International Fora and Cyber Security

Topics: Cyber Law

Moreover, Indonesia comprises several legislations related to cybercrime and cyber security. One of the important legislations of the Indonesian government is the Electronic Information and Transaction Law of 2008 and later in 2016 it was revised (Hogeveen, 2018.). This allows the government to access and terminate online materials in terms of blocking websites that contain hate speech, immoral content, defamation, and insults. Further, this is considered the first Indonesian cyber law which was used for several criminal defamation cases.

Cybercrimes can be committed within a State where the criminal legal provisions are lacking.

The following image displays the countries with and without legislation for cybercrimes.

According to the records of UNCTAD, several African countries like Macyberlawuritania, Chad, Libya, Mali, Sierra Leon, Mongolia, Afghanistan, and Guyana do not comprise legislation for cybercrime. The Shanghai Group composing China, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan has proposed an intergovernmental Internet Code of Conduct to be drafted in 2011 to set “norms and rules for the conduct of States in cyberspace” (Bendiek, Annegret, 2012, p.

15). This request was raised in the United Nations resolution of December 2011 in the same year and 53 members have supported the initiative. UN General Assembly extensively discusses cyber security issues and also several resolutions on cybercrime and cyber security have been passed. Such resolutions are 56/121 “Combating the Criminal Misuse of Information Technology” (2002) by the Economic and Social Council and 57/239 “Creation of a Global Culture of Cybersecurity” (2003) and these are aimed at cybercrime and cyber security related issues (Bendiek, Annegret, 2012, p. 14). The United States of America has only a limited interest in global internet regulations but relies on international norms and behaviors.

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The USA further worked out an improvement of the working group to support the development of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF). IFG has involved all types of actors including, government, private, technical experts, etc. Furthermore, countries like Germany and Russia favor the idea of a universal cyber convention (Bendiek, Annegret, 2012, p. 6).


Cyber security is a shared responsibility. Therefore, a government alone cannot avoid cyber-attacks and requires the sound collaboration of the government and private sectors. It further requires sharing best practices and information among themselves and set-top priorities in a holistic approach (Leonardus, Nugraha, and Putri, 2016). Furthermore, people should have the confidence in to use of digital technologies and it is the government’s responsibility to make the country a safe place to do online transactions and go online. Cyber threats are evolving with time and the government should keep up to safeguard its people. However, business and private entities also have a responsibility to keep the customer’s data safe. However, the government rules and legislation should not become a burden on the business or private sector with unnecessary regulations.

  • Using a holistic approach

The holistic approach should comprise social, economic, development, and legal aspects. However, the holistic approach should be well maintained with government officials, the business sector, think tanks of the country, academia as well as civil societies. When these actors have identified the key issues and their priority of them, it makes it easy to maintain a holistic approach. This may support all actors to solve prioritized issues together enabling more substantive and increasing healthy coordination.

  • Raising awareness

Increasing awareness among civil society is one of the most important factors of cyber security. However, creating and enhancing awareness on cyber security issues should not be limited to civil societies and should be widespread among all government officials, private sector, military, and law enforcement sectors as well. It is suggested to create awareness among these actors by giving a basic understanding of maintaining personal data privacy. Singapore’s Cyber Security Agency (CSA) is the national agency for cyber security which is a part of the Prime Ministers’ office. CSA handles cyber security strategies, operations, and education throughout the government as well as in private industries (The Post, 2018).

Similarly, it is recommended to have a well-equipped national agency to handle cyber security strategies with direct supervision from the President or the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka. With the development of new technologies and trends, standalone regulations are not satisfactory. It is required to have a good education on cyber security to allow the public and private sectors to protect themselves. Further, the cyber security agency should track, learn and be innovative to handle forthcoming cyber threats.

  • Capacity building

It is suggested to have training programs and courses on cyber security and related issues in coordination with government agencies as well as with relevant defense agencies in the country. The National armed forces of Indonesia and some highly skilled information technology stakeholders have successfully conducted three programs naming “Preparation of cyber warfare mode”, several seminars on military cyber intelligence and cyber operations, and cyber camp/cyber weekend over three years from 2014 to 2017 to develop human resource skills to deal with cyber security (Leonardus, Nugraha and Putri, 2016).

In Sri Lanka, it is recommended to start capacity building with school children. Schools can have competitions, poster presentations, and exhibitions to create capacity building and can join with private organizations as well. Even though SLCERT and ICTA conduct several training and awareness programs, they only reach out to a specific sector (either to IT professionals, or too few interested groups). To avoid that, media can be used to reach out to all people in the country.

  • International cooperation

Regional and global organizations are essential for international corporations to tackle cyber threats. Indonesia became a member of the ASEAN Network Security Action Council and also the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Further, Indonesia has become the becoming the steering committee of Asia Pacific Computer Emergency Response and Security (APCERT) which enables bilateral cooperation with the United Kingdom, Japan, and many other countries (Leonardus, Nugraha, and Putri, 2016).

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International Fora and Cyber Security. (2022, May 12). Retrieved from

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