(Engineering & Maintenance Department)
ORGNIZATION PIA ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1. INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc17889919 h 31.1. PIAS FLEET PAGEREF _Toc17889920 h 31.2. Boeing 777 PAGEREF _Toc17889921 h 31.3. Airbus A320 PAGEREF _Toc17889922 h 31.4. ATR PAGEREF _Toc17889923 h 32. DEPARTMENTS PAGEREF _Toc17889924 h 42.1. Line Maintenance PAGEREF _Toc17889925 h 42.1.1 Electrical Shop PAGEREF _Toc17889926 h 42.
1.1.1 Black Box PAGEREF _Toc17889927 h 42.1.2 Battery Shop PAGEREF _Toc17889928 h 52.1.3 Instrument Shop PAGEREF _Toc17889929 h 188.8.131.52 Autopilot PAGEREF _Toc17889930 h 184.108.40.206 Instrument landing system PAGEREF _Toc17889931 h 220.127.116.11 Inertial Navigation system PAGEREF _Toc17889932 h 18.104.22.168 Inertial Reference system PAGEREF _Toc17889933 h 62.1.4. Radio shop PAGEREF _Toc17889934 h 22.214.171.124 HF Communication PAGEREF _Toc17889935 h 126.96.36.199 VHF Communication PAGEREF _Toc17889936 h 188.8.131.52 Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) PAGEREF _Toc17889937 h 184.108.40.206 Weather Radar PAGEREF _Toc17889938 h 220.127.116.11 Air Traffic Control (ATC) PAGEREF _Toc17889939 h 72.2 Base Maintenance PAGEREF _Toc17889940 h 72.2.1 Primary flight control PAGEREF _Toc17889941 h 72.
2.1.1 The ailerons control PAGEREF _Toc17889942 h 18.104.22.168 The elevator control PAGEREF _Toc17889943 h 22.214.171.124 The rudder control PAGEREF _Toc17889944 h 83. CONCEPT OF IOBM AND COURSES PAGEREF _Toc17889945 h 94. Did you learn any new theories/concepts? PAGEREF _Toc17889946 h 105. RECOMMENDATION PAGEREF _Toc17889947 h 10
1. INTRODUCTIONPakistan was founded in 1947 it includes two territories on either side of the region of India. It was in this unusual situation that Pakistan International was formed. Despite wars and economic trouble, the carrier survived to grow and succeed.
Today it maintains a sizeable international route network, in addition to its services closer to home, with a modern and expanding fleet.
PIA Engineering is an established Aircraft Maintenance and Repair organization that provides world class solutions to the aviation industry. PIA’s Engineering Base, head quartered at Jinnah International Airport, Karachi, is acclaimed as one of Asia’s best.
PIAs main hub is Karachis Jinnah International Airport while its secondary hubs are Allama Iqbal International airport (Lahore) and New Islamabad International Airport. PIA gives its services in 44 destinations i.e. 18 domestic destinations and 25 international destinations across Asia, Europe and Middle East and North America. It operates 100 flights daily. As reported in 2018 it employed 13000 plus employees.1.1. PIAS FLEETPIA owns flying machines, extending from the worlds favored Boeing 777 plane to the super calm Airbus A-320
1.2. Boeing 777Boeing 777 family involves long run, wide body and twin motor planes. PIA is the main carrier in the planet to work all the three variations of 777. Currently PIA is serving goals in USA, Canada, UK and Europe through its bowing 777.1.3. Airbus A320It is the worlds most preferred limited body flying planes, it upgrades its comfort for travelers and simultaneously appreciates the notoriety of being an ecofriendly flying machine. A320 generally serves PIAs residential and local courses.
1.4. ATRThis advanced innovation turbo prop is the most recent kind of air ship drafted in PIA. It is designed in 2 class seating course of action. This flying machine has empowered PIA to give its esteemed clients the most helpful approach to travel to distant remote goals of the nation.
2. DEPARTMENTSEngineering department of PIA based in Karachi is generally divided into three main divisions namely:
1. Line Maintenance
2. Base Maintenance
2.1. Line Maintenance2.1.1 Electrical Shop 126.96.36.199 Black Box
A cockpit voice recorder (CVR) and flight data recorder, often referred to as a “black box, is a flight recorder used to record the audio environment and during flight data in the flight deck of an aircraft for the purpose of investigation of accidents and incidents. This is typically achieved by recording the signals of the microphones and earphones of the pilots headsets and of an area microphone in the roof of the cockpit.
An aircraft is required to carry a Black Box and Black Box is required to record such communications with air traffic control unless this is recorded elsewhere. As of 2005 it was required that the recording duration is a minimum of thirty minutes, but now it has long recommended that it should be at least two hours.
A standard Black Box is capable of recording 4 channels of audio data for a period of 2 hours. The original requirement was for a Black Box to record for 30 minutes, but this has been found to be insufficient in many cases, significant parts of the audio data needed for a subsequent investigation having occurred more than 30 minutes before the end of the recording.
The earliest Black Box used analog wire recording, later replaced by analog magnetic tape. Some of the tape units used two reels, with the tape automatically reversing at each end.
2.1.2 Battery Shop A container consisting of one or more cells, in which chemical energy is converted into electricity and used as a source of power.
In PIA we have lead acid and alkaline battery shops. But most frequently used battery in Aircrafts is Alkaline Battery Due to its Efficiency and long life time. Following are the feature of Aircraft Battery.
20 cells make one battery.
Each cell is of 1.2v and is connected in series.
In aircraft battery is charge by constant voltage.
In shops its charge by constant current.
Sensors are attached near battery to note down its temperature.
Battery is placed at tale of aircraft.
2.1.3 Instrument Shop
An autopilot is a device used to guide an aircraft without direct assistance from the pilot. Early autopilots were only able to maintain a constant heading and altitude, but modern autopilots are capable of controlling every part of the flight envelope from just after take-off to landing. Modern autopilots are normally integrated with the flight management system (FMS) and, when fitted, the autos throttle system. The autopilot systems that control pitch, yaw, and roll are just components of a greater suite of tools used to automate flight.
188.8.131.52 Instrument landing system An instrument landing system (ILS) enables aircraft to land if the pilots are unable to establish visual contact with the runway. It does this by way of transmitted radio signals.
184.108.40.206 Inertial Navigation system
INS navigates tell it where you want to go and it will tell you how to get there. 220.127.116.11 Inertial Reference system
IRS only supplies reference information (attitude, heading, speed, acceleration. The system cannot navigate; it can only provide present position information.
2.1.4. Radio shop 18.104.22.168 HF Communication It is used for long distant communication. It uses sky wave propagation. The power requirement of HF transceivers is (100-200) but 120 are recommended. Aircraft long range communication uses the HF band between 3 MHz and 30 MHz to talk with another aircraft.
22.214.171.124 VHF Communication
It is used for communication up to 150 miles. It is mostly used at the time of Take-off and landing. The power requirement of VHF transceivers is (18-28) but 22 watts is recommended. Aircraft short range communication uses the VHF band between 118 MHz and 136 MHz to talk with air traffic control.126.96.36.199 Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) Emergency locator transmitter is used by aircraft to point out the flight when any emergency occurs.188.8.131.52 Weather RadarA weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, estimate its type (rain, snow, hail, etc.), and forecast its future position and intensity. Modern weather radars are capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to intensity of the precipitation. Both types of data can be analyzed to determine the structure of storms and their potential to cause severe weather.
184.108.40.206 Air Traffic Control (ATC)
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to provide information and other support for pilots when able.
2.2 Base MaintenanceThe base maintenance ability has built up floor space of 35460m2 with 04 Bays (Bay I, Bay II, Bay III & ACOH). Movable hangar doors confirm protection from weather conditions. Growth foam firefighting system is in place to combat the fire danger. Services like compressed air, 115 VAC / 400 Hz electrical power, central vacuum cleaning, fuel tank purging, service lifts and above cranes are existing for heavyweight maintenance.2.2.1 Primary flight controlRotation around the front-to-back axis is called roll.
Rotation around the side-to-side axis is called pitch.
Rotation around the vertical axis is called yaw.220.127.116.11 The ailerons control
On the outer rear edge of each wing, the two ailerons move in opposite directions, up and down, decreasing lift on one wing while increasing it on the other. This causes the airplane to roll to the left or right. To turn the airplane, the pilot uses the ailerons to tilt the wings in the desired direction.
18.104.22.168 The elevator control On the horizontal tail surface, the elevator tilts up or down, decreasing or increasing lift on the tail. This tilts the nose of the airplane up and down.
22.214.171.124 The rudder controlOn the vertical tail fin, the rudder swivels from side to side, pushing the tail in a left or right direction. A pilot usually uses the rudder along with the ailerons to turn the airplane.
3. CONCEPT OF IOBM AND COURSESThe main reason with which I took internship at PIA was to observe the real-time analytic measures as they are being implemented and the complete flow of work in engineering.
which deals with the Electrical motors, Generators and transformers and it was used broadly during my internship period. As I was at line maintenance at PIA, I realized numerous fault analytic measures which are instrumental in modern day engineering approach including an Expert system which is mentioned to as MAT in 777-300.
This specific feature has encouraged me to integrate and designs a related feature for the testing of an electrical transformer. In a related method, the concept of redundant systems is also very engaging since an aircraft usually has multiple systems for one task which confirms perfect maneuverability, this particular feature of Aircraft can also be applied in other fields for a greater throughout and application.
which deal with the communication process techniques through HF and VHF and it was used during my internship period that how to communicate with aircraft to aircraft during flying.
Also the factory arrangement as well as the workshop practices which I experienced was really valuable if in future I wish to follow career in a plant or any manufacturing unit.
4. Did you learn any new theories/concepts?I worked as an internee Engineer (Electrical) in Avionics Department, Base Maintenance Section, Line Maintenance division at PIA Karachi.The new system that I have learned the automatic ATCAS system, that abbreviated as (Air Traffic Collision avoiding system) that is used to identify the position of another aircraft to avoid any collision in the air during fly, the collision can be any type e.g. front & back, side by side, and up & down, that covers all automatically by detecting. That was totally based on communication system. The environment was completely for learning as they had no any new projects.
They should have to give field related project or research work to student so they can get more knowledge according to their field.
They have multiple departments but less staff so they should have to hire staff.
They should have to interview the student for job after the completion of internship period or they should have to start management trainee program again.
There should be better service standards and that should focus on quality.
They should have to increase their internship period from 4 weeks to 6 weeks for the student. So, the student can explore and learn more from it.