In Ghana, the agricultural sector is made up of 5 sub-sectors namely: crops other than cocoa (63% of agricultural GDP), cocoa (14%), livestock (5%), fisheries (7%), and forestry (11%). The non-cocoa crop sub-sector includes: cereals (maize, rice, sorghum and millet); roots and tubers (cassava, yams and cocoyams); industrial crops (tobacco, cotton, kola nuts, oil palm, rubber, groundnuts, copra and sugar cane); horticultural crops (pineapples, mangoes, chili peppers, ginger, lime and oranges) and other crops (plantain, banana, beans, tomatoes, etc. etc.). The fisheries sub-sector includes marine and freshwater products (tuna, shrimps, tilapia, mudfish, lobsters and herrings among others). The forestry belt includes well known tropical timber species such as Odum and Mahogany and hundreds of other well-known and lesser-known secondary species (Dapaah, 1994).
Most of Ghanas crops were introduced from America by the Portuguese or from Egypt by Africa; much later cocoa, the crop of outstanding importance, was brought by a local farmer (Tetteh Quarshie) from Fernando Po (Spanish) in 1879. From the early years of the 20th century, the export of cocoa has been the most important factor in Ghanas economy and the story of the development of this crop makes very interesting reading (Anyane, 1964). Several other crops are also grown in conjunction with cocoa in order to fulfill a dual role of meeting subsistence as well as cash needs. Nankani (2009) argued the agricultural sector plays a major role in promoting growth and poverty reduction in the Ghanaian economy at this stage of our development. It provides important raw materials for manufacturing companies and provides food the households (Dapaah, 1995).
Much past government and the current government had introduced policies in order to increase productivity in the agricultural sector. The first president of Ghana, Nkrumah, used agricultural wealth as a springboard for the country’s overall economic development.
Despite the huge contribution of the agricultural sector, it is argued to be underperforming in many developing countries, including Ghana (World Bank, 2007). The drop in commodity prices in the late 1960s made farmers have fewer incentives to produce as well as with a general deterioration of necessary infrastructure and services. They had to deal with increasingly expensive inputs, such as fertilizer, because of the overvaluation of the cedi. The first president of the fourth Republic, Rawlings in 1984 introduced the Economic Recovery Programme (ERP), the Programme aimed to identify agriculture as the economic sector that could rescue Ghana from financial ruin. Accordingly, since that time, the government has invested significant funds in the rehabilitation of agriculture.
IFPRI (2004) argued agricultural growth in Ghana has been positive overall. However, much of this growth has resulted from area expansion rather than increased yield. Due to recent changes in climate conditions as the weather is not predicted, there is a need for farmers or those engage in crop production to be more rational as to maximize crop yields to lead to increasing in profit and this where choice of crop becomes very important.