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GRE Literature Supplement 2 Paper

Words: 15501, Paragraphs: 199, Pages: 52

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Climate Change

Parent topic:

The Castle of Otranto
Horace Walpole, 1765 (Enlightenment) C LIST

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Mary Wollstonecraft, 1792 (Early Romantic)

The Monk
M.G. Lewis, 1796 (Early Romantic)

Gothic Novel.

Songs of Innocence
William Blake, 1789 (Enlightenment) C LIST

Songs of Experience
William Blake, 1789 (Enlightenment) C LIST

“Marriage of Heaven & Hell”
William Blake, 1793 (Early Romantic) C LIST

Visions of the Daughters of Albion
William Blake, 1793 (Early Romantic) C LIST

Oothoon (named for a character in Macpherson’s “The Poems of Ossian”) loves Theotormon (‘god/tormenter’), who represents the chaste man, filled with a false sense of righteousness. O is violently raped by Bromion (‘roarer’). Afterward, neither B nor T want anything to do with her. They are all chained by the expectations of society. If T realized that sex is not illicit, he may have had a healthy relationship with O. B is enslaved by his violent act. Blake used Plato’s Allegory of the cave as a theme for the 3 characters not being able to understand the true nature of reality, without being hindered by convention. Blake had hopes of this changing in America.

“I Traveled Among Unknown Men” (from Poems in Two Volumes)
William Wordsworth, 1807 (Early Romantic Period) A LIST!!!

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Uses his love of England as an analogy for his unrequited feelings for Lucy.

‘Tis past, that melancholy dream!
Nor will I quit thy shore
A second time; for still I seem
To love thee more and more.

“Preface to Lyrical Ballads”
William Wordsworth, 1801 (Early Romantic Period) C LIST

Can be considered a manifesto of Romanticism. It serves a declaration of intent as to what Wordsworth and Coleridge see as the direction of Romanticism as a movement. The idea of being able to construct language and meaning in a different way, one that features a “certain colouring of imagination,” helps to reconfigure how these thinkers were going to change the role of art and the artist in its creation. The Preface goes a long way in being able to provide a sense of structure to Romanticism. Demonstrates their intent to change people’s minds about how they view art and how individuals view themselves.

=”The principal object […] was to choose incidents and situations from common life.”
=”[D]escribe [those incidents] […] in a selection of language really used by men.”
=”[T]hrow over them a certain colouring of imagination, whereby ordinary things should be presented to the mind in an unusual way.”
=”[M]ake these incidents and situations interesting by tracing in them, truly though not ostentatiously, the primary laws of our nature.”

“Resolution and Independence”
William Wordsworth, 1807 (Early Romantic Period) C LIST

“Imitations of Immortality”
William Wordworth (Early Romantic Period) C LIST

There was a time when meadow, grove, and stream/The earth, and every common sight
To me did seem/ Apparelled in celestial light,/The glory and the freshness of a dream./It is not now as it hath been of yore;—/Turn wheresoe’er I may,/By night or day,/The things which I have seen I now can see no more.

The Clouds that gather round the setting sun/Do take a sober colouring from an eye/
That hath kept watch o’er man’s mortality;/
Another race hath been, and other palms are won./Thanks to the human heart by which we live,/Thanks to its tenderness, its joys, and fears,/To me the meanest flower that blows can give/Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears.

“She Dwelt Among Untrodden Ways”
William Wordsworth (Lake Poet), 1800 (Early Romantic) A LIST!

Subject: Lucy’s growth, perfection, and death. Theme parallels Gray’s “Elegy in a Country Courtyard” with the death of a lovely person, unknown to society.

Other Lucies: “Stranger Fits of Passion,” “3 Years…,” “A Slumber…,” and “I Traveled Among Unknown Men.”

“She dwelt among the untrodden ways/Beside the springs of Dove,/Maid whom there were none to praise/And very few to love:/A violet by a mosy tone/Half hidden from the eye!/—Fair as a star, when only one/Is shining in the sky./She lived unknown, and few could know/When Lucy ceased to be;/But she is in her grave, and, oh,/The difference to me!”

Strange Fits of Passion Have I Known
William Wordsworth, 1800 (Early Romantic)
A LIST! Lucy Poem

“Strange fits of passion have I known:/And I will dare to tell,/But in the lover’s ear alone,/What once to me befell./When she I loved looked every day/Fresh as a rose in June,/I to her cottage bent my way,/Beneath an evening-moon./Upon the moon I fixed my eye,/All over the wide lea;/With quickening pace my horse drew nigh/Those paths so dear to me./And now we reached the orchard-plot;/And, as we climbed the hill,/The sinking moon to Lucy’s cot/Came near, and nearer still./
In one of those sweet dreams I slept,/Kind Nature’s gentlest boon!/And all the while my eye I kept/On the descending moon./My horse moved on; hoof after hoof/He raised, and never stopped:/When down behind the cottage roof,/At once, the bright moon dropped./What fond and wayward thoughts will slide/Into a Lover’s head!/”O mercy!” to myself I cried,/”If Lucy hould be dead!””

Three Years She Grew in Sun & Shower
William Blake, 1800 (Early Romantic)
A LIST! A Lucy Poem

“Three years she grew in sun and shower,/Then Nature said, “A lovelier flower/On earth was never sown;/This Child I to myself will take,/She shall be mine, and I will make A Lady of my own.”/Myself will to my darling be/Both law and impulse, and with me The Girl in rock and plain,/In earth and heaven, in glade and bower,/Shall feel an overseeing power/To kindle or restrain./She shall be sportive as the fawn/That wild with glee across the lawn/Or up the mountain springs,/And hers shall be the breathing balm,/And hers the silence and the calm/Of mute insensate things/The floating clouds their state shall lend/To her, for her the willow bend,/Nor shall she fail to see/Even in the motions of the storm/A beauty that shall mould her form/By silent sympathy./The stars of midnight shall be dear/To her, and she shall lean her ear/In many a secret place/Where rivulets dance their wayward round,/And beauty born of murmuring sound/Shall pass into her face./And vital feelings of delight/Shall rear her form to stately height,/Her virgin bosom swell,/Such thoughts to Lucy I will give/While she and I together live/Here in this happy dell./Thus Nature spake–The work was done–/How soon my Lucy’s race was run!/She died and left to me/This heath, this calm and quiet scene,/The memory of what has been,/And never more will be.”

A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal
William Wordsworth, 1800 (Early Romantic)
A LIST! A Lucy Poem

A slumber did my spirit seal;/I had no human fears:/She seemed a thing that could not feel/The touch of earthly years./No motion has she now, no force;/She neither hears nor sees;/Rolled round in earth’s diurnal course,/With rocks, and stones, and trees.

Autobiographia Literaria
Samuel Coleridge Taylor, 1817 (Early Romantic) C LIST

An autobiography in discourse, which discusses the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling. The origin of the famous critical concept of a ‘willing suspension of disbelief.’

Dejection: An Ode
Samuel Coleridge Taylor, 1802 (Early Romantic) C LIST

Sometimes seen as one of C’s ‘Conversation Poems,’ in tripartite, rondo structure. Rhymed tetrameter/trimeter verse.

This is about the poet’s realization that the “passion and the life” that he seeks (inspiration) is not to be found outside the human mind, but within it. If one is to see anything of higher value in nature, one must supply it oneself. C talks to his friend Sara, and concludes that his creativity has left him.

Prometheus Unbound
Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1820 (Early/Mid Romantic)

Response to 18th cen. rationalism/rebuttal to Aeschelus’ Prometheus Bound (A wanted to reconcile Prom & Jupiter, or love & evil, as Percy saw it); also contribution of Romanticism’s doctrine: love conquers all.

Using more verse forms together than any major English poem, Shelley celebrates Prometheus’ change of heart by showing that his hero’s discovery of love triggers its affirmation throughout the entire universe. Asia, Prom’s wife, is raised from her cave in the Caucasus/freed to rejoin her husband by the power released through his loving heart. Even the moon & earth dance in their orbits in heavenly sympathy & self-discovery.

Jupiter is overthrown by Necessity, embodied in the Nemesis of Demogorgon, who rises in the form of Jupiter’s child to overthrow his tyrannical father. Demo’s judgment on Jupiter coincides with Prom’s declaration of universal love. Necessity isn’t the instrument of revolutionary destruction, determinism, or rational critique; it is the unfolding force of love.

“Alastor; or, the Spirit of Solitude”
Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1816 (Early Romantic) D LIST

“Earth, Ocean, Air, beloved brotherhood!/If our great Mother has imbued my soul/With aught of natural piety to feel/Your love, and recompense the boon with mine…”

Percy Bysshe Shelly, 1818 (Early Romantic) D LIST
14-line Italian Sonnet in Iambic pentameter

“I met a traveller from an antique land/Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone/Stand in the desert. Near them on the sand,/Half sunk, a shatter’d visage lies, whose frown/And wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command/Tell that its sculptor well those passions read
Which yet survive, stamp’d on these lifeless things,/The hand that mock’d them and the heart that fed./And on the pedestal these words appear:/”My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:/Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!”/Nothing beside remains: round the decay/Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare,/The lone and level sands stretch far away.”

Adonis XXXVI
Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1821 (Mid Romantic)

What is Poetry?
John Stuart Mill, 1833 (Mid Romantic) C LIST

Mill concludes that:
1) Poetry is not “matter of fact or science.”
2) Poetry’s purpose is to “act upon the emotions.”
3) The interest felt in a novel . . . and is derived from incident.
4) The interest excited by poetry comes from the representation of feeling.
5) Poetry works internally–this is the appeal of poetry.
6) Novels work externally–this is the appeal of eloquence.
7) That which is eloquent aims primarily to achieve a desired effect on other people.
8) That which is poetic is “feeling confessing itself to itself . . . in symbols.
9) Eloquence is heard; poetry is overheard.

Matthew Arnold (Mid/Late Romantic) C LIST

Others abide our question. Thou art free./We ask and ask: Thou smilest and art still,/Out-topping knowledge. For the loftiest hill,/That to the stars uncrowns his majesty,/Planting his steadfast footsteps in the sea,/Making the Heaven of Heavens his dwelling-place,/Spares but the cloudy border of his base/To the foil’d searching of mortality:/And thou, who didst the stars and sunbeams know,/Self-school’d, self-scann’d, self-honour’d, self-secure,/Didst walk on earth unguess’d at. Better so! All pains the immortal spirit must endure,/All weakness that impairs, all griefs that bow,/ Find their sole voice in that victorious brow.

“Caliban upon Setebos”
Robert Browning, 1864 (Late Romantic) D LIST

It deals with Caliban, a character from Shakespeare’s The Tempest, and his reflections on Setebos, the brutal god he believes in. Some scholars see Browning as being of the belief that God is in the eye of the beholder, and this is emphasized by a barbaric character believing in a barbaric god. Others feel that he was satirizing theologians of his time, who attempted to understand God as a reflection of themselves; this theory is supported by the epigraph, Psalm 50:21, “Thou thoughtest that I was altogether such a one as thyself.”

“The Nymph’s Reply to the Passionate Shepherd”
Sir Walter Raleigh, 1596 (Elizabethan) D LIST

“If all the world and love were young,/And truth in every shepherd’s tongue,/These pretty pleasures might me move/To live with thee and be thy love./Time drives the flocks from field to fold/When rivers rage and rocks grow cold,/And Philomel becometh dumb;/The rest complains of cares to come./The flowers do fade, and wanton fields/To wayward winter reckoning yields;
A honey tongue, a heart of gall,/Is fancy’s spring, but sorrow’s fall,/Thy gowns, thy shoes, thy beds of roses,/Thy cap, thy kirtle, and thy posies/Soon break, soon wither, soon forgotten–
In folly ripe, in reason rotten./Thy belt of straw and ivy buds,/Thy coral clasps and amber studs,/All these in me no means can move/To come to thee and be thy love./But could youth last and love still breed,/Had joys no date nor age no need,/Then these delights my mind may move/To live with thee and be thy love.”

“The Cotter’s Saturday Night”
Robert Burns (Scotland’s poet), 1786 (Early Romantic) D LIST

The verses describing the cotter’s home, and the introduction of the daughter’s young man, are in Scots, while those expounding religious and patriotic themes are in English.

“My lov’d, my honour’d, much respected friend!/No mercenary bard his homage pays;/With honest pride, I scorn each selfish end,/My dearest meed, a friend’s esteem and praise:/To you I sing, in simple Scottish lays,/The lowly train in life’s sequester’d scene,/The native feelings strong, the guileless ways,/What Aiken in a cottage would have been;/Ah! tho’ his worth unknown, far happier there I ween!”

North and South
Elizabeth Gaskell, 1854 (Late Romantic) D LIST

About the contrast between the way of life in the industrial north of England and the wealthier south. Margaret Hale=daughter of Nonconformist minister who moves to the fictional industrial town of Milton after leaving the Church of England. Lifestyle change shocks Margaret, who sympathizes w/poverty of workers; comes into conflict with John Thornton, the owner of a local mill (friend of M’s father). Margaret attempts to protect Thornton from violent strikers & he proposes to her; she rejects his proposal bc she thinks it is out of obligation for what she did. Later, he sees her with her fugitive brother, whom he mistakes for another suitor, and creating mo’ conflict. M sees him in new light once she believes she has lost his affection. They are reunited.

“Rose Aylmer”
Walter Savage Landor, 1846 (Lame Romantic) D LIST

“Ah what avails the sceptred race,/Ah what the form divine!/What every virtue, every grace!/ Rose Aylmer, all were thine./Rose Aylmer, whom these wakeful eyes/May weep, but never see,/A night of memories and of sighs/I consecrate to thee.”

Sermon on the Ploughers
Hugh Latimer (Early Tudor Period) D LIST

“Andaitx—Pomegranate Flowers”
D.H. Lawrence (Modernism)

The Childermass
Wyndam Lewis (Modernism) D LIST

Sigurd the Volsung
William Morris, 1876 (Realism) G LIST
Epic poem

The Book of Margery Kempe
Margery Kempe, 1373-1438 (Middle English) G LIST

M.Kempe sees/hears visions of Christ. Wife of well-off man, mother of 14, kid of the mayor, and devout Christian, she took vow of celibacy and married God. Her connetions kept her from being tried for heresy, and this book relates her experiences.

“An Elegy Upon the Death of the Dean of Paul’s, Dr. John Donne”
Thomas Carew

“Can we not force from widowed poetry,/Now thou art dead (great Donne) one elegy/To crown thy hearse? Why yet dare we not trust,/Though with unkneaded dough-baked prose, thy dust, Such as th’ unscissored churchman from the flower/Of fading rhetoric, short-lived as his hour, Dry as the sand that measures it, should lay/Upon thy ashes, on the funeral day?/Have we no voice, no tune? Didst thou dispense/Through all our language, both the words and sense?/Tis a sad truth…”

The Murders of the Rue Morgue
Edgar Allen Poe

Letters to the Earth
Mark Twain, 1910

Posthumously published works. The essays were written during a difficult time in Twain’s life; he was deep in debt and had lost his wife and one of his daughters.

=”The Creator sat upon the throne, thinking. Behind him stretched the illimitable continent of heaven, steeped in a glory of light and color; before him rose the black night of Space, like a wall. His mighty bulk towered rugged and mountain-like into the zenith, and His divine head blazed there like a distant sun. At His feet stood three colossal figures, diminished to extinction, almost, by contrast — archangels — their heads level with His ankle-bone.”
= “Man is a marvelous curiosity. When he is at his very, very best he is a sort of low grade nickel-plated angel; at his worst he is unspeakable, unimaginable; and first and last and all the time he is a sarcasm.”
= “He took a pride in man; man was his finest invention; man was his pet, after the housefly . . . .”
= “It is full of interest. It has noble poetry in it; and some clever fables; and some blood-drenched history; and some good morals; and a wealth of obscenity; and upwards of a thousand lies.”

Yoknapatawpha County
William Faulkner

A fictional county created by American author William Faulkner as a setting for many of his novels.

Tender Buttons
Gertrude Stein, 1914

Consists of word clusters chosen for their prosody, juxtaposed for the purpose of subverting commonplace dictionary meanings which Stein believed had largely lost their expressive force and ability to communicate. The words were re-defined using both their etymology and analysis of syllables by themselves.

Mourning Becomes Electra
Eugene O’Neill, 1931
Play: G LIST

An update of the Greek myth of Orestes (Aeschelus) to the family of a Northern general in the American Civil War.

Agamemnon=General Ezra Mannon

John Berryman, 1964 (Post Modern)
Poems: playful, witty, morbid. D LIST

Ex.) “There sat down, once, a thing on Henry’s heart/só heavy, if he had a hundred years/& more, & weeping, sleepless, in all them time/Henry could not make good. /Starts again always in Henry’s ears/the little cough somewhere, a chime.”

“The Bridge”
Hart Crane, 1930 (Mid Romantic)
Long Poem (epic/lyrical hybrid, sometimes called a modernist epic): G LIST

15 poems about Brooklyn Bridge

Leatherstocking Tales
James Fenimore Cooper, 1823-41 (Mid Romantic)
Novel series featuring Natty Bumppo, G LIST

Last of the Mohicans, The Pioneers, Deerslayer, Pathfinder, The Prairie


Literature that opposes the ideas of the Enlightenment & Modernism

Landscape of the Body
John Guare, 1977 (Post Modern)
Two-Act Play: G LIST

The plot centers around a woman named Betty, whose son, Bert, was recently murdered and decapitated in lower Manhattan. The first and last scenes take place on a boat, with Betty, who throws bottles filled with notes overboard, and an absurdly disguised Detective Holahan.

Stories of Mr. Keuner (1930), The Threepenny Novel (1934), Bertolt Brecht Journals (1973)
Bertold Brecht (Modernism) D LIST

German Marxist poet, lyricist, novelist, etc. of ‘epic theatre’

Epic of Gilgamesh
Anon, somewhere around 2500 B.C.
– In media res; many epithets, formulaic/formal dialogue, lots of repetition
– Possibly the oldest recorded story.

Gil is demigod & cruel King of Uruk. Gods create equal (Enkidu); they fight & become friends/together kill Humbaba & Bull of Heaven (sent by Ishtar b/c G won’t marry her). E dies; G seeks immortality. Utnapishtim tells of great flood where he won imm; G fails test, remains mortal, dies.

“I will proclaim to the world the deeds of _________. This was the man to whom all things were known; this was the man who knew all the countries of the world. He was wise, he saw mysteries and knew secret things…”
First line of The Epic of Gilgamesh (2500 B.C.)

Ovid, 8 A.D.
Epic: 15 books in dactylic hexameter (dactyl=1 stressed syll/2 unstressed; 6 dactyls/ line).

Source of many classical myths/inspiration for Dante, Chaucer, Shakes., Marlowe, Hughes, etc.

Starts with creation story, flood, evil serpent, Apollo/Daphne, moves on to history of Roman, Pathagoras, etc.; ends with Caesar. Wide range! Much of the work is about the Gods.

“My intention is to tell of bodies changed/To different forms; the gods, who made the changes,/Will help me — or I hope so — with a poem /That runs from the world’s beginning to our own days.”
Ovid’s intentions in Metamorphoses prologue (8 A.D.

Paris steals Helen. WAR! Achilles feuds w/Aggie over Briseis, P fights Menelaus, Ach is pouting & still refuses to fight. Gods are also against ea.other, siding with either Achaians or Trojans. Hektor kills Patroklus, Ach kills Hektor & drags body. Priam begs for H’s body. Buriel.
The Iliad. Homer, 8 B.C.
Epic: dactylic, non-rhyming hexameters.

To get home, our hero deals with lotus-eaters, the cyclopes, Poseidon (Cy’s dad), Aeolus’ wind, Circe, the Underworld, Sirens, Scylla & Charybdis, the Sun-God’s cattle, the death of his men, Calypso (where story starts), shipwreck in Phaeacia, the bow challenge, and unruly suitors.
The Odyssey, Homer, 8 c. B.C.
Epic: dactylic, non-rhyming hexameter

“Sing to me of the man, Muse, the man of twists and turns/driven time and again off course, once he had plundered/
the hallowed heights of Troy.”
Opening lines of The Odyssey
Homer, 8 c. B.C.

"I sing of arms and the man, he who, exiled by fate,/first came from the coast of Troy to Italy, and to/Lavinian shores – hurled about endlessly by land and sea,/by the will of the gods, by cruel Juno's remorseless anger,/long suffering also in war, until he founded a city/and brought his gods to Latium: from that the Latin people/came, the lords of Alba Longa, the walls of noble Rome."
Opening lines of The Aeneid, by Virgil, 1 c. (29) B.C.

Wrote The Frogs, Lysistrata, & Clouds (411 BC) D LIST

Aristophanes, 411 B.C. D LIST

Lysistrata & Grecian women plan to end war btwn Athens/ Sparta by going on a sex strike. They overtake treasury (Acropolis), deny men war $$, & defy old men/ police. Men/women insult ea.other. Men/women start missing ea.other, but Lysistrata fortells success, & women stand strong. @ a feast w/wine, desire increases, & peace treaty is signed!

Cinesias, Lampito, Magistrate, Myrrhine, Chorus of Old Men/Women, Spartan Herald, Calonice/Cleonice
Characters in Lysistrata, by
Aristophanes (411 c. B.C.) D LIST

Prometheus Bound
Aeschylus, 415 B.C.

Titan Prometheus is punished for stealing fire from heaven & giving it to people. Many Gods sympathize with P, but Zeus (who just overthrew Titans) is now ruling w/o rules.

Also featuring: Force, Violence, Hephestus, Oceanides, Zeus & Hera (only spoken of), Hermes, Io, & Ocean

Oedipus the King
Sophocles, 429 B.C.

Oedipus (cast from true home as baby b/c of ‘kill dad/marry mom’ oracle, grows up elsewhere till he leaves for fear of same oracle) arrives in Thebes a stranger; the town is under the curse of the Sphinx, who won’t free Thebes til riddle solved. O solves riddle; since the king (Lauis) was recently killed (by the unknowing O), he becomes king/marries Queen Jocasta. Blind seer Tiresius explains that O’s Theban/cast out of Thebes as a baby, & has killed his father and married his mother. Horrified, Jocasta kills herself; O blinds himself and leaves Thebes forever.

Oedipus at Colonus
Sophocles, 429 B.C.

Oedipus & Antigone get to Colonus after yrs of wandering. O/A are on forbidden grounds of Eumenides (Goddess of Fate), but O won’t leave; says he’s destined to die there. Daughter Ismene comes & says that O’s son Eteocles has overthrown O’s older son Polynices for control of Thebes. Ends with Antigone setting off toward her own fate in Thebes.

Sophocles, 429 B.C.

“My own flesh and blood—dear sister, dear Ismene,/how many griefs our father Oedipus handed down!”

Eteocles and Polynices have killed ea.other. Creon (O’s bro-in-law) rules Thebes, and as Eteocles’ cohort, he’ll kill anyone who gives Polynices a buriel. A. buries her bro. Haemon (C’s son/A’s fiance) pleads for A’s life; Tiresias prophesies doom for denying P’s buriel/ burying A alive; by the time Creon realizes that he’s damned if he doesn’t set things right, A has committed suicide. Trying to kill his dad, Eurydice kills self. Creon’s wife (Eurydice) curses her hubby while committing suicide. Creon is permanently damned. The end.

Aeschylus’ Oresteia, 458 B.C.

A signal is send to Argos that Trojan War has ended. Agamemnon’s wife (Clytemnestra) explains to a chorus of old men that she’s pissed because Aggie sacrificed daughter Iphigenia to the god Artemis to obtain a favorable wind for the Greek fleet on the way to war. Aggie returns with kidnapped mistress, Cassandra (who prophesies her & Ag’s death). The chorus comes in to see Cly standing over both of their bodies; she and Aegisthus (Ag’s cousin/Cly’s lover) avenging Iph’s death.

Choephoroe (Libation-Bearers)
Aeschylus’ Oresteia, 458 B.C.

Apollo orders Orestes to avenge his father Ag’s death. He meets Electra (Ag’s daughter) at Ag’s tomb. O goes home disguised, & tells Mom & Aegisthus (her lover) that Orestes is dead. He then kills Aeg. He hesitates to kill Cly, but his friend Pylades reminds him of his duty to Apollo. The Gods’ law demands blood for blood, so the Furies want to kill O. He rushes to seek Apollo’s help.

Aeschylus’ Oresteia, 458 B.C.

The Furies are out to get the murderin’ Orestes for matricide. Apollo sends him to sacrifice a pig in Athens, but the Furies won’t be appeased. Zeus says that Mothers are only vessels; fathers alone are blood relatives of offspring, so Cly doesn’t need avenging. Sexist! The jury that Athena selects is tied, so she breaks the tie w/not-guilty vote (she’s partial to men). Athena placates Furies by honoring them with title Eumenides (kindly ones). Atreus curse is lifted!

Beatrice/Bice, The Pilgrim, Virgil, Ulysses, Matelda, St. Bernard
Characters from Dante’s Divine Comedy, 1308 (Middle English) D LIST

The Booke of Margery Kempe
Margery Kempe, 1420 (Middle English) G LIST

M. Kempe sees/hears visions of Christ. The wife of a well-off man, mother of 14, daughter of the mayor, & devout Christian, she took a vow of celibacy and married God. Her connections kept her from being tried for heresy. This book relates her experiences (communicating w/God, chastity vow, pilgrimage, fits of crying, etc.).

The Spanish Tragedy
Thomas Kyd, 1582 (Elizabethan)

After being killed by Portuguese Prince Balthazar in battle (losing a future w/his love, Bel-Imperia), the underworld judges send Don Andrea back to the world of the living for his revenge. He finds that Spain has won, and a crazy entanglement of revenge & love triangles ensues. Most everyone dies in a ‘play’ that involves real stabbings, and DA’s revenge is complete.

CHARACTERS: Heironimo, Bel-Imperia, Lorenzo, Balthazar, Andrea’s Ghost, Revenge, Isabella, Pedringano, Serberine, Bazulto, Alexandro, Villuppo

To the Memory of My Beloved Master William Shakespeare
Ben Jonson, 1616 (Jacobean) G LIST POEM

Open & closed heroic couplets praising Shakespeare’s superiority.

“I will not lodge thee by/ Chaucer or Spenser, or bid Beaumont lie/ A little further to make thee a room:/ Thou art a monument without a tomb.”

Androgyno, Avocatori, Bonario, Castrone, Celia, Corbaccio, Corvino, Sir/Lady Politic Would-be, Mosca, Nano, Peregrine, Voltore
Character’s from Ben Jonson’s Volpone, 1606 (Jacobean) G LIST PLAY

The Duchess of Malfi
John Webster, 1612 (Jacobean)

Set in Amalfi, Italy. Widowed duchess secretly marries Antonio and has children with him, though she promised not to remarry. Her servant Bosola (sent by her brothers, Ferdinand & the Cardinal to spy on her) report the ‘betrayal, and the Duchess and her children are put to death. Antonio, Cardinal, & Ferdinand are subsequently murdered. The end!

The Diary of Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys, 1669 (Restoration)

An actual diary which starts in 1660 and ends in 1669. Sam moves up through the ranks in the Navy, visits many Shakespearean plays, cheats on his wife Elizabeth frequently, endures a plague, and the Great London fire, loses his wife, and ends his diary when he begins going blind.

Lovelace, Arabella Harlowe, James Harlowe, Clarissa Harlowe, Mr. Solmes, Miss Howe, Lord M—, Mrs. Sinclair, John Belford, Colonel Morden
Characters from Clarissa, by Samuel Richardson, 1748 (Reign of George I of Hanover House)

Lovelace talks Clarissa into escaping an arranged marriage, but he rapes her & her family disowns her until she dies; her cousin avenges her by killing Lovelace.

The Castle of Otranto
Horace Walpole, 1764 (Enlightenment)
The first gothic novel (C LIST)

When Manfred (Prince of Otranto)’s son is crushed by a giant helmet, M first imprisons an innocent peasant (Theodore), then wishes to divorce his wife (Hippolita) and marry his son’s betrothed (Isabella). She and Theo escape to a church where Father Jerome discovers that T is his son & they are of noble blood (J became priest when family kidnapped yrs earlier). M’s daughter Matilda & T fall in love, but M accidentally kills her. A giant knight (secretly I’s dad Alonso) is killed by T. Ghost of Prince Alonso declares T to be true heir of Otranto. T marries I & they rule Otranto.

Manfred, Conrad, Theodore, Prince Alonso, Hippolita, Isabella, Father Jerome, Matilda
Characters from The Castle of Otranto, by Horace Walpole, 1764 (Enlightenment)
First gothic novel, C LIST

Werther, Wilhelm, Charlotte (Lotte), Albert, village of Walheim
Characters from The Sorrows of Young Werther by Goete, 1774 (Enlightenment) D LIST

Werther moves to Walheim and falls in love with Charlotte, whom he can’t have because she is engaged to Albert. After they are married, he commits suicide.

Songs of Innocence & Experience
William Blake, 1789 (Enlightenment)

The Life of Samuel Johnson
James Boswell, 1791 (Early Romantic) C LIST

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Wollstonecraft, 1792 (Early Romantic) D LIST

Focuses on gaining the right for women to be educated, vote, hold office, etc., in order to make women better companions for men. Message not well received b/c Woll. also believed/practiced sexual freedom, open marriage, which obscured her message at that time.

The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
William Blake, 1793 (Early Romantic)

Emily St. Aubert, Valancourt, Madame Cheron, Montoni, Count Morano, Count de Villenfort, Ludovico

Setting: La Vallee

Characters from Ann Radcliffe’s Mysteries of Udolpho (1794, Early Romantic) C LIST

Ambrosio, Matilda de Villanges, Rosario, Agnes, Don Raymond de las Cisternas, Mother St. Agatha, Donna Elvira Dalfa, Lorenza

Setting: medieval Madrid

Characters from M.G. Lewis’ The Monk (1796, Early Romantic) C LIST

Mr. Darcy, Elizabeth Bennet, Jane Bennet, Mr. Bingham, Lady Catherine de Bourgh, Mr. Collins, Charlotte Lucas, Mrs. Fortster, Mr. and Mrs. Hurst, Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner, etc.
Characters from Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, 1797 (Early Romantic) C LIST

Lyrical Ballads
William Wordsworth & Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 1798 (Early Romantic) C LIST

Includes “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” & “Kubla Khan”

Rejects the classical notion that poetry should be about elevated subjects and should be composed in a formal style, Wordsworth instead championed more democratic themes—the lives of ordinary men and women, farmers, paupers, and the rural poor. In the “Preface” Wordsworth also emphasizes his commitment to writing in the ordinary language of people, not a highly crafted poetical one.

Frame story set in a British seaport; tale set on voyage between Europe and the South Pole

Wedding guest, allegorical figures (=forces of nature, life, death, retribution), mariner, shipmates

Characters and setting in Coleridge’s “Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” 1798 (Early Romantic)

Catherine Morland, Henry Tilney, General Tilney
Characters in Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey, 1799 (Early Romantic)

Catherine visits Bath, and meets the Tilneys. She goes to stay with them @ home in Northanger Abbey. C finds documents that make her think Gen. Tilney is a murderer. He’s not, but he IS a jackass, who kicks her out bc she’s not an heiress like he thought. She leaves, and Henry chases after her and proposes.

Heinrich F,, Mephistopholes, Margaret/Gretchen
Characters from Goethe’s Faust, 1808 (Early Romantic) D LIST

Colonel Brandon, Marianne Dashwood, John Wiloughby, Elinor Dashwood, Edward Ferrars, Mr./Mrs. Jennings, Sir/Lady Middleton, Lucy Steele (Gold digger), Sophia Grey
Characters from Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility, 1811 (Early Romantic) C LIST

Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage
Lord Byron, 1812 (Early Romantic)

Trying to alter his life after scorned love, Childe Harold travels to many places (Cintra, France, Portugal, Spain, Albania, Greece, Germany, Rome). He admires the locations, but finds different faults with each people. He falls in love with Julia in Germany, and travels to/dies in Rome. He is unfulfilled, but has learned a lot about the world/human nature.

Fanny Price, Edmund Bertram, Thomas Bertram, Mary Crawford, Henry Crawford, Rushworth, Marie Bertram
Characters from Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park, 1812 (Early Romantic) C LIST

At age 9 Fanny came to live with her uncle, Sir Thomas Bertram, /his family at Mansfield Park. 9 yrs later she’s in love w/Edmund, but he loves Mary Crawford. Fan’s pursued, first jestingly then earnestly, by Mary’s bro, Henry. Fan knows that Henry & Mary are morally flawed. Her judgment is vindicated when Henry runs off w/Marie Bertram after she married Rushworth. Mary’s refuses to condemn bro, reavealing to Ed that she’d be a crap wife. Ed & Fan marry.

“On First Looking at Chapman’s Homer”
Keats, 1816 (Early Romantic) D LIST
Italian/Petrarchan Sonnet
abba, abba, cdcdcd

Keats is filled with wonder as he sets out to explore the uncharted lands of Chapman’s Iliad translation. Sees Chap as a herald into the epic bard’s court. Keats compares self to Hernando Cortes, conquerer of Mexico, being speechless at first sight of the Pacific Ocean (Homer’s work).

Donna Inez, Donna Julia, Don Alfonso, Haidee, Lambro, Catherine of Russia, Lady Adeline Amundeville, Duchess of Fitz-Fulke, The Black Friar, Aurora Raby
Character’s from Lord Byron’s Don Juan, 1819 (Early Romantic) D LIST

Don Juan is attractive @ 16, and winds up getting busy with the married Donna Julia, until her hubby finds out, and he flees to Europe. Storm=abandon ship=Juan on a lifeboat for days before washing ashore. Meets Haidee, daughter of pirate Lambro (ruler of Cyclades). H & DJ live happilly in secret til dad sells him as a slave. He must secretly visit a sultana, but refuses to be her lover. Joins Catherine’s army, becomes her fav, goes back to England bc ill, wants Aurora, sees a ghost… ambiguous end.

Essays/Last Essays of Elia
Charles Lamb (alias Elia), 1823/1833 D LIST

-Essays written for the London Magazine in the early 1820s (53 pieces in all).
-Likes to use language of ‘antiquity,’ so much of his work refers to pieces from late 1500s/early-mid 1600s (Elizabethan/Jacobean work).
-Good examples: “Dissertation Upon Roast Pig” or “On the Artificial Comedy of the Last Century”

Cordelia, Regan, Goneril, Kent, Albany, Cornwall, Glouchester, Edgar, Edmund, Fool, Oswald
Characters from William Shakespeare’s King Lear (1603, Elizabethan) BASE LIST

Honest Cordelia disowned (adviser Kent exiled) in ‘who loves daddy most?’ contest; her cloying sisters ea. get 1/2 Lear’s kingdom for A) caring for him, & B) letting him keep 100 knights. C goes to marry French King. Regan/Goneril begin dismantling Leer’s power/respect w/excuse that he’s feeble. Bastard Ed frames bro Edgar to get into Dad Glouchester’s will. Glou isn’t down w/how sisters treat L; Ed turns dad (G) in as traitor; Ed wins G’s lands/title; G loses eyes/reunites w/Edgar (posing as beggar). France invades to save Lear. R’s husband dies; G/L kill ea.other over marrying Ed. Lear & Ed die…Cordelia too? Edgar & Kent rule England.

King Henry, Hotspur, Hal, Boar’s Head, Mortimer, Thomas Percy/Earl of Worcester, Falstaf, Peto, Bardolph, Poins
Characters in Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part One (1597, Elizabethan) BASE LIST

Plot alternates btwn Henry’s strained relationship w/son Hal, & rebellion by family of noblemen Percys bc Henry owes them cash.
• First, Henry cancels his crusade because of rising rebellions in England. He notes that Hotspur (Northumberland’s son) is fighting rebels, while his kid Hal is at Boar’s Head Tavern, where friends Falstaff & Poins plan highway robbery.
• K. Henry & Hotspur argue about Hotspur’s denial of prisoners after rebellion; Henry calls Hot’s friend Mortimer a traitor & they are estranged.
• Hotspur/Uncle Thomas Percy (earl of Worcester) discuss rebellion plot to usurp Henry’s power.
• Falstaf, Peto, and Bardolph prepare for their robbery, while Poins & Hal plan a practical joke on F. After F. & gang rob travelers, P & H disguise selves as travelers and rob F.
• Meanwhile, Hotspur is warned via letter that the usurpation plan will be dangerous.

Henry, Hal, Scroop, Northumberland, Glendower, Falstaf, Doll
Characters in Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part Two (1597, Elizabethan) BASE LIST

Reformed Hal kills Hotspur in rebellion against Henry. Worcester executed.
• Henry works to defeat rebel allies, esp. Northumberland, Scroop, & Glendower.
• North. discovers that Hotspur is dead; decides to renew battle vs. King.
• Scroop fights to avenge death of Richard I, whom Henry IV usurped (so much usurping!)
• North’s daughter convinces him to flee to Scotland.
• Falstaf nearly arrested for robbery; gets drafted to fight against rebels….winds up flirting with prostitute Doll; ‘weary’ Hal returns to old ways, playing tricks on Falstaf.
• Glendower dies; H’s army winning. The rebels give in, & battle is over.
• Falstaf gives soliloquy about swindling fellow recruiter (Justice Shallow).
• Hearing that Hal is still a delinquent, Henry collapses. Hal thinks he’s dead/tries on crown. Henry thinks Hal wants him dead. Hal is actually remorseful, and they reunite.
• Henry dies, Hal’s a great king, Falstaf banished: “How ill white hairs become a fool and jester!”

Creation Story/Fall of Man

“In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth…” CREATION CYCLE: “And God said, “Let there be light, and there was light.” ASSESSMENT: “And God saw the light, that it was good…” CLASSIFICATION: “And God called the light day…”
Light/dark (D1), Heaven/firmament (D2), Earth (D3), Sun/moon/stars (D4), Sea/sky animals (D5), Land animals/man (D6), rest (D7)

Fall of Man: Adam (“formed…the dust of the ground, & breathed into his nostrils the breath of life”) & Eve in Eden; Eve tricked by serpent Satan. Ate fruit, tossed out of Eden.
LINK: Milton’s Paradise Lost only concerned w/these first 2 chapters

Cain/Abel + The Flood

CAIN/ABEL: Eve’s sons. C. jealous of God’s love for A. Kills A. C. driven east of Eden, but marked for protection: “whoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.”
LINK: Steinbeck’s East of Eden.

FLOOD: “the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of [man’s] heart was only evil continually.” Huge flood; kill everyone & start over. Noah builds arc, gets “2 & 2 of all flesh,” and waits out flood. God’s regrets: “neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.”
LINK: could be based in Epic of Gilgamesh and/or Metamorphoses

Tower of Babel + Abraham & Isaac

TOWER OF BABEL: Shem folks want to build tower to Heaven. God thinks it’s arrogant, & scatters generations as punishment, confounding the languages of the earth.

ABRAHAM & ISAAC: A & wife Sarah can’t have kid. A knocks up maid Hagar=son Ishmael (a nobody, like Melville’s narrator). God tells A. he will be “father of many nations” & his generations will inherit land of Canaan. Elderly S winds up pregnant. God asks A to sacrifice I as a burnt offering. A. says a-okay, & God stops him @ last minute.

Nimrod, Ham, Lot, Lot’s wife, Sodom, Gomorrah, Jacob (later Israel), Esau (later Edom), Joseph (color coat), Judah
Important names from Genesis in the Old Testament (BASE LIST)

Old Testament: (BASE LIST)
– Mostly Moses. First 5 bks=Jewish Torah, or 5 Christian Books of Moses.
– Egyptian Pharoah ordered all babies killed when Moses born; Mom (Jochebed) puts him in mini-arc. Adopted by Pharoah’s daughter/ grows up Egyptian prince; flees after killing slave-driver whip a Hebrew.
– God as burning bush; gives M snake rod/leprous hand to prove God supports freeing of M’s people.
– M to Pharoah: “Let my people go.” Pharoah: “F off, Moses.”
– Bad choice. 10 plagues (blood water, frogs, locusts, fire/brimstone, death to all 1stborn w/o lamb’s blood on door). Pharoah gives up & frees Hebrews, until M & peeps head to Canaan & P sends army. Parting of Red Sea for Hebrews, then “Oops, couldn’t hold it!” for army.
– 10 Commandments & journey through desert

Aaron, golden calf, ark of the covenant, manna, “Eye for eye, tooth for tooth,” Mount Sinai, ram’s blood, casting down of the first two tablets of laws
Other key names/events in Exodus, from the Old Testament (BASE LIST)

Sam & Kings
Old Testament (BASE LIST)
– Split into 2 books
– Kings of Israel (Saul killed in battle w/Philistines, then David), anointed by prophet Sam (last Hebrew judge)
– David beats Goliath via slingshot
– King/wiseman Solomon is David’s son by Bathsheba
– Dave’s son Absalom rebels against David/tries to usurp throne (Don’t feel too bad for Dave…similar power struggle btwn Saul & David).
LINK: Usurping attempt is told allegorically in Dryden’s satirical long poem Absalom and Achitophel (1681-1682) and Faulkner’s Absalom, Absalom! (1936).

Book of Job
• Satan proposes to God that his loyal subject Job is only loyal because of God’s protection.
• Wanna bet? God takes Job’s health, wealth, & family to tempt Job into cursing God (mean)!
• Job doesn’t curse God; for the “patience of Job,” God restores his riches (huh? His family is still gone…)
• Much dialogue; Job talks w/friends in attempt to understand his situation.
• Job seen as Abraham-like figure.
• Others see book of Job as important moment of uncertainty in Old Testament.

Book of Jonah
•God to Jonah: “go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness come up before me.”
•”No way,” thinks Jonah; tries to escape “the presence of the Lord” by boarding a ship to Tarshish.
•God creates mighty tempest & J admits to the sailors that it’s his fault.
•Sailors cast Jonah overboard, and he is swallowed by a fish. He spends 3 days/nights in the fish’s belly, finally repenting.
• God orders the fish to spit Jonah out onto shore.
• Link: Melville’s Moby-Dick is deeply engaged with the book of Jonah.

Immaculate Conception + Jesus’ Birth
• Joe & Mary haven’t consummated new marriage, so Joe is surprised when Mary says she’s prego. Angel Gabriel says she’ll bare son of God: Jesus, the King of Jews.
• Wise men (Magi) bring gifts for Jesus. King Herod hears about it & orders all babies under 2 years be killed in the “Massacre of the Innocents.” Mary and Joe flee with Jesus, who is protected until after Herod’s death.
• Jesus goes incognito until yrs later when he meets John the Baptist, who recognizes him right away; Jesus baptizes him.

Lent + Miracles + Last Supper + Betrayal + Crucifixion
• Jesus spends 40 days/nights fasting in desert. Devil tempts him 3 times, but Jesus is nourished by God.
• Jesus does lots of cool stuff like water to wine, raising Lazarus from the dead, & feeding 5,000 folks w/5 loaves & 3 fish.
• Jesus shares a Passover meal w/his disciples (Last Supper) & prophesies that one of the 12 will betray him.
• After chow, they go to the Garden of Gethsemane to pray; Jesus is arrested (Judas identifies him w/kiss for 30 silver pieces!) Many literary references to betrayal.
• Apostles go into hiding; Judas kills himself from guilt.
• Jesus is crucified in Golgotha, and resurrected 3 days later.

Salome, Herod, Lazarus, Mary Magdalene

Salome = daughter of Herod
Herod = wants the head of John the Baptiste on a plate
Lazarus = resurrected by Jesus
Mary Magdalene = prostitute whom Jesus reformed

Sermon on the Mount, Parable of the Prodigal Son, Parable of the Sower

Also review Matt Ch. 5-7, Luke 15:11-32, (Mark 4:1-20, Matt 13:1-23, Luke 8:1-15).

The use of the parable has been a particularly powerful didactic tool in literature since the New Testament.

Dante (The Divine Comedy, Vita Nuova), John Milton (Paradise Lost, et. al.), John Bunyan (Pilgrim’s Progress), Johnathan Swift, John Donne, Joyce (Finnegan’s Wake).
Works that reference the New Testament

Joyce refers to the 4 important gospels as MaMaLuJo in Finnegan’s Wake.

The form of The Faerie Queen
Edmund Spencer (1590, Elizabethan) C LIST
•9 line Spensarian Stanzas: ababbcbcc; 1st 8 lines iambic pentameter, 9th lime iambic hexameter (called an alexandrine)
•Spensarian stanzas were popular till the 20th century, so don’t assume.
•Look for his “weird stylings.”
•Spenser depends heavily on Italian romantics (Ariosto & Tasso) & medieval/classical works (Romance of the Rose & The Aeneid).
•Only his use of allegory & symbolism makes his work remarkable & unique. He gives superficial romances, courtly love stories, and tragic epics importance.

The Faerie Queen
Edmund Spencer (1590, Elizabethan) C LIST
– Journeying knights Redcrosse & Britomart symbolize Holiness & Chastity.
• Redcrosse quests to be w/Una (‘Truth’) b/c you can’t obtain holiness w/o truth.
• R. mistakes Duessa (‘falsehood’) for Una. Suffers for this, but recovers in House of Holiness, thanks to Faith, Hope, & Charity. Then conquers dragon representing all the world’s evil (God helps him out, of course).
• Britomart is great at being chaste, but doesn’t know how to love, & is surprised by that love when she sees her future hubby in a magic mirror. Learns to incorporate love w/chastity to reach Spenser’s idea of Christian love (moderation).

Euphues, Philautus, Don Ferardo, Lucilla, Livia, Eubulus, Naples & Athens
Characters in John Lyly’s Euphues (1578—Elizabethan) D LIST

A didactic romance in prose, characterized by parallelisms (grammatical forms kept carefully even), antitheses, and perhiprases.
•Antithesis: combines/contrasts ideas in a balanced rhetorical form that gives weight to both. Ex.) “If you will be cherished when you be old, be courteous when you be young.” Uses antithesis to show appearance vs. reality. “Do we not commonly see that…in the greenest grass is the greatest serpent, in the clearest water the ugliest toad?”
•Parallelism: “thou weepest for the death of thy daughter, and I laugh at the folly of the father; greater vanity is there in the mind of the mourner, than bitterness in the death of the deceased.” Alliterative balance & contrast of meaning.

John Lyly (1578—Elizabethan) D LIST
•Hot, rich gentleman Euphues moves from Athens to Naples (city of pleasure/wickedness). Euphues ignores warning of Eubulus (old gent) to be modest & reserved, and stays in Naples.
•There, Euph meets Phil; decides P. will be his only/eternal friend. Philautus is in love with the daughter of Don Ferardo, Lucilla, and takes Eu to meet her.
•Well crap, Eu decides that HE is in love with Lu, and chooses to deceive his ‘eternal friend’ by pretending to be in luvv with Lu’s friend Livia.
•Don Fer tells Lu she’s to marry Phil, but Lu says she loves Eu, which makes Phil feel betrayed! Phew. Exhausting! Phil to Eu: “Lu’s gonna betray you, too!” Eu: “Nuh-uh!” Then she falls in love with Curio/dumps Eu.
•Don F dies from grief bc Lu won’t dump idiot boyfriend, C.
•E&P friends again, & scorn love. E moves to Athens/writes treatise on how to raise a child under influence of nature, reason, & use (bc his upbringing didn’t steer him from sloth/wickedness). Writes many letters persuading others about godliness (a few to Phil) and thanking Eubulus for his advice.
• In 2nd book, Phil falls in love with Camilla, then marries Frances. Eu goes on about virtue of England.

The Flea
John Donne (1633 Caroline Period) C LIST
Lyrical/Metaphysical Poem

“Mark but this flea, and mark in this
How little that which thou deny’st me is/It sucked me first, and now sucks thee/And in this flea our two bloods mingled be/Thou know’st that this cannot be said/A sin, nor shame, nor loss of maidenhead/Yet this enjoys before it woo,/And pampered swells with one blood made of two,/And this, alas, is more than we would do./Oh stay, three lives in one flea spare,/Where we almost, yea more than married are./This flea is you and I, and this/Our marriage bed, and marriage temple is;/Though parents grudge, and you, we’re met
/And cloistered in these living walls of jet./Though use make you apt to kill me,/Let not to that, self-murder added be,/And sacrilege, three sins in killing three./Cruel and sudden, hast thou since/Purpled thy nail in blood of innocence?/Wherein could this flea guilty be,/Except in that drop which it sucked from thee?/Yet thou triumph’st, and sayst that thou
Find’st not thyself nor me the weaker now;/Tis true, then learn how false fears be;/Just so much honour, when thou yield’st to me,/Will waste, as this flea’s death took life from thee.”

The Sun Rising
John Donne (1633 Caroline) C LIST
Lyric poem w/3 stanzas & 10 lines ea., abba cddc ee

“Busy old fool, unruly Sun,/Why dost thou thus,/Through windows, and through curtains, call on us?/Must to thy motions lovers’ seasons run?/ Saucy pedantic wretch, go chide/Late schoolboys, and sour prentices,/Go tell court-huntsmen that the king will ride,/Call country ants to harvest
/Love, all alike, no season knows, nor clime,/Nor hours, days, months, which are the rags of time./Thy beams, so reverend and strong/Why shouldst thou think?/I could eclipse and cloud them with a wink,/But that I would not lose her sight so long:/If her eyes have not blinded thine,/ Look, and tomorrow late, tell me/ Whether both the’Indias of spice and mine/Be where thou leftst them, or lie here with me./Ask for those kings whom thou saw’st yesterday,/And thou shalt hear: “All here in one bed lay.”/She’is all states, and all princes I,/Nothing else is./Princes do but play us; compar’d to this,/All honour’s mimic, all wealth alchemy./ Thou, sun, art half as happy’as we,/ In that the world’s contracted thus;/ Thine age asks ease, and since thy duties be/To warm the world, that’s done in warming us./Shine here to us, and thou art everywhere;/This bed thy centre is, these walls, thy sphere.”

“Thrones, dominations, princedoms, virtues, powers/if these magnificent Titles yet remain/not merely titular, since by Decree/Another how hath to himself ingross’t/All Power, & us eclipst under the name/of King anointed, for whom all this haste/of midnight march, & hurried meeting here/this only to consult how we may best/with what may be devised of honors new/receive him coming to receive from us/knee-tribute yet unpaid, prostration vile/too much to 1, no doubt how endur’d to 1 & to his image how proclaim’d?”
Tortured English sentence of Milton’s Paradise Lost (1667 Restoration) C LIST

Paradise Lost plot
John Milton (1667 Restoration) C LIST
– Invokes heavenly muse to tell story of Adam & Eve’s disobedience.
•Satan/rebel angels chained in Hell. Escape & fly to Pandemonium. Satan bent on corrupting A&E.
•Hearing this, Son offers to be a sacrifice for mankind.
•S disguised as cherub to get by Archangel Uriel (guarding sun).
•Beauty of Eden & painfully reaffirms S’s decision to make evil his good.
• Toad Satan whispers to E about forbidden fruit. Raphael tells A&E about S’s jealousy of Son’s job as right-hand, the war against God btwn angels, & how Son started kicking ace/took traitors to hell.
•Adam asks mucho questions; R. warns about his quest for knowledge.
A confesses he thinks E’s smokin’; R reminds him to love her spiritually.
•Serpant Satan flatters E, says that God wants her to eat the fruit; she does. A’d rather be damned w/E than pure w/o her. Aww…After eating the fruit, they get busy.
•Son punishes serpents w/eternal belly-walking, E w/pain of childbirth/ submission, A w/hunting & growing own food, & all w/pain & death. Satan = hero in Pandemonium, but punishment= forced into snake form. Hot&cold seasons=punish earth
•A&E start blaming ea.other. A wants to leave E; she contemplates suicide. They decide to love each other & get revenge on Satan via obedience to God.
•A&E must leave paradise. Michael shows A the future of mankind (including many scenes from the Bible). Eve dreams about same thing. A&E leave paradise hand in hand, into a new world.

Form of “To the Virgins…”
Robert Herrick (1648, Interregnum before Restoration) A LIST!!!

•Parallels themes of Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress.”
•Also echo’s Ben Jonson’s “Song: To Celia.”
•Carpe diem poem.
•Four four-line stanzas: abab, cdcd, efef, ghgh.
•Tetrameter form
•Herrick favors the trochaic foot: unit of two syllables in which the first is stressed and the second is unstressed.

“To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time”
Robert Herrick (1648, Interregnum before Restoration) A LIST!!!

“GATHER ye rosebuds while ye may,/ Old Time is still a-flying:/And this same flower that smiles to-day/To-morrow will be dying./The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun,/The higher he ‘s a-getting,/The sooner will his race be run,/And nearer he ‘s to setting./That age is best which is the first, When youth and blood are warmer;/But being spent, the worse, and worst Times still succeed the former./Then be not coy, but use your time, And while ye may, go marry:/For having lost but once your prime,/You may for ever tarry.”

“Upon Julia’s Clothes”
Robert Herrick (1648 Interregnum before Restoration) A LIST!!!

NOTE: any time that Julia is mentioned on the test, it is either A) an excerpt of Herrick, or B) a nod to Herrick.

“WHENAS in silks my Julia goes,/Then, then, methinks, how sweetly flows/That liquefaction of her clothes.

Next, when I cast mine eyes and see/
That brave vibration each way free;/
O how that glittering taketh me.”

“Upon Julia’s Breasts”
Robert Herrick (1648 Interregnum before Restoration) A LIST!!!

“DISPLAY thy breasts, my Julia—there let me/Behold that circummortal purity,/Between whose glories there my lips I’ll lay,/Ravish’d in that fair via lactea./
HER eyes the glow-worm lend thee,/The shooting stars attend thee;/And the elves also,/Whose little eyes glow./Like the sparks of fire, befriend thee./
No Will-o’-th’-Wisp mislight thee,/Nor snake or slow-worm bite thee ;/But on, on thy way,/Not making a stay,/Since ghost there’s none to affright thee./
Let not the dark thee cumber:/What though the moon does slumber?/The stars of the night/Will lend thee their light/Like tapers clear w/o number.
Then, Julia, let me woo thee,/Thus, thus to come unto me;/And when I shall meet/Thy silv’ry feet/My soul I’ll pour into thee.”

•”And behold there was a very stately palace before him, the name of which was beautiful.”
•”Some things are of nature as to make One’s fancy chuckle, while his heart doth ache.”
•”He that is down needs fear no fall He that is low, no pride.”
•”Better to be despised for too anxious apprehensions than ruined by too confident a security.”
•”There is a limit at which forbearance ceases to be a virtue.”
•”Breathes there a man, whose judgment clear Can others teach their course to steer, Yet run himself life’s mad career Wild as the wave?”
•”But pleasures are like poppies spread: You seize the flower.”
•”Nae man can tether time nor tide.”
•”The gallant Sir Robert fought hard to the end, but who can with fate and quart bumpers contend? Though Fate said, a hero should perish ill light; so up rose bright phoebus, and down fell the knight.”
•”Yestreen, when to the trembling string the dance gaed thro’ the lighted ha’, to thee my fancy took its wing; I sat, but neither heard nor saw.”
•”It bareth the name of Vantity Fair, bc the town where it is kept is “lighter than vanity.”
Quotes from John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress (1678 Restoration) C LIST

Pilgrim’s Progress
John Bunyan (1678 Restoration) C LIST
Read 2 paragraphs

•Allegory of believer’s journey to redemption. Chrisitan slogs through life, passing the Slough of Despond, Hill of Difficulty, Beulah, Doubting Castle, Beautiful, & Vanity Fair on the way to the Celestial City.
•Monument of Puritanism; just as popular in 19th cen. as Shakespeare or Bible. Much less so by 20th cen.
•Doctrine of PP from New Test’s Sermon on the Mount: Christ tells followers to seek “1st the kingdom of God, and his “righteousness” & to avoid path to destruction.
•Christian goes to CC with Faithful, Hopeful, Christiana, her four sons, maid Mercy, Feeble-mind, Valiant-for-truth, Despondency, Honest, & Stead-fast. Man, it’s a parade!
•Some obvious folks don’t make it: Obstinate, Athiest, Prejudice, & Ill-Will. Less obvious: Ignorance is bound @ CC & sent to Hell…harsh!). Talkative&Pliable don’t get in.Wha?! Crazy Puritans…

Absolom & Achitophel
John Dryden (1681 Restoration) C LIST
•Satirical lyric mock-heroic poetry written in heroic couplets; London
•Similar to Bible story: wicked Achitophel urged King David’s illegitimate son Absalom to rise up against his father.
•Absalom (Monmouth Duke)= noblest of Charles II’s bastard kids. Many Jews (Whigs) hate Charles’ son David; wish to rebel against reign.
•Achitophel, (Shaftesbury Earl/Whig leader) talks Ab into usurpation.
•Ab makes a nationwide tour (planned by Ach) as ‘people’s pal,’ opposed to Egyptian domination, Jebusite (Catholic) plot, & senile king (David). Needs people’s support bc he’s not next in line for the throne. The Jews (whom the narrator calls naïve) proclaimed him next messiah.
•Dave realizes enemies scoffing at his moderation/clemency as sign of weakness; shows strength/reasserts royal prerogative. Ab repents/Dave forgives him. He says that he will resort to force to defend the supremacy of established law. Heaven claps its thunder to approve of his words and the coming era.

David, Charles, Achitophel, Absalom, Barzillai, Zadoc, Sagan, Sanhedrin, Adril, Jotham, Hushai, Amiel, Jebusites, Jews (Whigs)
Characters from John Dryden’s Absolom & Achitophel (1681 Restoration) C LIST

Mac Flecknoe
John Dryden (1682 Restoration) C LIST
•Satire; mock heroic poetry; London
•Monarch of Dullness (Flecknoe) passes crown to dull/stupid Shadwell (a satirist Dryden hates), bc his work is obscure, repetitive nonsense.
•Shad coronated as Monarch of Dunces @ Barbican (rundown area linked w/inferior, course humor like Shad’s comedies). Shad walks on carpets of his unpurchased pages to a throne of Fleck’s unpurchased work, where Shad swears to dunces to maintain dullness/wage war with truth/sense. Wears wreath of sleep-inducing poppies; 12 owls (= stupidity) released.
•Fleck gives prophetic speech w/writing advice, saying his characters should be modeled after dull self, and writing after obscure authors (not famous Restoration greats like Ben Jonson; real Shad claimed to be thier contemp.). He should abandon drama/satire & go w/lower forms (anagrams, pattern poems, acrostics, & songs).

The Country Wife
William Wycherley (1675 Restoration Comedy) C LIST

•Frank Horner spreads rumor that he is impotent so he can seduce wives w/o husbands worrying.
•Male characters criticize women for sluttiness, & criticize men.
•Thinking Horner is impotent, Jasper gives him access to his slutty wife.
•Mr. Pinchwife brings sis Alithea to city to marry the playboy Sparkish.
•Harcourt seduces Alithea in front of Sparkish/Mrs. Pinchwife is taken with ‘impotent’ Horner (asks him to show her the sights).
•Alithea eventually marries Harcourt instead of idiot playboy, Sparkish.

Restoration Comedies
•RCs appeared btwn 1660-1730. Ribald riffs on sex/society; often open w/verse of prologue (rest in prose).
•Restoration: period in England (1660-1700) when monarchy was restored after 10 yr. rule by Parliament.
•Comedy: subgenre of drama; a play in which the protagonist vanquishes his opponents morally and financially
•Full of bantor/repartee, but not high lit. Influenced modern Brit/ American comedies. Makes fun of people’s public manners.
•You can follow the geneology of one-liners from restoration comedies all the way up to Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw, and Neil Simon!

Man of Mode plot
George Ethrege, 1676 Restoration Comedy C LIST


The Way of the World plot
William Congreve, 1700 Restoration Comedy C LIST


School for Scandal plot
Richard Sheridan (1777 Restoration Comedy)


Essay on Criticism
Alexander Pope (1709 Restoration) C LIST

•Compliation of Pope’s literary opinions, aimed to intending writer.
•Rhyming verse called heroic couplets; essay written in Horation mode, & mocks John Dennis’ work.
•Refers to Virgil, Homer, Aristotle, Horace, & Longinus; feels imitation of ancients shows taste: “True ease in writing comes from art, not chance/As those move easiest who have learned to dance.”

-“Tis hard to say, if greater Want of Skill/Appear in Writing or in Judging ill,/But, of the two, less dang’rous is the’Offence,/To tire our Patience, than mis-lead our Sense,/Some few in that, but Numbers err in this,/Ten Censure wrong for one who Writes amiss;/A fool might once himself alone expose,/Now One in Verse makes many more in Prose…
And ten low words oft creep in one dull line:/While they ring round the same unvaried chimes,/With sure returns of still expected rhymes;/ Wher’er you find “the cooling western breeze”,/In the next line, it “whispers through the trees”;/If crystal streams “with pleasing murmurs creep”,/The reader’s threatened (not in vain) with “sleep”…”
-“A little learning is a dangerous thing;/Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring (sacred to the Muses).”
-“To err is human, to forgive devine.”
-“Fools Rush In Where Angels Fear to Tread…”
Passages from Alexander Pope’s Essays on Criticism (1709 Restoration) C LIST

The Rape of the Lock
Alexander Pope (1712 Restoration) C LIST
Mock heroic poetry

•Belinda dreams that Ariel warns her to beware of jealousy, pride, & men.
•B awakes to read letter that makes her forget his warnings. Preens in mirror, & is guilty of pride.
•Suitor Lord Petre admires a lock of B’s hair/vows to have it by fair means or foul. Wakes up early to pray for it.
•B & suitors go on a Thames cruise, then play cards (likened to a battle). P clips a lock & B is pissed.
•Mischievous gnome Umbril goes to Cave of Spleen for a sack of sighs/ flask of tears to make B feel worse.
•Clarissa (helped P in his crime) urges B to get over it, have good sense, & stop being vein. B thinks, “screw that,” and starts a scuffle btwn ladies & gents to recover curl.
•Lock lost in battle, taken to heavens and immortalized as a constellation.

Dulness, Tibbald, Coley Cibber
Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad (1728 Reign of George 1) C LIST
-Mock heroic poetry set in England/underworld (ala Virgil)
-(more serious than other mock epics; warns England to reform)
-Criticism of current literary climate, chance to avenge slights of his work by other writers.
-Acclaims goddess Dulness & her chosen prince (1st ed: scholar Theobald; 2nd ed: playwright/ poet laureate Cibber).
– 1st book: Mac Flecknoe ripoff
– 2nd: Fitting contests for Pope’s enemies, like journalists: “Who flings most filth, and wide pollutes around/the stream, be his the Weekly Journals bound.”
– 3rd: grandiose heroic couplets/parallels to classical underworld visits. Mentions poets John Taylor & Elkanah Settle.
– 4th: criticizes institutions promoting dullness.
– 5th: ANOTHER invocation, evil omens, Dulness & Cibber on throne. Science/Wit/Logic/Rhetoric, etc. chained up (ala Spenser’s The Faerie Queene).

“As fancy opens the quick springs of Sense/we ply the Memory, we load the brain,/bind rebel Wit, and double chain on chain/confine the thought, to exercise the breath/and keep them in the pale of Words till death.”
From Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad (1728 Reign of George 1) C LIST

This portion presents Pope’s views of education

Imaginary Conversations of Literary Men & Statesmen
Walter Landor, 1824 (Mid Romantic) D LIST

-The “conversations” are grouped into classical dialogues, dialogues of sovereigns/statesmen, dia of literary men, of famous women, & misc. Range from Trojan War to Landor’s own period. Great insights into humanity, though characters are only vehicles for ideas (not fleshed out).
-Examples: Marcellus & Hannibal in 2nd Punic War, Lady LIsle & Elizabeth Gaunt (executed for sheltering fugitives), Oliver Cromwell & Walter Noble

Magua, Nathaniel Bumppo, Chingachgook, David Gamut, Duncan Heyward, Marquis of Montcalm, Alice Colonel and Cora Monroe, Tamenund, Uncas, General Webb
Characters from James Fenimore Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans (1826 Mid Romantic) G LIST

Sartor Resartus (The Tailor Retailored)
Thomas Carlyle (1833 Mid Romantic) C LIST

-Whole work elaborates metaphor from Swift’s 1704 Tale of a Tub: “What is Man himself but a Micro-Coat, or rather a compleat Suit of Cloaths w/all its Trimmings?”
-3 books criticizing materialism & philosophical rationalism of his age.
– Diogenes Teufelsdröckh is Professor of Things in General at the U of Know-Not-Where, & his manuscripts are sent to the narrator.
– Pivotal chapters based on Goethe: People’s unhappiness derives from the source of their greatness, their finite soul’s striving for the infinite. Once they overcome their preoccupation w/happiness & turn attention to God, they shall achieve peace. Carlyle’s famous command is “Close thy Byron; open thy Goethe.”

Rastignac, Vautrin, Goriot, Mme de Nucingen
Balzac’s Père Goriot (1834 Mid Romantic) D LIST

Père Goriot
Balzac (1834 Mid Romantic) D LIST
Modeled on King Lear; characteristic blend of Balzac pathos/irony

Young law student Rastignac befriends the often mocked, aging Goriot, who lives in the same boardinghouse. R initiated into aristocratic society when he stakes his future on fickle affections of Mme de Nucigen (G’s kid, who ditches him to rise in Parisian society). G dies after ill- treatment from ungrateful daughters (wastes last of $ to buy ballgowns)l R uses his last $ to bury Goriot/resolves to do battle w/Parisian society.

Augustus Barnard, Captain Barnard, Dirk Peters, Arthur, Parker
Characters from Edgar Allen Poe’s Arthur The Narrative of Gordon Pym
(1838 American Transcendentalism) D LIST

The Narrative of Gordon Pym
Edgar Allen Poe (1838 American Transcendentalism) D LIST

Pym’s friend Augustus Barnard smuggles him onto his father’s ship. The crew mutinies & Cap’n B’s killed; they are saved by mutineer Peters. They overthrow mutineers, but wind up starving & must eat sailor Parker; Augustus dies. Peters & Pym saved by ship Jane Guy. Travel to land where natives kill everyone. Pym/Peters escape in canoe but probably killed later by a giant at sea…? Hmmm.

Two Years Before the Mast
Dana (1840 American Transcendentalism) D LIST

An autobiography which deeply influenced Melville’s Moby Dick (1851).

The Murders in Rue Morgue
Edgar Allen Poe (1841 American Transcendentalism) D LIST

-First detective story that uses an imaginative, yet cold, analytical sleuth with great deductive reasoning, an aha! moment, and an average Joe friend as narrator.
– An escaped orangutan kills Mme L’Espanaye & her daughter in the morgue by trying to imitate shaving. Uh…

My Last Duchess
Robert Browning (1842 Late Romantic/Victorian)

“That’s my last Duchess painted on the wall,/Looking as if she were alive. I call/That piece a wonder, now: Fra Pandolf’s hands/ Worked busily a day, and there she stands.
…Was courtesy, she thought, and cause enough/For calling up that spot of joy. She had/A heart—how shall I say?—too soon made glad,/ Too easily impressed: she liked whate’er/ She looked on, and her looks went everywhere.
…Oh sir, she smiled, no doubt / Whene’er I passed her; but who passed w/o/Much the same smile? This grew; I gave commands;/Then all smiles stopped together. There she stands/As if alive.”
…The Count your master’s known munificence/Is ample warrant that no just pretence/ Of mine for dowry will be disallowed;/Though his fair daughter’s self, as I avowed/At starting, is my object.” Yipes, run away, new object!

Alfred, Lord Tennyson
(1842 Late Romantic/Victorian)

Based on bk. 11 of The Odyssey.

Boggs, The Duke, Aunt Polly, Aunt Sally, Widow Douglas, Buck & Emmeline Grangerford, Jim, Judith Loftus, Sally & Silas Phelps, Colonel Sherburn, Judge Thatcher, Miss Watson, Wilks sisters, Tom Sawyer, Jim, Pap Finn, Huck Finn
Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1844) D LIST

Narrator, Minister D, Monsieur G, Auguste Dupin
Characters from Edgar Allen Poe’s Purloined Letter (1844 American Transcendentalism) D LIST

Bessie, Mr. Brocklehurst, Helen Burns, Mrs. Fairfax, Blanche Ingram, Lady Ingram, Mr. Lloyd, Bertha (Mrs. Rochester) & Mr. Mason, Miss Miller, Rosamond Oliver, Grace Poole, Georgiana & John & Mrs. Reed, Mary & St. John & Diana Rivers, Mr. Rochester, Miss Scatcherd, Miss Temple, Adele Varens, Jane Eyre
Characters from Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre (1847 Late Romantic/Victorian) D LIST

Ellen (Nelly) Dean, Mr. Lockwood, Zfflah

Earnshaws: Catherine Earnshaw Linton Heathcliff (phew)/Frances/Hareton/Hindley/Mr./Mrs.

Heathcliffs: Linton, Joseph, Edgar, and the famous Heathcliff

Lintons: Edgar, Isabella (later Heathcliff), Mrs., Mr.

Characters from Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights (1847 Late Romantic/Victorian) D LIST

The Poem from In Memoriam A.H.H.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1849 Late Romantic/Victorian) C LIST

Richard Babley (Mr. Dick), Mr. Barkis, Clara & David Copperfield, Mr. Creakle, Rosa Dartle, Mr. Gummidge, Uriah Heep, Little Em’ly, Jack Maldon, Mr. Mell, Mrs. & Wilkins Micawber, Edward & Jane Murdstone, Clara & Dan & Ham Peggotty, Dora Spenlow, James & Mrs. Steerforth, Annie & Dr. Strong, Tommy Traddles, Betsey Trotwood, Agnes & Mr. Wickfield
Characters from Charles Dickins’ David Copperfield (1850 Late Romantic/Victorian) D LIST

Gov. Bellingham, Roger Chillingworth, Arthur Dimmesdale, The Goodwives, Mistress Hibbins, Pearl, Hester Prynne, the Shipmaster, John Wilson
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter (1850 American Transcendentalism) C LIST

Ned Higgins, Holgrave, Matthew Maules (the elder and the younger), Uncle Venner

Pyncheons: Thomas Maule/Alice/Clifford/ Colonel/Gervayse/Hepzibah/Judge Jaffreys (older and younger)/Phoebe

Characters of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The House of Seven Gables (1851 American Transcendentalism) C LIST

Capn Bildad, Capn Boomer, Bulkington, Dr. Bunger, Daggoo, Elijah, Fedallah, Flask (King Post), Fleece, Gabriel, Capn Gardiner, Mrs. Hussey, Ishmael, Father Mapple, Capn Peleg, Perth (Prometheus), Pippin, Queequeg, Starbuck, Stubb, Capn Ahab
Characters from Herman Melville’s Moby Dick (1851 American Transcendentalism) C LIST

The Stones of Venice
John Ruskin (1851 Late Romantic/Victorian) C LIST

Not only a great work of scholarship but also a great work of art. More than a catalog of architectural accomplishments, it is a work of cultural history and a commentary on human character.

Miles Coverdale, Old Moodie, Zenobia, Priscilla, Hollingsworth, Professor Westervelt
Characters from Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Blithedale Romance (1852 American Transcendentalism) C LIST

The Idea of a University Defined and Illustrated
John Henry, Cardinal Newman (1852 Late Romantic/Victorian) C LIST

Bartleby, Ginger Nut, Lawyer, Nippers, Turke
Characters from Herman Melville’s Bartleby the Scrivener (1853 American Transcendentalism) C LIST

Leaves of Grass
Walt Whitman (1855 American Transcendentalism) C LIST

“Song of Myself”
From Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass (1855 American Transcendentalism) C LIST

“When Lilacs Last…”
From Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass (1855 American Transcendentalism) C LIST

“Crossing Brooklyn”
From Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass (1855 American Transcendentalism) C LIST

Monsieur Binet, Rodolphe Boulanger, Abbe Bournisie, Berthe Bovary, Charles Bovary, Charles-Denis-Bartholome Bovary Mme Emma Bovary, Mme Heloise Bovary, Madame Bovary, Leon Dupuis, Felicite, Justin, Monsieur Lhereux
Characters from Flaubert’s Madame Bovary (1857 Late Romantic/Victorian) G LIST

Setting: Village of Hayslope

Capn Arthur Donnithorne, Jonathan Burge, Mary Burge, Hetty Sorrel, Matthias Bede, Seth, Dinah Morris, Mrs. Poyser

George Eliot’s Adam Bede (1859 Late Romantic/Victorian) D LIST

On Liberty
John Stuart Mill (1859 Late Romantic/Victorian) C LIST

The English utilitarian concerns himself in this work with the problem of defining the limits of the power of the state to interfere with personal liberty. The result is one of the most important statements in the history of Western democracy.

Alfred Lord Tennyson (1859 Late Romantic/Victorian)

Seven blank-verse paragraphs that reflect upon the strange and tragic fate of its speaker, the doomed lover of Aurora, the goddess of the dawn in Roman mythology.

Cass family: Dunstan, Godfrey, Molly, Squire, William, Eppie

Mr. Kimble, Nancy & Priscilla Lammeter, Mr. Macey, Mr. Tookey, Aaron & Dolly Winthrop, Silas Marner

Characters from George Eliot’s Silas Marner (1861 Late Romantic/Victorian) D LIST

Apologia pro Vita Sua
John Henry Newman (1864 Late Romantic/Victorian) C LIST

Also known as History of My Religious Opinions. This is the famous essay reply to the attack upon him by Charles Kingsley (K accuses N of having “gambled away” his reason/having a “morbid mind,” and not caring about “truth for its own sake”). Newman valued tradition and hierarchy, & wished to return Anglican church to the severe, authoritarian faith of the past, from which he thought the Church of England had lapsed.

House of York (white roses):
King Edward IV of England
George (Duke of Clarence)
Richard (Duke of Glouchester)
Prince of Wales
Duke & Duchess of York (Duke’s Mom)
Jane Shore (Duke’s mistress)
Duke of Buckingham
Lord Hastings/Chamberlain
Lord Stanley

House of Lancaster (red roses):
Queen Elizabeth (Edward IV’s wife)
Lord Rivers (her brothers)
Lord Grey
Lord Dorset (her former hubby’s son)
Lady Anne (later Queen to Rich III)
Henry, Earl of Richmond (later Henry VII, 1st of Tudor House)

Characters from Richard III, by William Shakespeare (1591 Elizabethan)

“Now is the winter of our discontent made glorious summer by this son of York, and all of the clouds that glowered upon on our house in the deep bosom of the ocean bedded. Now our brows bount with glorious wreaths. Our bruised arms hung up for monuments, our stern…changed for many meetings, our dreadful marches to delightful measures.”
Richard the III, William Shakespeare (1591 Elizabethan)

Old English Period

Caedmon (670)
Beowulf (750)

Middle English

Langland (1380)
Chaucer (1380)
Malory (1450)

Early Tudor Period

John Skelton
Thomas More

Elizabethan Period

Philip Sidney
Edmund Spenser
John Lyly
Christopher Marlowe
William Shakespeare

Jacobean Period

Ben Jonson

Caroline Period

John Donne
John Webster

Charles 1 executed (1649)-Cromwell & the Interregnum

John Milton
Robert Herrick
Andrew Marvell

Restoration Comedies

William Congreve
George Ethrege
John Bunyan
John Dryden

Reign of Anne, the last Stuart monarch

Daniel Defoe
Alexander Pope

Reign of George I, of the House of Hanover

Jonathan Swift
Henry Fielding
Thomas Gray

The Enlightenment
American Revolution
The Gothic Novel

Samuel Johnson
Lawrence Sterne
Horace Walpole
Thomas Chatterton
Mary Wollstonecraft
William Cowper

Early Romantic Period

Ann Radcliffe
William Blake
William Wordsworth
Samuel Coleridge
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Lord Byron
John Keats

Middle Romantic Period

Charles Lamb
Jane Austen
Thomas Carlyle
Alfred Tennyson

American: Washington Irving & Edgar Allen Poe

Late Romantic Period
(Also Transcendentalism in US; see different card)

Thomas Macaulay
Emily Bronte
Charlotte Bronte
Charles Dickens
Robert Browning

U.S. Transcendentalism

Nathaniel Hawthorne
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
Walt Whitman
Herman Melville


Brits: John Ruskin
George Meredith
Charles Swinburne
George Eliot Gerard
M. Hopkins
Thomas Hardy

Americans: Mark Twain & Henry James


William Butler Yeats
Joseph Conrad
D.H. Lawrence
W.H. Auden
James Joyce
Virginia Woolf

Americans: Ernest Hemingway
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Gertrude Stein
T.S. Eliot
Ezra Pound
W.E.B. Du Bois

Raskolnikov, Svidrigailov, Luzhin, Marmeladov (drunk), Katerina&Alyona Ivonovna (pawn murders), Sonya Marmeladov, Porfiry Petrovich, Dmitry Razumikhin (R’s BF)
Doystoyevsky’s Crime and Punishment (1866 Late Romantic/Victorian) D LIST

After meeting a drunk whose kid (Sonya) sells self to support family, Raskolnikov robs/murders pawn broker to save sis Dunya from marrying loser Luzhin (but really to prove theory that he’s a superman above the law). Engagement off, but new ahole (Svidrigailov) steps in. R plays cat & mouse w/magistrate (Petrovich) & falls in love w/confesses crime to Sonya (she gets it, but tells him to confess). Svid (alluded murderer?) overhears R; blackmails R’s sis to hook up or he’ll snitch. She refuses, he’s tormented by previous sins, & commits suicide. He is what R could become w/o conscience (w/’Superman’ theory). R confesses.

Culture and Anarchy
Matthew Arnold (1867 Late Romantic/Victorian) C LIST

A sought a center of authority by which the anarchy caused by the troubled passage of the Reform Bill of 1867 might be regulated. Criticism against utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham/John Stuart Mill’s followers & various mvmnts of liberal reform. Disturbed by social/political confusion, by Fenianism/Hyde Park Riots of 1866, and by the inability of either the church or the government to cope with the growing unrest both in England and on the Continent, Arnold attempted to describe an objective center of authority that all, regardless of religious or social bias, could follow.

Dover Beach
Matthew Arnold, 1867 (Late Romantic/Victorian) C LIST
A dramatic monologue in 37 lines

The Subjection of Women
John Stuart Mill (1869 cusp btwn Late Romantic/Victorian & Realism) C LIST

Had 3 yr. term in Parliament; for women’s equality.

Dorothea (Dodo) & Celia (Kitty) Brooke, Uncle Brooke, Ladislaw, Lydgate, Rosamond (Rosy), Bulstrode, Fred Vincy, Joshua Rigg, Mary Garth, Mr. Vincy, Farebrother, Caleb Garth, John Raffles, James Chettam, Rev. Casaubon, Mrs. & Rector Cadwallader, Peter Featherstone, Tucker, Tykes, Miss Noble, Mdme Laure, Tantripp, Naumarin, Bambridge, Mrs. Plymdale, Trumbull and soooo many more.
George Eliot’s Middlemarch (1871 Realism) D LIST

Book 1: Miss Brooke; focuses on Dorothea (19) who marries an old man (bc she thinks he’s an aspiring author); he turns out to be a lazy man in need of a nurse. Rosamond marries Lydgate to CRUD. FINISH LATER.

Higgs, Chowbok, Nosnibor, Arowhena, Ydgrun, Zulora, University of Unreason
Characters from Samuel Butler’s Erewhon (1872 Realism) D LIST

James Mill (1873 Realism) C LIST

Bears witness to the intellectual ferment of the industrial and democratic revolutions of the time. Wider suffrage led to state-supported education in Britain and debate about its proper content. These circumstances supplied Mill’s chief motives for recording his life. He wished to recount his own intellectual development and mission in a period of cultural transition and to describe his remarkable education.

Gwendolen Harleth, Mr./Mrs. Davilow, Rex Gascoignes, Mallinger Grandcourt, Lydia Glasher, Lush, Daniel Deronda, Sir Hugo Mallinger, Hans Meyrick, Mirah Lapidoth, Herr Klesmer, Miss Arrowpoint, Ezra Cohen, Mordecai,
George Eliot’s Daniel Deronda (1876 Realism) D LIST

Sigurd the Volsung
William Morris (1876 Realism) G LIST

God’s Grandeur
Gerard Manley Hopkins (1877 Realism)

Petrarchan sonnet describing a world infused by God with a beauty and power that withstands human corruption.

The Rise of Silas Lapham
Howells (1855 Late Romantic/Victorian) G LIST

The collapse & fall of the financial empire of rustic Vermont entrepreneur Silas Lapham. The “rise” is L’s moral resurrection,which takes place when L’s business fails as a result of his decision to abandon the elastic and self-serving business codes which have been instrumental in his financial rise.

Unnamed narrator (American editor), Jeffrey Aspern, Juliana Bordereau, Mrs. Prest, John Cumnor, Miss Tina

Set in Venice

Henry James’ Aspern Papers (1888 Realism) C LIST

Crossing the Bar
Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1889 Realism) C LIST

Sunset and evening star,/And one clear call for me!/And may there be no moaning of the bar,/When I put out to sea,
But such a tide as moving seems asleep,/Too full for sound and foam,/When that which drew from out the boundless deep/Turns again home.
Twilight and evening bell,/And after that the dark!/
And may there be no sadness of farewell,/When I embark;
For tho’ from out our bourne of Time and Place/The flood may bear me far,/I hope to see my Pilot face to face/When I have crossed the bar.

Angel Clare, Tess Durbeyfield, Alexander Stoke-d’Urberville, Mercy Chant, Cuthbert/ Felix/Rev. James/ & Mrs. Clare, The Cricks, Durbeyfields
Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the d’Ubervilles (1891 Realism) D LIST

Shemus Rua, Teigue Rua, Mary Rua, Countess Cathleen, Aleel, Oona,
William Butler Yeats’ Countess Cathleen (1892 Realism) C LIST

The Countess Cathleen is a huge philanthropist, who is robbed by merchants (& the Rua men) who use the $$ to buy souls from starving peasants. Cathleen sells her soul to buy back those of the others, and she is redeemed in Heaven for her sacrifice.

The Yellow Wallpaper
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1892 Realism) G LIST

A new mother goes mad while staring at yellow wallpaper, since her hubby John & doctors won’t let her have any stimulation as she recovers from post part-em depression.

David Sechard, Lucien Chardon, Eve, Mme de Bargeton/Comtesse Chatlet (L’s twice married mistress 1), Cointet Brothers (bankers), Petit-Claud (D’s lawyer), Coralie (L’s mistress 2)

Set in Angouleme/Paris, France

Honore de Balzac’s Lost Illusions
(1893 Realism) D LIST
Called the Human Comedy in ref. to Dante’s Divine Comedy.

David & Eve live a hard married life since Eve’s bro Lucien continues to borrow all their $$ for a pricey/scandalous lifestyle in Paris w/mistresses. Their print shop is failing. L forges bank notes in D’s name; D can’t pay & goes to jail, while prosecution/bankers got rich off his new printing process. L gets $$ from a priest, sends it to D, & E&D retire in country where they eventually inherit dad’s vineyard.

Stephen Crane (1893 Realism) G LIST

Oscar Wilde (1893 Realism) D LIST

The Country of the Pointed Firs
Sarah Orne Jewett (1896 Realism) G LIST

“To An Athlete Dying Young”
A.E. Housman (1896 Realism)

Seven quatrains of rhymed iambic tetrameter

Bram Stoker (1897 Realism)

Flora, The Governess, Mrs Grose, Douglas, Miss Jessel (ghost), Miles, Narrator, Peter Quint, Uncle,
Henry James’ The Turn of the Screw (1898 Realism) D LIST

We spend the whole novella (with agonizingly long and complicated sentences) wondering if the kids are really in cahoots with evil ghosts, or if the governess is merely crazy, till the kids die.

Alcee Arobin, Colonel, Robert Lebrun, Dr. Mandelet, Edna & Leonce Pontellier, Mme Adele Ratignolle, Mlle Reisz

Setting: Grand Isle, New Orleans

Kate Chopin’s The Awakening (1899 Realism) D LIST

The Darling & The Cherry Orchard
Anton Chekhov (1899 Realism) G LIST

The Aunt, Chief Accountant, Manager, Doctor, Fireman, Foreman, Cap’n Fresleven, Helsman, Intended, Journalist, Mr. Kurtz & his cousin, Manager’s Uncle, Charlie Marlow, Narrator, Official, Pilgrim(s), Russian, savages, Swedish Cpn, Woman, Young Agent…basically, if someone’s name is “The _____” it’s this book!
Characters from Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (1902 Modernism) C LIST

Marlow, Cap’n Beard, Mrs. Beard, Mahon, Judea (ship)
Joseph Conrad’s Youth (1902 Modernism)

Alexander Crummel, W.E.B. Du Bois, John Johns, Josie, Booker T. Washington
W.E.B. Du Bois’ The Souls of Black Folk (1903 Modernism) D LIST

Mr./Mrs. Pontifex, George & kids (John, Theobald, Eliza, Maria, Alethea), Christina Allaby, Theo’s kids (Ernest, Joseph, Charlotte), Mr. Overton, Pryer, Ellen (drunk maid!)
Samuel Butler’s The Way of All Flesh (1903 Modernism) D LIST

Maggie Verver, Mrs. Assingham, Prince Amerigo, Charlotte Stant
Characters from Henry James’ The Golden Bowl (1904 Modernism) D LIST

Lily Bart, Bertha & George Dorset, Gerty Farish, Carry Fischer, Mattie Gormer, Percy Gryce, Norma Hatch, Aunt Julia Penniston, Simon Rosedale, Laurence Selden, Grace Stepney, Nettie Struther, Gus & Judy Trenor
Characters from Edith Wharton’s The House of Mirth (1905 Modernism) D LIST

The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
T.S. Eliot (1906 Modernism) CLIST
Often called “the first Modernist poem.”

Let us go then, you and I,/When the evening is spread out against the sky/Like a patient etherised upon a table;/Let us go, through certain half-deserted streets,/The muttering retreats/Of restless nights in one-night cheap hotels/And sawdust restaurants with oyster-shells:/Streets that follow like a tedious argument/Of insidious intent/To lead you to an overwhelming question … /Oh, do not ask, “What is it?”/ Let us go and make our visit.

References to Dante’s Divine Comedy, Hesiod (8 C. BC)

Tradition and the Individual Talent
T.S. Eliot (1919 Modernism) C LIST

No poet or artist has his complete meaning in isolation but must be judged, for contrast/comparison, w/the dead. The poet’s transforming mind stores up feelings, phrases, and images until all the particles form a new work. Poetry is not a turning loose of personal emotion but deliberate escape from it.

Hugh Selwyn Mauberley
Ezra Pound (1920, Modernism) D LIST

Alludes to lotus-eaters and sailors/sirens from Odyssey.

Alludes to Sophocles’ “Seven against Thebes”

Also alludes to Samothrace, Pisistratus, Horace, Henry James, John Ruskin, Dante Gabriel Rossetti

“For three years, out of key with his time, He strove to resuscitate the dead art
Of poetry; to maintain “the sublime” In the old sense. Wrong from the start—”

This Side of Paradise
F. Scott Fitzgerald (1920 Modernism)

A Prayer for My Daughter
William Butler Yeats (1921 Modernism)

Reference to Helen of Iliad

“Once more the storm is howling, and half hid/Under this cradle-hood and coverlid
My child sleeps on./There is no obstacle/But Gregory’s wood and one bare hill/
Whereby the haystack- and roof-levelling wind./Bred on the Atlantic, can be stayed;/ And for an hour I have walked & prayed/Because of the great gloom that is in my mind.”

The Second Coming
William Butler Yeats (1921 Modernism)
A LIST!!! Lyrical poem

Turning and turning in the widening gyre/The falcon cannot hear the falconer;/ Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;/Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,/The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere/The ceremony of innocence is drowned;/The best lack all conviction, while the worst/ Are full of passionate intensity./Surely some revelation is at hand;/Surely the Second Coming is at hand.
The Second Coming! Hardly are those words out/When a vast image out of Spritus Mundi/Troubles my sight: somewhere in the sands of the desert/A shape with lion body and the head of a man,/A gaze blank and pitiless as the sun,/Is moving its slow thighs, while all about it/Reel shadows of the indignant desert birds./The darkness drops again; but now I know/That twenty centuries of stony sleep
were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle,/And what rough beast, its hour come round at last,/Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?

John Adams, The Boss (Muss), Confucious, Isotta delgi Atti, Kung Futse, Thomas Jefferson, Sigismondo Maltesta, Benito Mussonlini, Siggy
Ezra Pound’s The Cantos (1922 Modernism)

The Waste Land
T.S. Eliot (1922 Modernism) C LIST
Poem is preceded by epigraph from The Satyricon of Petronius.

The first twelve lines of “The Burial of the Dead” section include three Old Testament allusions; reference also to Dante’s Inferno.

5 Parts of Waste Land:
1. The Burial of the Dead
2. A Game of Chess
3. The Fire Sermon
4. Death by Water
5. What the Thunder Said

1. “April is the cruellest month, breeding/Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing/Memory and desire, stirring/Dull roots with spring rain…
That corpse you planted last year in your garden,/
Has it begun to sprout?/ Will it bloom this year?/
Or has the sudden frost disturbed its bed?…

2. “The river’s tent is broken: the last fingers of leaf/Clutch and sink into the wet bank. The wind/Crosses the brown land, unheard. The nymphs are departed./
Sweet Thames, run softly, till I end my song…”

Passages from “The Burial of the Dead” and “A Game of Chess” in Eliot’s Waste Land (1922 Modernism) C LIST

3. “If there were only water amongst the rock/Dead mountain mouth of carious teeth that cannot spit/Here one can neither stand nor lie nor sit/There is not even silence in the mountains/But dry sterile thunder w/o rain”

5. “Who is the third who walks always beside you
/When I count, there are only you and I together
/But when I look ahead up the white road/There is always another one walking beside you.”

Passages from “The Fire Sermon” and “What the Thunder Said” in Eliot’s Waste Land (1922 Modernism) C LIST

The Emperor of Ice Cream
Wallace Stevens (1923 Modernism)

Billy Budd, John Clagart, Captain Vere
Herman Melville’s Billy Budd (1924 Modernism) C LIST

Nick Carraway, Daisy & Tom Buchanan, Jay Gatsby, Jordan Baker
F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (1925 Modernism) G LIST

Axel’s Castle
Edmund Wilson (1925 Modernism)

Djuna Barnes (1936 Modernism) G LIST

Native Son & Notes of a Native Son
Richard Wright (1940 Postmodernism) G LIST

Tender is the Night
F. Scott Fitzgerald (1934 Modernism) G LIST

Long Day’s Journey into Night
Eugene O’Neill (1941 Postmodernism) G LIST

Death of a Salesman & The Crucible
Arthur Miller (1949 Postmodernism) G LIST PLAYS

William Carlos Williams’ (1946 Postmodernism) G LIST

On the Road
Jack Kerouac (1956 Postmodernism) G LIST

Richard Wilbur (1961 Postmodernism) G LIST

The Bell Jar & “Ariel”
Sylvia Plath (1963 Postmodernism) G LIST

The House of Blue Leaves
John Guare (1965 Postmodernism) G LIST

The Fixer (1966) & Six Degrees of Separation (1990)
Bernard Malamud (1966 Postmodernism) G LIST

Sally Seton, Septimus & Lucrezia Warren Smith, Dr. William Bradshaw, Peter Walsh, Doris Kilman, Sylvia Parry
Characters from Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway (1925 Modernism) C LIST

The Hollow Men
T.S. Eliot (1925 Modernism)

Note: “The Hollow Men” is a ‘postlude’ to The Waste Land & a prelude to Ash Wednesday. It can be considered a link between the two works.

Both a single hundred-line poem and a sequence of five poems (or parts). The title comes from Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, and the epigraphs come from Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (
The horror!”) Also alludes to Dante’s Inferno (“We” are modern-day versions of Dante’s tormented souls suffering in “our” low-grade way the pain of loss, whispering rather than howling.) Prevalence of short lines, of elliptical and fragmentary phrasings, and the repetition of a handful of key words and images (eyes, shadow, and kingdom).

The Plough and the Stars
Sean O’ Casey (Irish, 1926 Modernism)

The Sun Also Rises
Ernest Hemingway (1926 Modernism) D LIST

Char: Jake Barnes, Robert Cohn, Lady Brett Ashley

The novel’s moral: no matter how you choose to live in this senseless world, live with style.

Aspects of the Novel
E.M. Forster (1927 Modernism)

An open-ended discussion in which Forster covers 7 aspects of the English novel: story, characters, plot, fantasy, prophecy, pattern, and rhythm.

William Bankes, Lily Briscoe, Cam & James Ramsay, Mr. & Mrs. Ramsay
Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse (1927 Modernism) C LIST

Sailing to Byzantium
William Butler Yeats (1928 Modernism)

That is no country for old men. The young/In one another’s arms, birds in the trees/—Those dying generations—at their song,/The salmon-falls, the mackerel-crowded seas,/Fish, flesh, or fowl commend all summer long/Whatever is begotten, born, and dies./Caught in that sensual music all neglect/Monuments of unaging intellect.

An aged man is but a paltry thing,/A tattered coat upon a stick, unless/Soul clap its hands and sing, and louder sing/For every tatter in its mortal dress,/Nor is there singing school but studying/Monuments of its own magnificence;/And therefore I have sailed the seas and come/To the holy city of Byzantium.

O sages standing in God’s holy fire/As in the gold mosaic of a wall,/Come from the holy fire, perne in a gyre,/And be the singing-masters of my soul./ Consume my heart away; sick with desire/And fastened to a dying animal/It knows not what it is; and gather me /Into the artifice of eternity.

Once out of nature I shall never take/My bodily form from any natural thing,/But such a form as Grecian goldsmiths make/Of hammered gold and gold enamelling/To keep a drowsy Emperor awake;/Or set upon a golden bough to sing/To lords and ladies of Byzantium/Of what is past, or passing, or to come.

Jane Austen, Beadle, Mary Beton, Charlotte Bronte, Mary Carmichael, George Eliot, H, Mary Seton, Shakespeare & his sis, Professor von X
Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own (1929 Modernism) C LIST

Compsons: Benjamin, Caddy, Jason IV, Quentin

Dilsey Gibson

William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury (1929 Modernism) C LIST

The title is a reference to
Shakespeare’s Macbeth.

Bundrens: Addie, Anse, Cash, Darl, Dewey Dell, Jewell, Vardaman
William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying (1930 Modernism) C LIST

Ash Wednesday
T.S. Eliot (1930 Modernism) C LIST

Ash Wednesday is the final segment in the unofficial trilogy of Waste Land, “Hollow Men,” & Ash Wednesday. This poem sprang from Eliot’s acceptance of the Anglo-Catholic faith.

“. . . pray that I may forget/ These matters that with myself I too much discuss/ Too much explain,/and that at this stage of religious experience the proper prayer is/Teach us to sit still.”

Gertrude Stein, Picasso, T.S. Eliot, Paul Cézanne, Hemingway, other artists & writers
Gertrude Stein’s The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933 Modernism) C LIST

She writes as Alice B. Toklas, so her observations are as if from Toklas’s point of view. This allows Stein to say things about herself she otherwise would not be able to without sounding utterly egotistical and pompous. This book recounts a lot of encounters Stein has with other painters and writers.

Thomas Sutpen, Ellen Coldfield, Henry & Judith Sutpen, Charles Bon,
William Faulkner’s Absalom, Absalom! (1936 Modernism) C LIST

Thomas Sutpen’s story is told by 4 diff. narrators. He builds a house in Jefferson, marries Ellen/has kids (Henry & Judith); Judy plans to marry Charles. T/H/C go to war. When Charles plans to wed Judy after discovery that he’s her 1/2 bro, Henry kills him. After war, Ellen’s dead. Tom knocks up Millie & mistreats her for rearing a girl (needs boy for dynasty), so her g’pa Wash kills him. H & J live in Sutpen’s 100 w/Tom’s illegitimate daughter Clytie, who sets fire to house & kills herself & Henry.

Narrator #1 (Rosa): hates Sutpen; bitter retelling.
#2: Mr. Compson: sympathetic (story told by father)
#3: Compson’s son; his g’pa gave him more details than his father received.
#4: Shreve: knows less; objective view of the story; in a position to question certain aspects of the narrative.

Homage to Catalonia
George Orwell (1938) G LIST

HCE, ALP, Shem & Shaun (contrary twins; represent soldiers), Issy (S&S sis), Four Old Men,
James Joyce's Finnegan's Wake (1939 Modernism) C LIST

An expression of the dreaming collective psyche as it relives the major conflicts of myth and history. This psyche is divided into the two sexual principles, the major representations of which are Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker (HCE) and Anna Livia Plurabelle (ALP)…and holy ****, does it look confusing!

HCE's feels guilt over indiscretion in Dublin's Phoenix Park (obscure event; central to entire dream). HCE encountered 2 girls; commits obscure offense (seen by 3 boys/soldiers; news of it spread by gossipy 4 Old Men). The retellings through rumor, gossip, & song render all about this Original Sin unreliable, except that it happened. Protesting innocence, HCE sleeps. In his dreams he encounters previous versions of his crime, full of sexual/ scatological innuendo; this further clouds the precise nature of the offense. Characters undergo series of metamorphoses as they pass through the 4 phases of history, representing totality of individual/collective development.

Grapes of Wrath
John Steinbeck (1939 Modernism) G LIST

The Stranger & The Myth of Sysiphus
Albert Camus (1942 Postmodernism) D LIST

The Ballad of the Sad Cafe
Carson McCullers (1943 Postmodernism) G LIST

Jorge Luis Borges (1944 Postmodernism)

Animal Farm
George Orwell (1945 Postmodernism)

Berlin Stories
Christopher Isherwood (1946 Postmodernism)

Under the Volcano
Malcolm Lowry (1947 Postmodernism) D LIST

Char: Geoffrey Firmin (the Consul), Yvonne, Hugh, Jacques Laruelle

Waiting for Gadot
Samuel Beckett (Irish, 1949 Postmodernism)

The Catcher in the Rye
J.D. Salinger (1951 Postmodernism)

About a shocking character at the time: Holden

“Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night”
Dylan Thomas (1951 Postmodernism)

The Adventures of Augie March
Saul Bellow (1953 Postmodernism) G LIST

Lolita (1955), Pale Fire (1962)
Vladimir Nabokov ( Postmodernism)

Allen Ginsburg (1956 Postmodernism)

“A huge sad comedy of wild phrasing.” Version of open verse that employs a series of individual image clusters. 3 parts, each marked w/specific rhythmic pattern. With its fervent declaration that “the best minds” of a generation have been driven to madness, establishes poet as engaged witness; the compelling claim, “I have seen …,” = conscious parallel to Walt Whitman’s active participation (“I was the man; I suffered; I was there”) in critical moments of his time.

Things Fall Apart
Chinua Achebe (1958 Postmodernism)

Story about a tribe’s culture/customs, and its eventual colonization.

A Raisin in the Sun
Lorraine Hansberry (1959 Postmodernism)

Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note
Amiri Baraka (1961 Postmodernism)

100 Years of Solitude (1967) Chronicle of a Death Foretold (1982), Love in the Time of Cholera (1985)
Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Postmodernism)

I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
Maya Angelou (1969 Postmodernism)

Ted Hughes (1970 Postmodernism)

Peter Shaffer (1973 Postmodernism)
G LIST play

“The Task”
William Cowper (1979 Postmodernism)

Remembrance of Things Past
Marcel Proust (1981 Postmodernism)

Tom Stoppard (1993 Postmodernism)

About the author

The following sample is written by Matthew who studies English Language and Literature at the University of Michigan. All the content of this paper is his own research and point of view on GRE Literature Supplement 2 and can be used only as an alternative perspective.

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