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IntroductionResearchersattheKavliInstituteforSystemsNeurosciencehavediscovereda Paper

Words: 138, Paragraphs: 69, Pages: 1

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Stem Cells

Introduction:%Researchers%at%the%Kavli%Institute%for%Systems%Neuroscience%have%discovered%a% network%of%brain%cells%that%give%insight%into%the%way%that%the%brain%processes%space%and%time.%The% brain’s%positioning%system%includes%the%hippocampus%and%the%entorhinal%cortex.%It%is%understood% that%the%hippocampus%is%essential%for%storing%and%retrieving%explicit%memories,%and%now%specific% cells%involved%in%that%area%are%being%examined.%The%hippocampalVentorhinal%space%circuit%consists% of%place%cells%and%grid%cells.%Each%place%cell%has%a%unique%firing%pattern%and%this%idea%is%the%basis% for%the%proposal%that%the%hippocampus%is%the%cognitive%map%of%the%brain.%The%entorhinal%cortex% mediates%cortical%input%and%is%where%grid%cells%were%located.%Grid%cells%fire%at%various%locations%in% with%a%spatially%modulated%firing%pattern.%Other%cell%types%may%be%involved%in%this%network%as% well,%including%head%direction%cells%(which%fire%if%when%facing%a%certain%direction)%and%border%cells% (which%fire%when%the%organism%is%at%the%border%of%an%environment),%resulting%in%a%global% representation%of%changing%position.%This%entire%system%is%rather%challenging%to%study%in%humans,% therefore,%a%rat%model%has%been%used%to%study%this%topic,%given%the%similarities%in%brain% architecture.%%

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Experimental%Approaches:%In%order%to%examine%these%cells,%rats%were%implanted%with% microelectrodes%connected%to%the%entorhinal%cortex%of%the%rat,%where%the%grid%cells%are%located,% which%has%the%ability%to%pick%up%signals%from%individual%cells.%The%grid%cell%activity%was%recorded%on% a%computer,%and%a%pattern%of%the%dots%appeared,%indicating%the%neural%activity.%The%dots%were% displayed%in%hexagonal%pattern,%spanning%the%entire%box%the%animal%was%walking%in.%Thus,%the%grid% cells%map%the%rat’s%spatial%environment%by%organizing%it%into%a%pattern%of%electrical%impulses%from% the%neurons.%Going%down%in%the%entorhinal%cortex,%the%cells%had%longer%wavelengths,%indicating% that%grid%cells%have%multiple%scales%increasing%dorsal%to%ventral%in%a%modular%manner.%The%grid%cell% map%is%rigid%and%preserves%its%properties%from%one%environment%to%another.%%

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Conversely,%place%cells%have%unique%firing%patterns%that%can%help%us%distinguish%between% environments.%Place%cells%were%recorded%while%rats%explored%11%distinct%environments,%10%of% which%were%new%to%them.%The%recording%in%each%environment%were%uncorrelated%between%each% of%the%rooms,%except%when%the%environment%was%presented%twice.%These%data%suggest%that%the% hippocampal%place%cells%are%able%to%form%independent%representations%of%memories.%

%

In%terms%of%time,%it%was%found%that%there%are%constantly%changing%signals%present%in%the%lateral% entorhinal%cortex,%and%no%apparent%pattern%for%keeping%time.%Rather,%the%brain’s%neural%clock%is% organized%into%a%sequence%of%events%and%memories.%In%preliminary%rat%studies,%it%was%revealed% that%during%repetitive%tasks,%the%time%signal%became%more%predictable%and%precise,%showing%that%

??

by%changing%the%activity%engaged%in,%the%perception%of%time%changes.%More%scientifically,%the%time% signal%in%the%lateral%entorhinal%cortex%is%altered%based%on%the%experience.%%

% Major%Findings/Conclusions:%The%novel%finding%is%the%cellular%basis%of%the%positioning%system%that% is%contained%in%our%brain.%The%first%component%of%this%system%is%the%place%cells,%which%essentially% acts%as%our%“inner%GPS”%which%maps%the%surrounding%environment.%%The%memory%of%an% environment%is%a%representation%of%a%specific%combination%of%place%cell%activities%located%in%the% hippocampus.%%

%

These%findings%are%extremely%significant%in%modern%neuroscience%as%it%gives%us%a%fundamental% understanding%of%how%specialized%cells%in%the%brain%coordinate%to%execute%higher%cognitive% functioning.%This%opens%the%path%to%understanding%complex%processing%such%as%human% perception%of%environment%and%memory.%Additionally,%the%clinical%applications%of%this%research% are%fascinating%as%the%hippocampus%and%entorhinal%cortex%are%frequently%affected%during%spatial% memory%loss%during%Alzheimer’s%disease.%Understanding%the%molecular%mechanisms%can%lead%to% novel%therapeutic%approaches%in%the%near%future.%%

% Unanswered%Questions/Future%Directions:%The%future%direction%of%this%research%lies%in%the%deeper% understanding%of%the%mechanism%of%the%hippocampalVentorhinal%map%for%navigations%as%well%as% time%in%the%context%of%the%lateral%entorhinal%cortex.%Additionally,%the%future%directions%include% understanding%the%role%of%these%cells%as%an%adaptation%to%various%objects%and%environments%to% further%understand%the%network%that%lies%in%the%brain%and%its%connection%to%memory.%%

Introduction:%Researchers%at%the%Kavli%Institute%for%Systems%Neuroscience%have%discovered%a% network%of%brain%cells%that%give%insight%into%the%way%that%the%brain%processes%space%and%time.%The% brain’s%positioning%system%includes%the%hippocampus%and%the%entorhinal%cortex.%It%is%understood% that%the%hippocampus%is%essential%for%storing%and%retrieving%explicit%memories,%and%now%specific% cells%involved%in%that%area%are%being%examined.%The%hippocampalVentorhinal%space%circuit%consists% of%place%cells%and%grid%cells.%Each%place%cell%has%a%unique%firing%pattern%and%this%idea%is%the%basis% for%the%proposal%that%the%hippocampus%is%the%cognitive%map%of%the%brain.%The%entorhinal%cortex% mediates%cortical%input%and%is%where%grid%cells%were%located.%Grid%cells%fire%at%various%locations%in% with%a%spatially%modulated%firing%pattern.%Other%cell%types%may%be%involved%in%this%network%as% well,%including%head%direction%cells%(which%fire%if%when%facing%a%certain%direction)%and%border%cells% (which%fire%when%the%organism%is%at%the%border%of%an%environment),%resulting%in%a%global% representation%of%changing%position.%This%entire%system%is%rather%challenging%to%study%in%humans,% therefore,%a%rat%model%has%been%used%to%study%this%topic,%given%the%similarities%in%brain% architecture.%%

%

Experimental%Approaches:%In%order%to%examine%these%cells,%rats%were%implanted%with% microelectrodes%connected%to%the%entorhinal%cortex%of%the%rat,%where%the%grid%cells%are%located,% which%has%the%ability%to%pick%up%signals%from%individual%cells.%The%grid%cell%activity%was%recorded%on% a%computer,%and%a%pattern%of%the%dots%appeared,%indicating%the%neural%activity.%The%dots%were% displayed%in%hexagonal%pattern,%spanning%the%entire%box%the%animal%was%walking%in.%Thus,%the%grid% cells%map%the%rat’s%spatial%environment%by%organizing%it%into%a%pattern%of%electrical%impulses%from% the%neurons.%Going%down%in%the%entorhinal%cortex,%the%cells%had%longer%wavelengths,%indicating% that%grid%cells%have%multiple%scales%increasing%dorsal%to%ventral%in%a%modular%manner.%The%grid%cell% map%is%rigid%and%preserves%its%properties%from%one%environment%to%another.%%

%

Conversely,%place%cells%have%unique%firing%patterns%that%can%help%us%distinguish%between% environments.%Place%cells%were%recorded%while%rats%explored%11%distinct%environments,%10%of% which%were%new%to%them.%The%recording%in%each%environment%were%uncorrelated%between%each% of%the%rooms,%except%when%the%environment%was%presented%twice.%These%data%suggest%that%the% hippocampal%place%cells%are%able%to%form%independent%representations%of%memories.%

%

In%terms%of%time,%it%was%found%that%there%are%constantly%changing%signals%present%in%the%lateral% entorhinal%cortex,%and%no%apparent%pattern%for%keeping%time.%Rather,%the%brain’s%neural%clock%is% organized%into%a%sequence%of%events%and%memories.%In%preliminary%rat%studies,%it%was%revealed% that%during%repetitive%tasks,%the%time%signal%became%more%predictable%and%precise,%showing%that%

??

by%changing%the%activity%engaged%in,%the%perception%of%time%changes.%More%scientifically,%the%time% signal%in%the%lateral%entorhinal%cortex%is%altered%based%on%the%experience.%%

% Major%Findings/Conclusions:%The%novel%finding%is%the%cellular%basis%of%the%positioning%system%that% is%contained%in%our%brain.%The%first%component%of%this%system%is%the%place%cells,%which%essentially% acts%as%our%“inner%GPS”%which%maps%the%surrounding%environment.%%The%memory%of%an% environment%is%a%representation%of%a%specific%combination%of%place%cell%activities%located%in%the% hippocampus.%%

%

These%findings%are%extremely%significant%in%modern%neuroscience%as%it%gives%us%a%fundamental% understanding%of%how%specialized%cells%in%the%brain%coordinate%to%execute%higher%cognitive% functioning.%This%opens%the%path%to%understanding%complex%processing%such%as%human% perception%of%environment%and%memory.%Additionally,%the%clinical%applications%of%this%research% are%fascinating%as%the%hippocampus%and%entorhinal%cortex%are%frequently%affected%during%spatial% memory%loss%during%Alzheimer’s%disease.%Understanding%the%molecular%mechanisms%can%lead%to% novel%therapeutic%approaches%in%the%near%future.%%

% Unanswered%Questions/Future%Directions:%The%future%direction%of%this%research%lies%in%the%deeper% understanding%of%the%mechanism%of%the%hippocampalVentorhinal%map%for%navigations%as%well%as% time%in%the%context%of%the%lateral%entorhinal%cortex.%Additionally,%the%future%directions%include% understanding%the%role%of%these%cells%as%an%adaptation%to%various%objects%and%environments%to% further%understand%the%network%that%lies%in%the%brain%and%its%connection%to%memory.%%

%

Associated%paper(s):%%

?????Moser,%M.,%PhD.%(n.d.).%

%

%

%

% %

%

Grid%Cells,%Place%Cells%and%Memory

%%

%%

%%

%

%%

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in%Norwegian%University%of%Science%and%Technology%(NTNU),%Trondheim,%Norway.

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Introduction:%Researchers%at%the%Kavli%Institute%for%Systems%Neuroscience%have%discovered%a% network%of%brain%cells%that%give%insight%into%the%way%that%the%brain%processes%space%and%time.%The% brain’s%positioning%system%includes%the%hippocampus%and%the%entorhinal%cortex.%It%is%understood% that%the%hippocampus%is%essential%for%storing%and%retrieving%explicit%memories,%and%now%specific% cells%involved%in%that%area%are%being%examined.%The%hippocampalVentorhinal%space%circuit%consists% of%place%cells%and%grid%cells.%Each%place%cell%has%a%unique%firing%pattern%and%this%idea%is%the%basis% for%the%proposal%that%the%hippocampus%is%the%cognitive%map%of%the%brain.%The%entorhinal%cortex% mediates%cortical%input%and%is%where%grid%cells%were%located.%Grid%cells%fire%at%various%locations%in% with%a%spatially%modulated%firing%pattern.%Other%cell%types%may%be%involved%in%this%network%as% well,%including%head%direction%cells%(which%fire%if%when%facing%a%certain%direction)%and%border%cells% (which%fire%when%the%organism%is%at%the%border%of%an%environment),%resulting%in%a%global% representation%of%changing%position.%This%entire%system%is%rather%challenging%to%study%in%humans,% therefore,%a%rat%model%has%been%used%to%study%this%topic,%given%the%similarities%in%brain% architecture.%%

%

Experimental%Approaches:%In%order%to%examine%these%cells,%rats%were%implanted%with% microelectrodes%connected%to%the%entorhinal%cortex%of%the%rat,%where%the%grid%cells%are%located,% which%has%the%ability%to%pick%up%signals%from%individual%cells.%The%grid%cell%activity%was%recorded%on% a%computer,%and%a%pattern%of%the%dots%appeared,%indicating%the%neural%activity.%The%dots%were% displayed%in%hexagonal%pattern,%spanning%the%entire%box%the%animal%was%walking%in.%Thus,%the%grid% cells%map%the%rat’s%spatial%environment%by%organizing%it%into%a%pattern%of%electrical%impulses%from% the%neurons.%Going%down%in%the%entorhinal%cortex,%the%cells%had%longer%wavelengths,%indicating% that%grid%cells%have%multiple%scales%increasing%dorsal%to%ventral%in%a%modular%manner.%The%grid%cell% map%is%rigid%and%preserves%its%properties%from%one%environment%to%another.%%

%

Conversely,%place%cells%have%unique%firing%patterns%that%can%help%us%distinguish%between% environments.%Place%cells%were%recorded%while%rats%explored%11%distinct%environments,%10%of% which%were%new%to%them.%The%recording%in%each%environment%were%uncorrelated%between%each% of%the%rooms,%except%when%the%environment%was%presented%twice.%These%data%suggest%that%the% hippocampal%place%cells%are%able%to%form%independent%representations%of%memories.%

%

In%terms%of%time,%it%was%found%that%there%are%constantly%changing%signals%present%in%the%lateral% entorhinal%cortex,%and%no%apparent%pattern%for%keeping%time.%Rather,%the%brain’s%neural%clock%is% organized%into%a%sequence%of%events%and%memories.%In%preliminary%rat%studies,%it%was%revealed% that%during%repetitive%tasks,%the%time%signal%became%more%predictable%and%precise,%showing%that%

??

by%changing%the%activity%engaged%in,%the%perception%of%time%changes.%More%scientifically,%the%time% signal%in%the%lateral%entorhinal%cortex%is%altered%based%on%the%experience.%%

% Major%Findings/Conclusions:%The%novel%finding%is%the%cellular%basis%of%the%positioning%system%that% is%contained%in%our%brain.%The%first%component%of%this%system%is%the%place%cells,%which%essentially% acts%as%our%“inner%GPS”%which%maps%the%surrounding%environment.%%The%memory%of%an% environment%is%a%representation%of%a%specific%combination%of%place%cell%activities%located%in%the% hippocampus.%%

%

These%findings%are%extremely%significant%in%modern%neuroscience%as%it%gives%us%a%fundamental% understanding%of%how%specialized%cells%in%the%brain%coordinate%to%execute%higher%cognitive% functioning.%This%opens%the%path%to%understanding%complex%processing%such%as%human% perception%of%environment%and%memory.%Additionally,%the%clinical%applications%of%this%research% are%fascinating%as%the%hippocampus%and%entorhinal%cortex%are%frequently%affected%during%spatial% memory%loss%during%Alzheimer’s%disease.%Understanding%the%molecular%mechanisms%can%lead%to% novel%therapeutic%approaches%in%the%near%future.%%

% Unanswered%Questions/Future%Directions:%The%future%direction%of%this%research%lies%in%the%deeper% understanding%of%the%mechanism%of%the%hippocampalVentorhinal%map%for%navigations%as%well%as% time%in%the%context%of%the%lateral%entorhinal%cortex.%Additionally,%the%future%directions%include% understanding%the%role%of%these%cells%as%an%adaptation%to%various%objects%and%environments%to% further%understand%the%network%that%lies%in%the%brain%and%its%connection%to%memory.%%

%

Associated%paper(s):%%

?????Moser,%M.,%PhD.%(n.d.).%

%

%

%

% %

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Grid%Cells,%Place%Cells%and%Memory

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in%Norwegian%University%of%Science%and%Technology%(NTNU),%Trondheim,%Norway.

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About the author

This sample is done by Scarlett with a major in Economics at Northwestern University. All the content of this paper reflects her knowledge and her perspective on IntroductionResearchersattheKavliInstituteforSystemsNeurosciencehavediscovereda and should not be considered as the only possible point of view or way of presenting the arguments.

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