In our life, technology became crucial and we can not separate it from daily life activities especially when it comes to teaching and learning, we all have watched tv and we have learned much from it, even if we did not attempt to do so, it happened subconsciously, Krashen (1982) as cited in B.Enayati F.Kakarash (2016) technology and media leads to subconscious language acquisition. When it comes to teaching and learning we find that even schools are equipped with the latest equipment to facilitate the process of learning and to be up to date, many media and many styles of visual presentations are useful to the language learner Wright (1976:1). One of these styles is animated cartoons.
This chapter will deal with the different aspects concerning animated cartoons as a type of audiovisuals, and their relation to teaching and learning.
1. Authentic Materials
1.1.Definition of Authenticity
Nunan (1985:38) defines the concept of authenticity as follows: Authentic materials are usually defined as those which have been produced for purposes other than to teach language. They can be culled from many different sources: video clips, recordings of authentic interactions, extracts from television, radio and newspapers, signs, maps, and charts, photographs and pictures, timetables and schedules. These are just a few of the sources which have been tapped. Yuanyuan Z. & Lingzhu J. (1997) also defined authentic materials as follows They are real language produced for the native speakers designed without the teaching purposes
Rogers & Medley (1988) stated language sample -in reference for the term authentic- that reflect a naturalness of form, and appropriateness of cultural and situational context that would be found in the language as used by the native speakers
Morrow (1977, p. 13) as cited in Pinner (2016) real language produced by a real speaker or writer for a real audience and designed to convey a real message
1.2.Definition of Audiovisual Materials
According to Webster dictionary, audiovisual materials are defined as follows training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight examples on audiovisual materials: films, recordings, photographs, etc. Oxford dictionary also define audiovisual materials as the act of using both sound and pictures.
1.3.Types of Audiovisual materials
According to Djamarah and Zain (2010:124), there are three types of media Audio media, visual media, and Audiovisual media, the latest is divided into four subcategories they are highlighted as follows:
Quite audiovisual: media that show a sound and a silent picture. Such as sound slides.
Movement audiovisual: this media show the sound and the picture that can move. Example: Animated cartoon.
Pure audiovisual: both sound and picture are from one source. Example: film, video cassette.
Not pure audiovisual: both sound and picture come from another source. For example, the picture from LCD projector and the sound come from active speaker.
2.1.Defenition of Animated Cartoon
Baek and Layne (1988, p. 132) define animated cartoons as The process of generating a series of frames containing an object or objects so that each frame appears as an alteration of the previous frame in order to show motion, According to Ganges (1968, p.57), “animated cartoons are a moving text and pictures or simply interesting transitions between visual tableaus which can be an effective attention grabber, that lay the necessary foundation for learning”, moreover Henry and Laura (2010, p.20) refer to animated cartoons as” a rapid display of a sequence of static images that create the illusion of movement”. Brainy (2009) also argues that animated cartoons are the act of animating or giving life, the state of being animate or alive
Another definition by Pande (2008) stated that cartoon movie is an exaggerated
amusing illustration caricaturing in moving diagram way of criticizing a person or
event with some thoughts. A cartoon movie is a special form of art to present amusing
appearance with the help of colorful moving diagram exaggerated.
2.2.History of Animated Cartoons
we may think that animated cartoons are recent phenomena and that it is only restricted to the 20th century till today, in fact, it is found way back in history it has been improved for sure but if it was not for these primitive work we could not evolve to the existing works. According to (History of animation,2015) animated cartoons are divided into six eras:
2.2.1. Early ways of showing motion 30.000 B.C- 1500 AD
Archeological artifacts prove that weve been attempting to depict things in motion as long as weve been able to draw. Some notable examples from ancient times, as well as an example from the European Renaissance
2.2.2 Animation before films 1600-1877
with the rise of the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century many machines have been invented that helped in animating pictures
1603 Majic lenter: the invention of Majic lenter it is an image projector using pictures on sheets of glass it is considered to be the first example of projected animation.
1824 Thaumatrope: The thaumatrope housed a rotating mechanism with a different picture on each side. When rotated, you saw a combined picture (known as persistence of vision).
1831 The phenakitoscope: is a machine that presented spinning disks reflected in mirrors that made it seem like the pictures were moving.
1834 The zoetrope: it was a hollow drum that housed images on long interchangeable strips that spin and made the images appear to move.
1868 The flip-book: also known as the kineograph, reached a wide audience and is credited with inspiring early animators more than the machines developed in this era.
1877 Movieola/Praxinoscope: The praxinoscope expanded on the zoetrope, using multiple wheels to rotate images. It is considered to have shown the first prototypes of the animated cartoon.
2.2.3.The Silent Era 1900-1930
The early 20th century is the beginning of theatrical showings of cartoons, especially in the United States and France. Many animators form studios, with Bray Studios in New York proving the most successful of this era. Bray helped launch the careers of the cartoonists that created Mighty Mouse, Betty Boop, and Woody Woodpecker. In 1914 the first cartoon to present attractive character Gertie The Dinosaur. In 1928 it was the born of one of the greatest characters in animation history Mickey Mouse, the first cartoon with the sound printed on the film, it was founded by Walt Disney that was his first big success
2.2.4.The Golden Age of American Animation 1930-1950
During this era, the animated cartoon became a fundamental part of popular culture. These years were the peak of success to Walt Disney works like Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and Silly Symphonies, in addition to Warner Brothers, MGM, and Fleischer works such as Betty Boop, and Popeye. In this era, Walt Disney founded Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs the first hand drawing animation in 1937.
2.2.5.The American Television Era 1960-1980
In this time and due to the vast spread of television as an entertainment media for the American Family, studios have made many cartoon films based on a limited animation style. In the mid-80s, cable channels such as Disney Channel and Nickelodeon helped in the globalization of cartoons. One of the famous animated series in this era are The Flintstones(1960), Yogi Bear (1961), and Pink Panther(1964).
2.2.6.Modern American Era 1980-2014
In this era, computer-generated imagery CGI has redefined and made a revolution in the production of animated cartoons, the main critical difference is the use of 3D modeling instead of traditional. One of its remarkable works is The Simpsons (1987), Toy Story (1995) it was the first fully computer-animated feature film, Big Hero(2014) that was the first Disney animated film that is based on a Marvel comic character.
2.3.Types of Animated Cartoons
There are mainly three types of animated cartoons Traditional animation, Stop motion, and Computer animation
This method first appeared in the 20th century. Thomas and Lisa (2003) clarify that this type of animation is called cell animation due to the nature of its individual frames of drawings of animated film and photographs, which are first drawn on paper, each individual frame slightly differs from the one before it to create the illusion of motion.
This type is made by moving objects by hands and taking several pictures while the person moves them, it gives the impression of movement. There are many different types of stop-motion animation including puppet animation, clay animation, cutout animation, graphics animation, etc.
Bancroft and Keane (2006,p.87) define computer animation as a program which uses animation software to create and copy individual frames. This type of animation has a variety of techniques including 2D animation and 3D animation. This animation takes less time than previous traditional animations
4.Animated Cartoons as a Teaching Tool
According to Wright (1976) as cited in (?akir, 2006) many media and many styles of visual presentation are useful to the language learner, and taking into consideration that animated cartoons are an audiovisual material, this means that they have a good influence on the teaching process if they were used in the right place and context. (Wyk, 2011) as cited in (Putranti & Mina, 2015) state that the cartoon is beneficial not only to entertain but also to teach students in a different way, it provides an enjoyable learning atmosphere, in addition, Harmer (2007: 144) as cited in (Sulistyowati, 2011) explains that using video can be much richer than using audio. because video produces moving picture; the speaker can be seen, their gestures add more clarification to the meaning; so do the clothes they wear, their location, etc. the background information can be filled in visually.
Many studies were conducted to see the influence of animated cartoons on learning, Doring (2002) as cited in (PO?TI?, 2015) has conducted a study that focused on the e?ect of exposure to cartoons on language learning, he has concluded that the language learners exposed to cartoons can produce oral answers that are very productive and interesting. In a research conducted by Rule and Auge (2005) as cited in (ibid), the results suggested that students prefer cartoons in language learning since cartoons create an atmosphere that causes a high degree of motivation.
In another study made by Bahrani and Sim (2012) as cited in (ibid) the results have raised the attention about a very interesting point about the low-level language learners, that they can achieve a significant language proficiency improvement through exposure to cartoons, also (Haque 2015) as cited in (ibid) notes that the dialogue of cartoons is characterized by sentences that are simple and complete, repetition is used frequently. Children, therefore, learn a significant number of words from the context of cartoons that they can use in real life. Moreover, by watching cartoons, students are highly stimulated to speak the target language.
4.2.Advantages of Using Animated Cartoons In Teaching/Learning
Sarko (2008) as cited in (Abuzahra, Farrah, & Zalloum, 2016) states that exposure to authentic language would serve learners to practice language not only in the classroom but also in outside where they can utilize language input to learn more about cultures by their own in addition Nunan (1999) as cited in (ibid) adds that exposure to authentic language material has a vital role in motivating language learners to match the content and subject matters to their life.
According to (Abuzahra, Farrah, & Zalloum, 2016) animated cartoons have many advantages concerning EFL teaching and learning:
Facilitating understanding of subjects:
Chen and Dwyer (2006, p.203) as cited in (Abuzahra, Farrah, & Zalloum, 2016) state that presentations of animated cartoon in classroom facilitate understanding knowledge which has a superior effect under specific conditions. Animated cartoon has the potentiality to improve students comprehension of various subject matters or that of distinct cultural backgrounds. Educators can simply represent abstract ideas of the curriculum into visual animated pictures which mainly aims to enhance students capabilities to recognize solid concepts.