SCCA 1013






(264591 )





Communication is aprocess to convey our message to others. Message that produces

response is referred to as “communication ”. Communicatio n can be defined as social

interaction through messages (Gerbner ,1967) and the dissemination of information, ideas,

attitudes or emotions of a person or group to another, usually through certain symbols

(Theodorson, 1969) .The word communication is derived from the Latin word, communis,

which means common. Simply communication is the the act of giving, receiving and

exchanging information, ideas and opinions so that the “message ”is completely understood

by both parties. It is an important aspect of human behaviour and symbolizes the ability to

convey opinions, feelings, information, body language, signs and ideas through words which

may be written or spoken.

The four main elements in every communication exchange are the sender ,message,

channel and receiver. The sender is aperson who has aneed or desire to convey an idea or a

concept to others where (s)he initiates the communicatio n. Meanwhile, the receiver is the

individual to whom the message is conveyed .The sender compose samessage by enco ding

the idea through selecting words, symbols, or gestures .The message is the result of the

encoding process. It takes the form of verbal, nonverbal, or written language when it is being

conveyed to the receiver .The message is then sent through the communication medium or

channel which acts as the carrier of the communication .

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The medium can be aface-to-face

conversation, video, speech, voice mail, letters, bulletins, medias, telephone call, e-mail, or

written report. The receiver then decodes the received message into an understandable

information. Noise is anything that distorts the message. A few types of noise are physical,

semantic, psychological, and physiological noise. (Fred C. Lunenburg, 2010)

Finally, feedback occurs when the receiver responds to the sender's messa ge by

retur ning the message back to the sender. Feedback allows the sender to determine whether

the message has been received and understood. The elements in the communication process

determine the quality of communication process .A problem in any one of these elements can

reduce communication effectiveness .Communication is successful only when both the

sender and the receiver perceive and understand the message in the same way. (Keyton,



Communication holds variety of fuctions.O ne of the functions of communication is to

persuade. Persuasion is the attempt to influence the way someone thinks or behaves. There

are different ways to persuade someone to do something ,to think in acertain way, to act and

to change their perception. A very common example of persuasion are advertisements.

Advertisement susually use an appeal to emotion ally attract people towards amessage .The

adverstisements emote emotions through pictures, symbols, audio and even videos to convey

a message which eventually persuades people to assume that they are supposed to be

experiencing what the advertisements convey. For example, the McDonadls advertisement

persuades people to visit their outlets and to consume their product, in this case the fried

chicken as an example. When the person in the advertisement feels happy, satisfied and

emotes that the chicken tastes delicious, they are encoding these messages in their actions and

words and are conveying it to the receivers, in this case the audience. The receiver then

receives the message that the chicken tastes deleicious even without tasting it by themselves

and proceeds to buy it in the McDonalds outlet. Hence, this scenario shows that the

advertisement managed to persuade the audience to visit and buy McDonalds product through

encoding the message in a smart communication channel which was the advertisement.

Meanwhile,t he students in adebate club are persuading the judges and the opponents in a

different way .Instead of appealing to emotion, they are trying to persuade each other with

logical arguments that use facts and evidence s.(Crano and Prislin, 2008)

Persu ation in communication is intended to shape, reinforce, or change the responses

of one anoth er.This limits persuasive activity to intentional behavior. This limitation is

important, because one can argue that all communication is by its very nature, persuasive.

What is more, many activities that are not designed as persuasive might inadvertently affect

other ’sresponses. Given these complications, our discussion of persuasive activity will only

consider communicative behaviours that are intended to affect other ’sresponses because it

focuses our attention on aspecific subset of all communication behavior. For example, an

informational message may or may not be intended to affect the responses of others, but

propaganda messages are more likely persuasive because their intent is to influence others.

(Miller, 1980)

The second function of communication is to inform. An organization uses

communication to inform important messages within their organization. The data and

information is informed within the organization so that employees can effectively complete

their job. Information ensures that an employee is aware of the rules and aware of the rules

and procedures of an organization. It also eliminates job uncertainity for workers when they

are fully informed.

Information can travel in three ways in a company. The first type is downward-

moving communication where the information moves from superiors to subordinates and

usually consists of directives or updates. Fo instance, when aCEO sen ds out an email to all

of his managers that there would be mandatory layoffs that are needed to be implemented by

the end of the month. Thi s can be considered as a sample for a downward-moving


The second type is upward-moving communication in which information moves from

subordinates to superiors and usually consists of feedback or reports. For instance, a

marketing manager want san increase in his monthly advertising budget ,hence, he will ask

the vice president of marketing for aconsideration of an increase of RM 10,000 per month .

This is an example for upward-moving communication.

The third type is horizontal-moving communication in which is information flows

from worker to worker or manager to manager (peer to peer) and consists of reports and data.

An example of this type of communication would be one co-worker telling another co-worker

about the company stock price. (Jennifer Lombardo, 2003-2019)


The importance of the functions of communication to the society varies based on the

types of fuctions. Persuation can be considered the most important skill one can develop to

convey their message to someone in cases if they wish to attract people into believing their

messages. .This is because persua tion is often more effec tive than forc ing someone to receive

and give feedback for an information .Persua tion in communication make saperson to able to

to convince the receiver in some cases the society into moving forwrd in the right direction.

For instance, Nescafe hubs have started persuading people into using paper straws to omit the

usage of plastic straws. On the other hand, the society is persuading people to opt for healty

lifestyle to live a longer life. All these persuasions happen through an effective encoded

message being conveyed through the right channel to the receiver with minimal noise to

persuade society into believing and responding to the message in the right way. This is

because without it, anyone ’s idea would not get attraction. Without persuasion ,a person

would not get the resources or support they need. Without influence, they would not be able

to communicate their unique value to the world. On the other side, with strong persuasion

skills, they can achieve unique results with nothing more than the clothes on their back.

Some people in power can become persuaders. They can be the persuader or the one

who is persuaded. In aworld full of persuaders, they can be one or they can be someone who

gets persuaded. They can direct their life or be directed. It show them how to develop the

personal power that can put them in control so they can do the persuading, whether as arole

model for their kids or as apowerful force at work. The people in power are the persuaders.

The people without power can simply act on the images and commands that are directed their


Persua tion is also the ultimate skill for creating a change. If a person can

communicate what they have to offer, they can create a great change. Power today is the

ability to communicate and the ability to persuade. If they are apersuader with no legs, they

will persuade someone to carry them. If they don ’thave money, they will persuade someone

to lend them some. With the power to persuade, they able to influence others.

Communicating what they have to offer is what life is all about. It is the most important skill

one can develop. (Nicolaj Siggelkow )

Inform ing in communication is aprocess of sending and receiving information among

people. Humans inform information among each others not only by face-to-face

communication, but also by giving information via the Internet and printed products such as

books and newspapers. Many people believe that the significance of communication is like

the importance of breathing. Indeed, infor ming is the act of spread ing the knowledge and

for ming the relationships between people.

First of all, inform in communication helps to spread knowledge and information

among people. For example, authors write books to impart knowledge and information to the

world. It will give experience to a person who read it. Moreover ,friends or co-workers

discuss their ideas with each other, and companies exchange information with their

subsidiaries and customers.

Besides, the advantage of the inform ing as the function of communication is not only

to allow people to have better access to knowledge in all fields, they also can get the idea and

info from others. Undoubtedly, the sharing knowledge and information process cannot

function without inform ing .As a result, companies cannot operate, and humanity will be

drowned in the abyss of ignorance. The idea of informing within an organization is to provide

data and information so that employees can effectively complete their job. This are the

importance of inform to the society. (James Hartley)


In conclusion, people around the world cannot live without communication. It is all

activities that we do all day which we start from we get up until we go to sleep.

Communication includes speaking, reading, writing, or gestures. It potrays what people

exactly need, want and desire. Every person really needs to communicate because it can help

people understand each other sfeeling s.How can we know if we dono tsay anything to each

other. We can share the sadness, or happiness and everything that is ke pt in our mind with

friends or family.

Last but not least, communication plays important roles in society, business,

education, and family. Communication is successful only when both the sender and the

receiver perceive and understand the message in the same way. People can use

communication to persuade and inform each others so that they able to convey the message

and make achange after getting thefeedback from receiver .Communication is anuniversal

skill people use every day in order to converse with one another and do daily task s. The

society improves and moves in the correct direction if communictions are effecyive among

each other and the messages conveyed leads to societal betterment .Hence ,communication is

indeed really important in people ’sdaily life .

5.0 References

Fred C. Lunenburg and Keyton, (2010). Communication Introduction. Retrieved From



Miller, (1980). Persuasive Communication. Retrieved from article




Jennifer Lombardo. (2003 -2019), What are the Functions of Communication? -Definition &

Examples. Retrieved from


Nicolaj Siggelkow ,(2007). Communication Importants. Retrieved from journal

James Hartley. Communication Importants. Retrieved from journal

nform+TO+SOCIETY&btnG =

Gerbner, (1967), Online learning. Retrieved from

Theodorson (1969 ),Online learning. Retrieved from

Cite this page

Intro to comm Assignment. (2019, Dec 10). Retrieved from

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