History 9 The Modern World Review Sheet

Topics: Humanism

Brianna Khrakovsky History Midterm Notes: Room – 105Essential Questions How and why were empires between 1350 and 1600 successful at maintaining and expanding?What were the causes and consequences – intended and unintended – of European exploration in the Atlantic Ocean?To what extent was Europe’s transformation in this time period a result of internal conditions or of external factors?To what extent was the transformation of the world of the Indian Ocean in this time period a result of internal conditions or external factors?Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)Dynastic Cycle:1.

New dynasty gains power, restores peace and order, and claims to have mandate of heaven. A strong dynasty establishes peace and prosperity; it is considered to have Mandate of Heaven3. In time, dynasty declines and becomes corrupt; taxes are raised; power grows weaker. Disasters such as floods, famines, peasant revolts, and invasions occur5. Old dynasty is seen as having lost mandate of Heaven; rebellion is justified6. Dynasty is overthrown through rebellion and bloodshed; new dynasty emerges.

The mandate of heaven: any type of blessingNorthern Capital: Beijing Southern Capital: NanjingThe Great Wall of China: Was used as extra protection, was meant to keep people in AND out, also the biggest man made wall.Grand Canal: Used to make trading routes and made it very easy to get to other places Strongly believed in neo-confucianismNeo-confucianism: a movement in religious philosophy derived from Confucianism Confucianism: a system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by Confucius and developed by MenciusCivil Service exam – The civil service exam guaranteed status and wealthWas very difficult; only 2-10% of the people that took the exam actually passed it.

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Tribute System- Gifting other countries to show a difference in respectEmperors:Hong WuFirst Ming Emperor (1369-1398) He was a tyrannical leaderYong LeMoved the capital from Beijing to Nanjing to protect the capital from intruders (1404-1425)Eunuchs: The emperor’s servants; helped him with EVERYTHING.

Ming Dynasty Rise & Fall:Rise- Emperor Hong Wu led Rebellion against the mongols Fall- Many issues led to a tax raise and then silver lost it’s value, which is referred to as inflationOttoman Empire (1285-1574)Conquered constantinople in 1453 and renamed it IstanbulOttoman empire crashed because they got to big and they were able to maintain all of the landDevsirme- The process in which young christian boys were turned into slaves (aka Janissaries)Janissaries: Servants/slaves for Sultan, similar to euches in the Ming DynastyThe Ottoman empire was referred to as the “Gun empire,” this was because their main use of weaponry was guns They were also Bureaucrats for sultanBureaucrats: very involved with helping their government One of the longest standing empiresOsman was the first Ottoman rulerSuleyman: A Sultan who expanded empire, gave everything for his people and died fighting, which meant he would go to heavenSultans executed brothers and jailed sons- this made weaker leadersEconomic and expansion got too bigIncreased corruption and taxation.

Peasant revoltsMali Empire and West Africa (1235-1600)Mansa MusaRuled from 1280-1337He is the richest man of all time Became emperor in 1312Signares of Senegal – This process is when Europeans would marry African women in order to gain access to tradingAs a result, the university of Timbuktu was founded in the 11th centuryLocated in South Africa – south of the Sahara DesertAztec Empire and The Americas (1345-1521)There are many rituals and such for the birth of the child and that the Aztecs also had midwives who would help during the birth of their child. Another thing that I learned was that they would offer their infant to the temple with the help of the head priest. When they did that, both the mother and the father would be there, but the father would sit on a straw mat so that he was sitting higher. Iberian Explorers (1492-1519)

This was located in PortugalHenry The NavigatorHe was the prince of portugalA portuguese explorerMerchants went west rather than going through the Islamic world, this was to avoid taxationSome consequences that were encountered during the trip voyages were smallpox, other foreign diseases and slightly more advanced Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492Iberians enslaved people on the canary islands and made them work sugar plantationTIMELINE EVENTS:Around 1350, a group of Italian scholars pioneered a new intellectual movement called humanism. Humanism started to help the students learn in new waysIn 1415, a Portuguese prince named Henry the Navigator captured the Moroccan fortress of Ceuta causing . By 1540 the Iberians controlled all of Mexico. This meant that they had all of the power and land in their control, and they continued to expand from there.Europe 1500-1700 (Reformation, Commercial, Revolution, and Absolutism) TIMELINE EVENTS:Between 1500 and 1650 the consolidation of serfdom in Eastern Europe was accompanied by the growth of of commercial agriculture, particularly in Poland and eastern Germany.

This is important because since it was one of the earliest, major events that happened in Europe in this era, it ac6ted like the cause for the rest of the events that happened later in the future.1543, Nicolaus Copernicus published a book about the heliocentric theory. This caused a lot of problems such as disagreement in the Council of Trent and got physical (violent and burned Giordano for supporting the theory.)The use of the compass and very detailed maps helped explorers and the expansion of navigation in other parts of the world. Printing presses were able to advance the making of all books and maps. There were also advances in shipbuilding and design, and blast furnaces were able to produce cannons for ships. In 1555 the two religious groups came to an uneasy truce under the peace Augsburg, This calmed down the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants that was going on leading up to the war.In 1579, the year after Ricci arrived at Goa, an embassy arrived from.

The Great Mughal requesting that Catholic missionary come to Delhi.1609: Galileo used a telescope that convinced him of the heliocentric model. This was significant because he discovered something that went against the beliefs of the bible, immediately causing conflict in the church because he was taking a position of heredity.Thirty Year War (1618-1648):Galileo first proposed the heliocentric in 1632, and kept expanding on his ideas after that. This is important because his ideas started to convince people of the heliocentric theories, and not to believe everything that was written in the Bible.1642: Galileo passed away, and this was significant because he left his mark, being one of the only ones that went against what the bible to prove something otherwiseIn 1648, the Thirty year war came to an end because of the Peace Treaty of Westphalia this was significant because the war ended after such a long time, and the Peace Treaty changed some people’s beliefs that had been impacted during the war.

Scholasticism vs. HumanismEuropeans believed in scholasticism – logical system of beliefs based on written documents like the bibleHumanism was introduced around 1350 – RenaissanceSystem of beliefs that focus on human nature (arts, literature, etc) There was a major dispute and nobody could come to an agreement Indian Ocean Trade1498, da Gama and his men made it to Calicut, India. They didn’t have a lot to offer and they did not make a good appearance. They had small and dirty ships and no one would trade with them. The Portuguese decided they had to use violence to catch people’s attention and this soon became a pattern for Portuguese to use. They would use their cannons.In 1497 Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese explorer, entered the Indian Ocean. This was important because the Portuguese had finally found an ocean route to the fabled wealth of Asia.Shortly after 1498, the Portuguese captured a handful of small cities along the coastline of Africa and India, which they turned into trading ports and shipping depots.

They focused on ‘choke points’ in the shipping system: places like the strait of Hormuz pr the strait By the mid-1500s the Portuguese had established trading relations with Japan and were the only foreign power able to trade with them. in the mid 1600s, the Dutch kicked the Portuguese out of Japan and took their place by trading with Japan. Their trade was as successful and profitable. The trade was so important and big that the Dutch tolerated living on a tiny island in Japan.The Portuguese established small colonies like Goa in India or choke points like Malacca. These territories were very small. The Dutch took over parts of Southeast Asia, and established a sizable colony on the island of Jakarta which they renamed Batavia. In 1594 The Mughal Queen married a Mughal government official. She moved to Bengal with him, and then gave birth to her only child. In 1611 she married Jahangir, and she issued her first royal order to protect the rights of the land. This caused her power to start growing.

Empress Nur Jahan was the most powerful women in the 17th Century India. She played an unprecedented role in running the vast Mughal Empire. Historian Ruby Lal explains why the history of her leadership is important to understand today.Empress Nur Jahan married her husband, Jahangir in 1611, by doing this she became his 20th as well as his final wife.In 1617 gold and silver coins were issued with Mihr un-Nisa’s name on them. This was important because they circulated and many important diplomats and tradesmen noted her unique status. The Dutch took over large parts of Southeast Asia and establishes many colonies, such as one on the island of Jakarta which they renames Batavia.The Portuguese mainly focused on the shipping and trade of spices in the Indian Ocean world. They used violence when shippers and merchants wouldn’t pay them with money or goods.

The dutch invented a way to reduce the risks of the Portuguese model. Their invention has taken over the world and has forever reduced the way we lived. Its called a limited-liability joint-stock company, a precursor to what we call the corporation.Portuguese shipping routes traces their early explorations along the coast of Africa. Ships went along the coast of Africa, then went to the west coast of India, and then continue to Southeast Asia.1602, the Dutch formed the Dutch East India Company. There goal was to take the Spice Trade from the Portuguese. This shows how valuable and powerful the trade and the Portuguese were.The Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire is one of the three great Islamic empire. They were the greatest of all three Empress Nur Jahan:Most Powerful Women; she appeared on coins (which no women has ever accomplished); they made a lot of money off of staple crops, agriculture and cash cropsTheir main religion was Islam

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History 9 The Modern World Review Sheet. (2022, Feb 28). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/history-9-the-modern-world-review-sheet/

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