There are more than 150 species of roses living in the Northern Hemisphere. It goes from Alaska to Mexico including North Africa. ( University of Illinois: Our Rose Garden, The History of Roses). During the Roman era, roses were grown in the Middle East. At this time, roses were used for confetti for festivities, for medicinal purposes, and for a source of fragrance. In the south of Rome, Roman Nobility built large public gardens. Based on the gardening pattern of that period, the fame of roses seemed to rise and fall after the Roman Empire collapsed.
The roses were used as a metaphor for the fight to conquer England, during the 15th century. The white rose was a symbol for York, and the red rose was a symbol for Lancester. This conflict became known as the War of the Roses. ( University of Illinois: Our Rose Garden, The History of Roses.)
Today, roses are available in diverse colors and shapes. Modern roses are the product of huge breeding, including mutation and selections.
(S K Datta 1). Modern and technical agriculture is always in need for new varieties of roses. Two of the important breedings are cross breeding and mutation. Cross breeding has one main point and that point is to combine similar characteristics to make one genotype. Mutation breeding has an established method for plant improvement. (S K Datta 1). This method allows genes to transformed by trading seeds or other plant parts to chemical or physical mutagens. (S K Datta 1).
Mutation breeding has been the most successful in roses including novelties, (The quality of being new.
) (S K Datta 1). Chan (1966) brightened five roses cultivars like Peace, Queen Elizebeth, Better Times, Baccara, and Tropica with 7-8 higher degree of X-ray. ( S K Datta 2). Chan noticed mutations affecting the flower color and growth habit. ( S K Datta 2). Roses need to grow and harvest their flowers, but the roses need at least 6 hours of sun. Many common diseases in roses happen when it remains moist for long periods of time.
If the roses do not have soil that drains well the plant will do poorly. It will be best if the plant had a slightly acid side or pH of 5.5-6.5. ( University of Illinois, Springtime is Rose Time). Planting in the spring will give the plant the whole growing season to settle into the soil before facing the winter. Enhance the soil with organic matter because this will improve drainage and will make the soil more fertilized. If the plant is moved to a different spot this often means that the root system is limited and they need to be watered regularly to make sure the have settled in their spot.
We do not know the exact origin of the hibiscus. There are over 300 hibiscus found throughout the tropics. The colors that are available today are pink, yellow, orange, purple, lavender and even multi-colored. Hibiscus leaves can grow from 8-10.5 cm long. The ovoid fruit has up to 20 seeds in it. When the hibiscus is growing that is the best way to prevent the hibiscus from a disease.
This means if the hibiscus keeps growing then this will most likely prevent it from a disease. The most common diseases for the hibiscus to get is bacterial, fungal, or viral disease. (Cindy Black, Hibiscus Diseases). If most of the leaves on the hibiscus is turning from green to yellow that may mean that it needs a little more nutrients or something else is wrong with it. Hibiscus fertilizer needs certain nutrients so it can grow and this can cause poor growth and blooming. If not careful some hibiscus fertilizers may harm the hibiscus.
If the hibiscus is watered too much or too little the hibiscus will become stressed and block the growth of the plant. Most bacterial and fungal infections are caused by poor hygiene. Rotting flowers sticking to stems, soggy soil, roots with standing water, dirty pruning shears, and untreated broken branches (Cindy Black, Hibiscus Diseases), an all lead to a disease that the hibiscus can get. To prevent this from happening here are some tips: Pick up dead flowers and dispose of them, Clean pruning shears with waterless hand cleaner or alcohol, take off broken branches, use enough water to keep the soil moist, but never soggy, during dry months hose the hibiscus down gently, keep the hibiscus plant pesticide free. When the plant bends down that can be a sign that the hibiscus has a disease.
Hibiscus need a lot of potassium because potassium helps the growth, metabolism, and the growth of the hibiscus. Potassium also helps to draw water in to keep the plants cells alive, well hydrated which makes the plant more beautiful and helps prevent it from disease. Hibiscus do not need a lot of high doses of phosphorus because it will slowly damage plants over a long period of time. It is a lot better for the hibiscus to be fertilized when the ground is moist because too much nitrogen in the dry soil will cause the roots to burn and will damage the plant. Cut the hibiscus plant back during the winter season.
The less active the hibiscus is the less food they need. In the coldest two months of winter they will not need to be fertilized. When the days start to warm up fertilize every other week. As the spring begins to warm up then the hibiscus plant needs to be fertilized regularly. Hibiscus love water, and hibiscus flowers actually has moisture in it. Hibiscus need a lot of water in warm times of the year, but not a lot of water in the cold times because they do not know what to do with the water.
How much water do hibiscus need? Well, to determine the amount of water the hibiscus need is determined by how much water is needed for the soil to be wet around the roots of the hibiscus. Tap water can be an issue because it has an acidic side to it, the amount and kind of minerals in it can affect plant growth. How often should the hibiscus be watered? The hibiscus should be watered before the root dries out too much.
In hottier, drier, sunnier, windier weather conditions dry out pot and soil more quickly. Cloudy, rainy, cooler weather make the water last longer. Before the cold hits water well because the hibiscus will most likely stay standing. When the temperatures are between 70-80 degrees during the summer than water once each day, but if the temperatures are between 80-90 degrees during the summer then water twice each day. If not able to water twice each day put them under a shade cloth so they can grow.
To make sure the plant gets enough water water them twice. Hibiscus do not need a lot of direct sunlight, although they do need at least 2 hours of sunlight each day. If the hibiscus does not get enough sunlight then they will end up green, but they will not have any blooms on them. Hibiscus do better with a proper balance of sun, heat, water. Temperatures and sunlight do not work together. In other terms this means if the temperatures are high then the sunlight needs to be lowered.
If there is a lot of sunlight then the temperatures need to be lower. Hibiscus can get sunburnt because they have been in the shade to long. Too much sunlight can cause the chlorophyll to exist the leaves and turn the leaf a bright white color. New leaves grow that are used to a lot of sunlight and these leaves will not burn. Hibiscus adapt quickly to the amount of sunlight they recieve, and moving the hibiscus from shade to the sunlight will also result the leaf to burn.
Hibiscus bloom in one location, but not another location. This is due to the amount of sunlight the hibiscus received during the day. PAR (a measure of light that causes photosynthesis in plants) determines if there is enough sunlight for hibiscus to produce flowers and grow. If the hibiscus is in sunlight for most of the day there is enough PAR. If the hibiscus is in the shade most of the day then the PAR is the total amount of indirect sunlight the hibiscus received.
The lighter the tone of the shade the greater the sum of PAR. If the PAR is low then the hibiscus needs to move to where there is either enough sunlight or enough indirect sunlight. IN the summer the flowers might fall off before they open. The only thing to do about this is to make sure the plant is not stressed by lack of water or move the plant to a cooler and shadier location. In mid-summer heat the sunlight should go down and water should go up.