and plants from the backyard, and the chickens themselves cost from a range of between $2 for babies to $15 for adults.
What problem does the italicized statement from “Coming Soon to a Neighborhood to You” bring up? How might it affect the argument that having chickens in the backyard is legal where you live?
The problem in the italicized statement is that you can’t have a rooster, in urban or suburban zoned areas, because they are noisy. It affects the argument because of zoning laws regulate how property can be used in the community or city, and your city may not allow it.
What information is missing from
this italicized statement from “Coming Soon to a Neighborhood to You” ? As a reader, what clarification would you need the writer to add here?
The information that is missing from the italicized statement is that it doesn’t give specific details about the daily bounty of eggs, and the number of chickens you need. As a reader, I would clarify the writer to add more specific details on how many chickens you need, and what the daily bounty of eggs are.
How does this italicized statement support the author’s claim from “Coming Soon to a Neighborhood to You” that neighbors will appreciate you having chickens? Does it make sense to you? Why or why not?
The italicized statement supports the author’s claim that urban chicken farming can do a great deal to bring neighbors together, because even though your neighbors don’t have coops, you can give them eggs laid but the chicken and they’ll appreciate it.
What kind of logical fallacy is found in the following statement?
“I’m right and you’re wrong because the teacher said so!”
appeal to authority
Why is it so important to be able to recognize the logical fallacy called “false cause”?
Finding the real cause behind events keeps you from being mislead and helps you find real solutions to problems.
What mistake in reasoning does the author of “Coming Soon to a Neighborhood Near You” make in the second paragraph? (Click the button below to re-read the article.
The author does not include important details, such as the size of the coop and what predators might cause problems.
What weakens the author’s argument in the third paragraph of “Coming Soon to a Neighborhood Near You”? (Click the button below to re-read the article.)
The author does not explain what vague phrases like “some other equipment” mean, lessening credibility.
What type of logical fallacy uses endorsements by famous people to make an argument?
appeal to authority
What does Stanley Milgram’s experiment on obedience teach us?
It can be dangerous to always trust the arguments or orders of authority figures.
The author has spent many paragraphs talking about sheep and other animals. What point does she make in this paragraph—about how humans are viewed differently from other animals?
Gilman points out in this paragraph that humans are viewed differently from other animals by stating that when people think of a sheep’s purpose and usefulness, they usually do not divide them into genders. She believes that human society fails because it separates males and females, giving them different talents, abilities, responsibilities, and roles.
In this section of “As To Humanness”, Gilman begins explaining how human beings tend to think about “human-ness.” What is the purpose of this section of her essay?
Gilman’s purpose of this section is to convince us that we humans are similar to sheep using the fallacy association; by trying to persuade us that we’re all on the bandwagon, following one another, imitating the same behavior and dispositions of sheep, and we haven’t changed over the ages.
In the next few paragraphs, Gilman describes in “As To Humanness” the kind of claim she plans to make. In your own words, explain the kind of claim Gilman says she’ll make.
Gilman uses an emotional wallop in her claim that in human society, females are accessories and of lower in rank than males by stating the names of female animals have endings added to the end of the names of male animals that gives the impression that woman are of lesser rank.
Gilman’s claim in “As To Humanness” appears in the last sentence of this paragraph, along with a definition of the phrase” androcentric culture.” What does Gilman plan to argue in the rest of her essay? (Write her claim in your own words.)
Gilman plans to argue the rest of her essay using circular reasoning by stating that men have monopolized and dominated all human activities men. Then she tries to persuade us by using sex appeal, stating that men have managed this, because of their dispositions, and behavior towards women.
Have you found Gilman’s in “As To Humanness” argument persuasive so far? Why or why not?
Gilman’s argument isn’t very persuasive to me because she’s bias for the following reasons:
1. Her images of males are based on experiences with her abusive, violent, dominating father, who left their family leaving them behind.
2. Her images of her mother of being uneducated and dependent on her father, and also weakened by his aggressive behaviors.
3. Gilman doesn’t want herself to be uneducated and dependent on man, like her mother and feels depression her whole life trying to escape this fate.
For these reasons, it seems that she has more anger than actual logic for her reasoning. Also, she generalizes women as dull, lonely, uneducated, weak, passive, by not telling us who these women are, and where they are from, and assumes all women feel the same. She also generalizes all men as violent, aggressive, and dominating, and doesn’t give us any background on who the men are.
the idea that “everyone is doing it” so you should be too
broad, vague statements with key words such as every, always, and neverwords such as every, always, and neverGeneralities
statements that trigger people’s insecurities and concerns
Fear and Worry
numbers and terms that sound official but just confuse readers into thinking the information is important
terms that target a reader’s emotions in an effort to trigger a strong reaction
appearing authentic and honest by suggesting that the writer and the reader are just alike
Plain Ol’ Folk
promises deals, bargains, or discounts that “clever” readers will not fail to take advantage of
A Lot for a Little
subtle hints that the reader will be more attractive to others if he or she accepts the claim
makes the author’s idea seem much better by comparing it to a competitor’s–without getting specific
Which two persuasive techniques are used in this statement?
Every kid in California knows that Disneyland is the best place to take your parents for vacation.
a generality and the bandwagon technique
claims a statement is true because a known “expert” says it
Appeal to Authority
ike an unending circle: This is true because . . . it is true!
a claim based on a conclusion or reason that is not actually relevant to the claim
an idea that must be true because so many people think it is
Appeal to Popular Opinion
claiming that one thing always leads to another, when in fact it more often does not
rejects an argument by attacking a person’s character, rather than the person’s argument
insisting something is true because it is like something else or associated with something else
suggests that there are only two possible solutions to a problem when, in fact, there are quite a few options
an extra reason to argue for one position or another
How do most authors try to persuade their readers to accept their position?
They appeal to a reader’s sense of logic, or reason, and sometimes to readers’ emotions.
Example of a Slippery Slope
“If people are allowed to bring their service dogs into stores, soon people will be bringing their pet monkeys, birds, and guinea pigs with them to pick up groceries” is an example of what type of fallacy?
Example of circular reasoning
“It is common knowledge that actors are conceited because they have to be in order to be actors” is an example of what kind of fallacy?
Once you have identified an author’s claim, what else do you already know?
the author’s purpose
What is the primary goal of a written argument?
to persuade readers to do or think something.
When your favorite celebrity does a commercial encouraging you to buy her new cologne, this is an example of what type of persuasion technique?
Which of the following terms would most likely included in the generalities persuasion technique?
Reflective essays are written in which point of view?
first person-Since the essay is based on your personal reflections on a subject
What kind of topic would provide the best subject for a reflective essay?
a strong emotional situation, which could lead to some soul-searching and self-realizations.
Which best describes a reflective essay?
narrative with author’s contemplation
What is a reflective essay?
an essay that examines the meaning and relevance of an event or topic
Which of the following would provide the best subject for a reflective essay
when my big brother left to become a soldier
Which of the following literary devices would be most useful in a reflective essay? foreshadowing, allegory, hyperbole or flashback
Which of the following is a feature of a reflective essay?
1. a fictionalized situation based on some facts
2. random thoughts loosely connected
3. a personal connection with the subject
4. a nice story with little impact or insight
a nice story with little impact or insigh
a look at a notable experience or event
describes a reflective essay
What is a goal of the introduction in a reflective essay?
to engage the reader
What are the parts of a typical reflective essay?
the introduction, the body, and the conclusion
All manuscripts you write should be revised.
What is another way to say “revision”?
When is the best time to start revising a piece of writing?
Begin revising after not reading your draft for a day or two.
What is a good synonym for precise writing?
writing in great detail
Standard Written English, like other variants of English, has the following components:
precise word choice, unusual word orders, phonetic spelling
What is a reason to use Standard Written English?
to communicate with the largest number of English users
What is a situation that would call for Standard Written English?
filling out a college application.
When would it be preferable to use nonstandard written English?
adding dialogue to a short story you’re writing
Which of the following reflects the features of Standard Written English?
Snow, freezing rain, and patchy fog are possible in the morning.
Which of the following reflects the features of Standard Written English?
The doctor says grandpa’s wheezing is a sign of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
How can the following sentence be revised into Standard Written English?
Joel and I aren’t never the best spellers in the class.
Joel and I are never the best spellers in the class.
Which of the following is an example of nonstandard English?
This here bouquet is the one the bride will carry.
writing an application essay for a job would most likely require standard written English.
Subject and verb must agree in standard written English?
He said, “Put it up on the top shelf.”- is correctly written in standard English.
I hope we will be able to patch things up- is correctly written in standard English?
How would you rewrite the following sentence to make it correct?
I didn’t think none of you wanted to go along.
I thought none of you wanted to go along.
In which situation would it be fine to use nonstandard written English?
quoting character dialogue in a literary analysis for class
Standard written English includes which of the following?
word order that conforms to accepted grammar rules
Standard written English DOES NOT include which of the following?
business jargon and slang, editing marks used by publishers to correct text, foreign language words adapted to English spelling
an expression whose meaning isn’t immediately obvious
Example of Idoms
“Dude” and “Sir”
In which context would you make the MOST informal speech?
convincing your friends to go to a party
Which of the following is an example of adapting language to suit the context?
saying “must” instead of “gotta”
Which statement would be most appropriate when thanking a friend for a gag birthday gift?
When might a speaker choose to use slang or contractions in a formal situation?
in an emergency
He dissed me.
Example of informal slang
In which situation would you make the MOST formal speech?
You are class valedictorian and you are speaking at graduation
Which statement would be most appropriate when thanking the Band Parents Group for a large college scholarship?
Thank you very much for this honor.
Why might a speaker choose NOT to use contractions in a formal speech?
Contractions are informal.
multi-word phrases that are “contracted,” or shortened, into a single word,
“watcha” and “wanna”
Example of contractions