Homo sapiens are complex species that conquered the Earth by dint of their intellectual skills and ability of socialization. From years, humans are working hard to fulfil their desires and need. With a great capacity to think, reason and analyze, the psychological level of humanity is far beyond other creatures. Satisfaction means fulfilment of ones need and that is what every human being strive to achieve. They have myriad of needs which can be broadly divided into two, that is, physical and psychological. Physical needs include food, shelter and clothes that are nearly common for all but psychological needs are way more complex and different for every individual. Psychological needs include a sense of safety, achievement of goals and sexual satisfaction. Sexual satisfaction has been considered one of the key needs and the past few decades have witnessed turmoil pertaining to sexual orientation and independence. The sexual independence has been achieved today with a lot of effort and this social movement is a landmark in the history of human beings.
Going by the biological science the aim of sexual intercourse is producing offspring for the continuation of the race but presently the psychological aspect of sexual intercourse is also considered which question the sense of satisfaction from the relation. Sexual orientation is the attraction of an individual to a particular sex and a desire to be in relation to a particular individual. Sexual orientation differs from that of sex. Sexual orientation character implies what you are. A century before heterosexuality was a general concept and majority were heterosexual that is men were in relation with only females but presently sexual orientation has no boundary and people are now heterosexual, homosexual or both (parenthood, n.d.). Presently the people of this sect refer themselves as LGBTQ+ community. They are also referred to as the rainbow community that means they are diverse. LGBTQ incorporates lesbians, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and more. But the way to the right to choose was not easy. Presently LGBTQ+ community has rights and these are a cumulative result of various initiatives and social movements in the past few years. Homosexuality was considered a crime and law punished the offenders. But in the 20th century, LGBT rights gained momentum.
Timeline of LGBTQ+ Movement Henry Gerber in Chicago in 1924 established the first documented gay rights organization, The Society for Human Rights. It was one of its kind and worked to provide rights to gay. Later in 1950, The Mattachine Society was shaped by extremist Harry Hay and it is one of the principal continued gay rights bunches in the United States. They centre around social acknowledgement and furthermore support gay people. The people were lacking the right of sexual orientation and they were not allowed to choose their partner as per their will.
Homosexuals were discriminated at the workplace as well. The 34th leader of America, Dwight D. Eisenhower marked an official request on April 27, 1953, that restricted gay people from working for the government since they were viewed as a security hazard. In September 1955, Daughters of Bilitis created and it was the first lesbian rights organization. A major landmark was achieved in July 1961 when Illinois, United States decriminalized homosexuality (Out of the Past: 400 Years of lesbian and gay History in America, n.d). But still in many parts of world homosexuality was considered an offence. In 1965, Everett Klippert was arrested in Canada for being gay and was sentenced to an indefinitely long prison term as a dangerous sex offender.
The Supreme Court of Canada upheld the ruling of the lower court that mandated life imprisonment as the penalty for homosexual behaviour. Following which the Attorney General Pierre Trudeau brought C-150 bill into parliament to change the Criminal Code of Canada. It likewise decriminalized gay conduct among the grown-ups. Quebec turned into the primary area in Canada to incorporate sexual direction into the Human Rights Act in 1977 and the oppression LGBTQ+ was denied (“Timeline of LGBT rights in Canada”, n.d.). The main event in the history of gay pride began at legendary Stonewall Inn that was a gay bar at Greenwich Village, United States. On June 28th, 1969 the patrons stood against the harassment by the police department.
Gay people refused to accept the oppression and stood for themselves. This step strengthened the gay community globally. This began the battle of equality and became a landmark in gay liberation and this incidence initiated many future movements that paved the way for LGBTQ+ community rights. During 1969, police raids were done regularly, as it was unlawful to serve gay individuals liquor and for gay individuals to dance together. The customers were checked and the one without identification and the one who was dressed drag were arrested. There were strict rules. The employees of Stonewall Inn were also arrested but on 28th June 1969, the people at the bar protested against the police, which later turned chaotic. The people of the gay community united and fought against oppression.
The spark to fight initiated when Stormé DeLarverie, a woman who fought with four policemen when she was arrested and was being escorted to the wagon. She looked at bystanders and shouted, ‘Why don’t you guys do something?’ (Kelly, 2017). After an officer threw her at the back of wagon the mob countered and the violence started. With huge police power, the riot was handled and numerous individuals were confined. This news brought about another mobs and a huge number of individuals came up to battle for their rights. Doing combating among protestors and police occurred. Today likewise LGBT+ people group perceive this day as notable.
This was one when the network joined for their rights. Stormé DeLarverie is recognized as a gay social equality symbol. She is known as ‘the Rosa Parks of the gay network’ (Kelly, 2017). After one-year network individuals walked in New York City on June 28, 1970, in acknowledgement of the first anniversary of the Stonewall riots. It was named as Christopher Street Liberation Day It is viewed as the first gay motorcade ever (“LGBT Rights Milestones Fast Facts”, 2019). A comparative occasion like Stonewall occurred in Canada too. On February 6, 1981, when 300 men were captured at four gay bathhouses. Around 3000 individuals walked in dissent against it in Toronto (“Timeline of LGBT rights in Canada”, n.d.). Opportunity for sexual direction is an undeniable requirement. Segregation on the base of sexual direction isn’t right.
Effect of Social Movement
The government of Canada recognized this need. In 1996, Bill C- 33 was passed in the Federal Parliament that added sexual orientation in the Federal Human Rights Act as a protected class. Later on, various measures were also taken that made immigration easier for homosexuals (“Timeline of LGBT rights in Canada”, n.d.). Homosexuality has been linked with the mental and hormonal disorder. It was regarded as an illness. Homosexuality was regarded as a mental disorder by the American Psychiatric Association but was removed from the list on December 15, 1973 (Out of the Past: 400 Years of lesbian and gay History in America, n.d).
This rectification came after majority voting for a removal for this classification. The LGBTQ+ community was deprived of basic rights and there was no strong organization that was taking caring of legal aspects. In 1973, Lambda legal was created that offered law services for the LGBTQ+ community. In light of the huge atmosphere of bias against gay individuals, they turned into their own first customer. Lambda Legal battled and won some of the first cases of the nation in the 1970s, given legitimate concern for lesbian and gay guardians and homosexual couples. On January 14, 1975, the principal government gay rights bill was presented yet the bill was never brought for thought. In 1983, Lambda Legal won the country’s first HIV/AIDS segregation body of evidence that finished victimize HIV individuals (Lambda Legal History. (n.d.). Till now Lambda legal has fought numerous cases for the community and has restored their rights.
The concept of the rainbow was introduced in the 1970s. The rainbow include seven colour and it represents diversity similarly LGBTQ+ community is diverse and to celebrate the diversity, Gilbert Baker designed the rainbow flag that represents the gay pride in 1978. After years of struggle, there was no hearing and the community took another step to get their rights. On October 14, 1979, the people of the LGBTQ+ community did first national march on Washington. In 1996, President Clinton signed the Defence of Marriage Act that banned federal from recognising same-sex marriage but Hawaii’s judge Chang ruled that state does not have legal right to deprive the same-sex couple of right of marriage. Eventually, in June 2003, the US Supreme Court decriminalized same-sex sexual conduct. On May 17, 2004, the first legal same-sex marriage took place in Massachusetts, United States (Out of the Past: 400 Years of lesbian and gay History in America, n.d). The path to sexual liberation was long but worth it. The people today live happily with pride and rights.
Pathway to liberation was not that easy. The LGBTQ+ community faced a lot of opposition. In 1978, religious zealot Dan White assassinated Gay Activist Harvey Milk who was elected to San Francisco Board of supervisors in 1977 on November 27. Gay people were called militant by Tim LaHaye in his published article The Unhappy Gays. In 1980, Paul Cameron, previous brain research teacher at University of Nebraska, starts distributing pseudo-logical pamphlets ‘demonstrating’ that gay individuals submit increasingly sequential homicides, attack more kids, and deliberately spread maladies. Removed from the American Psychological Association in 1983 for morals infringement but he continued to produce fake anti-gay studies (“History of the Anti-Gay Movement Since 1977”, n.d.). The council for National Policy was a powerful American secretive club of far-right religious activists, begins meeting every four months at undisclosed locations.