Oothoon (named for a character in Macpherson’s “The Poems of Ossian”) loves Theotormon (‘god/tormenter’), who represents the chaste man, filled with a false sense of righteousness. O is violently raped by Bromion (‘roarer’). Afterward, neither B nor T want anything to do with her. They are all chained by the expectations of society. If T realized that sex is not illicit, he may have had a healthy relationship with O. B is enslaved by his violent act. Blake used Plato’s Allegory of the cave as a theme for the 3 characters not being able to understand the true nature of reality, without being hindered by convention. Blake had hopes of this changing in America.
Can be considered a manifesto of Romanticism. It serves a declaration of intent as to what Wordsworth and Coleridge see as the direction of Romanticism as a movement. The idea of being able to construct language and meaning in a different way, one that features a “certain colouring of imagination,” helps to reconfigure how these thinkers were going to change the role of art and the artist in its creation. The Preface goes a long way in being able to provide a sense of structure to Romanticism. Demonstrates their intent to change people’s minds about how they view art and how individuals view themselves.
=”The principal object […] was to choose incidents and situations from common life.”
=”[D]escribe [those incidents] […] in a selection of language really used by men.”
=”[T]hrow over them a certain colouring of imagination, whereby ordinary things should be presented to the mind in an unusual way.”
=”[M]ake these incidents and situations interesting by tracing in them, truly though not ostentatiously, the primary laws of our nature.”
There was a time when meadow, grove, and stream/The earth, and every common sight
To me did seem/ Apparelled in celestial light,/The glory and the freshness of a dream./It is not now as it hath been of yore;—/Turn wheresoe’er I may,/By night or day,/The things which I have seen I now can see no more.
The Clouds that gather round the setting sun/Do take a sober colouring from an eye/
That hath kept watch o’er man’s mortality;/
Another race hath been, and other palms are won./Thanks to the human heart by which we live,/Thanks to its tenderness, its joys, and fears,/To me the meanest flower that blows can give/Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears.
Subject: Lucy’s growth, perfection, and death. Theme parallels Gray’s “Elegy in a Country Courtyard” with the death of a lovely person, unknown to society.
Other Lucies: “Stranger Fits of Passion,” “3 Years…,” “A Slumber…,” and “I Traveled Among Unknown Men.”
“She dwelt among the untrodden ways/Beside the springs of Dove,/Maid whom there were none to praise/And very few to love:/A violet by a mosy tone/Half hidden from the eye!/—Fair as a star, when only one/Is shining in the sky./She lived unknown, and few could know/When Lucy ceased to be;/But she is in her grave, and, oh,/The difference to me!”
A LIST! Lucy Poem
“Strange fits of passion have I known:/And I will dare to tell,/But in the lover’s ear alone,/What once to me befell./When she I loved looked every day/Fresh as a rose in June,/I to her cottage bent my way,/Beneath an evening-moon./Upon the moon I fixed my eye,/All over the wide lea;/With quickening pace my horse drew nigh/Those paths so dear to me./And now we reached the orchard-plot;/And, as we climbed the hill,/The sinking moon to Lucy’s cot/Came near, and nearer still./
In one of those sweet dreams I slept,/Kind Nature’s gentlest boon!/And all the while my eye I kept/On the descending moon./My horse moved on; hoof after hoof/He raised, and never stopped:/When down behind the cottage roof,/At once, the bright moon dropped./What fond and wayward thoughts will slide/Into a Lover’s head!/”O mercy!” to myself I cried,/”If Lucy hould be dead!””
A LIST! A Lucy Poem
“Three years she grew in sun and shower,/Then Nature said, “A lovelier flower/On earth was never sown;/This Child I to myself will take,/She shall be mine, and I will make A Lady of my own.”/Myself will to my darling be/Both law and impulse, and with me The Girl in rock and plain,/In earth and heaven, in glade and bower,/Shall feel an overseeing power/To kindle or restrain./She shall be sportive as the fawn/That wild with glee across the lawn/Or up the mountain springs,/And hers shall be the breathing balm,/And hers the silence and the calm/Of mute insensate things/The floating clouds their state shall lend/To her, for her the willow bend,/Nor shall she fail to see/Even in the motions of the storm/A beauty that shall mould her form/By silent sympathy./The stars of midnight shall be dear/To her, and she shall lean her ear/In many a secret place/Where rivulets dance their wayward round,/And beauty born of murmuring sound/Shall pass into her face./And vital feelings of delight/Shall rear her form to stately height,/Her virgin bosom swell,/Such thoughts to Lucy I will give/While she and I together live/Here in this happy dell./Thus Nature spake–The work was done–/How soon my Lucy’s race was run!/She died and left to me/This heath, this calm and quiet scene,/The memory of what has been,/And never more will be.”
A LIST! A Lucy Poem
A slumber did my spirit seal;/I had no human fears:/She seemed a thing that could not feel/The touch of earthly years./No motion has she now, no force;/She neither hears nor sees;/Rolled round in earth’s diurnal course,/With rocks, and stones, and trees.
An autobiography in discourse, which discusses the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling. The origin of the famous critical concept of a ‘willing suspension of disbelief.’
Sometimes seen as one of C’s ‘Conversation Poems,’ in tripartite, rondo structure. Rhymed tetrameter/trimeter verse.
This is about the poet’s realization that the “passion and the life” that he seeks (inspiration) is not to be found outside the human mind, but within it. If one is to see anything of higher value in nature, one must supply it oneself. C talks to his friend Sara, and concludes that his creativity has left him.
Response to 18th cen. rationalism/rebuttal to Aeschelus’ Prometheus Bound (A wanted to reconcile Prom & Jupiter, or love & evil, as Percy saw it); also contribution of Romanticism’s doctrine: love conquers all.
Using more verse forms together than any major English poem, Shelley celebrates Prometheus’ change of heart by showing that his hero’s discovery of love triggers its affirmation throughout the entire universe. Asia, Prom’s wife, is raised from her cave in the Caucasus/freed to rejoin her husband by the power released through his loving heart. Even the moon & earth dance in their orbits in heavenly sympathy & self-discovery.
Jupiter is overthrown by Necessity, embodied in the Nemesis of Demogorgon, who rises in the form of Jupiter’s child to overthrow his tyrannical father. Demo’s judgment on Jupiter coincides with Prom’s declaration of universal love. Necessity isn’t the instrument of revolutionary destruction, determinism, or rational critique; it is the unfolding force of love.
“Earth, Ocean, Air, beloved brotherhood!/If our great Mother has imbued my soul/With aught of natural piety to feel/Your love, and recompense the boon with mine…”
14-line Italian Sonnet in Iambic pentameter
“I met a traveller from an antique land/Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone/Stand in the desert. Near them on the sand,/Half sunk, a shatter’d visage lies, whose frown/And wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command/Tell that its sculptor well those passions read
Which yet survive, stamp’d on these lifeless things,/The hand that mock’d them and the heart that fed./And on the pedestal these words appear:/”My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:/Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!”/Nothing beside remains: round the decay/Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare,/The lone and level sands stretch far away.”
Mill concludes that:
1) Poetry is not “matter of fact or science.”
2) Poetry’s purpose is to “act upon the emotions.”
3) The interest felt in a novel . . . and is derived from incident.
4) The interest excited by poetry comes from the representation of feeling.
5) Poetry works internally–this is the appeal of poetry.
6) Novels work externally–this is the appeal of eloquence.
7) That which is eloquent aims primarily to achieve a desired effect on other people.
8) That which is poetic is “feeling confessing itself to itself . . . in symbols.
9) Eloquence is heard; poetry is overheard.
Others abide our question. Thou art free./We ask and ask: Thou smilest and art still,/Out-topping knowledge. For the loftiest hill,/That to the stars uncrowns his majesty,/Planting his steadfast footsteps in the sea,/Making the Heaven of Heavens his dwelling-place,/Spares but the cloudy border of his base/To the foil’d searching of mortality:/And thou, who didst the stars and sunbeams know,/Self-school’d, self-scann’d, self-honour’d, self-secure,/Didst walk on earth unguess’d at. Better so! All pains the immortal spirit must endure,/All weakness that impairs, all griefs that bow,/ Find their sole voice in that victorious brow.
It deals with Caliban, a character from Shakespeare’s The Tempest, and his reflections on Setebos, the brutal god he believes in. Some scholars see Browning as being of the belief that God is in the eye of the beholder, and this is emphasized by a barbaric character believing in a barbaric god. Others feel that he was satirizing theologians of his time, who attempted to understand God as a reflection of themselves; this theory is supported by the epigraph, Psalm 50:21, “Thou thoughtest that I was altogether such a one as thyself.”
“If all the world and love were young,/And truth in every shepherd’s tongue,/These pretty pleasures might me move/To live with thee and be thy love./Time drives the flocks from field to fold/When rivers rage and rocks grow cold,/And Philomel becometh dumb;/The rest complains of cares to come./The flowers do fade, and wanton fields/To wayward winter reckoning yields;
A honey tongue, a heart of gall,/Is fancy’s spring, but sorrow’s fall,/Thy gowns, thy shoes, thy beds of roses,/Thy cap, thy kirtle, and thy posies/Soon break, soon wither, soon forgotten–
In folly ripe, in reason rotten./Thy belt of straw and ivy buds,/Thy coral clasps and amber studs,/All these in me no means can move/To come to thee and be thy love./But could youth last and love still breed,/Had joys no date nor age no need,/Then these delights my mind may move/To live with thee and be thy love.”
The verses describing the cotter’s home, and the introduction of the daughter’s young man, are in Scots, while those expounding religious and patriotic themes are in English.
“My lov’d, my honour’d, much respected friend!/No mercenary bard his homage pays;/With honest pride, I scorn each selfish end,/My dearest meed, a friend’s esteem and praise:/To you I sing, in simple Scottish lays,/The lowly train in life’s sequester’d scene,/The native feelings strong, the guileless ways,/What Aiken in a cottage would have been;/Ah! tho’ his worth unknown, far happier there I ween!”
About the contrast between the way of life in the industrial north of England and the wealthier south. Margaret Hale=daughter of Nonconformist minister who moves to the fictional industrial town of Milton after leaving the Church of England. Lifestyle change shocks Margaret, who sympathizes w/poverty of workers; comes into conflict with John Thornton, the owner of a local mill (friend of M’s father). Margaret attempts to protect Thornton from violent strikers & he proposes to her; she rejects his proposal bc she thinks it is out of obligation for what she did. Later, he sees her with her fugitive brother, whom he mistakes for another suitor, and creating mo’ conflict. M sees him in new light once she believes she has lost his affection. They are reunited.
“Ah what avails the sceptred race,/Ah what the form divine!/What every virtue, every grace!/ Rose Aylmer, all were thine./Rose Aylmer, whom these wakeful eyes/May weep, but never see,/A night of memories and of sighs/I consecrate to thee.”
M.Kempe sees/hears visions of Christ. Wife of well-off man, mother of 14, kid of the mayor, and devout Christian, she took vow of celibacy and married God. Her connetions kept her from being tried for heresy, and this book relates her experiences.
“Can we not force from widowed poetry,/Now thou art dead (great Donne) one elegy/To crown thy hearse? Why yet dare we not trust,/Though with unkneaded dough-baked prose, thy dust, Such as th’ unscissored churchman from the flower/Of fading rhetoric, short-lived as his hour, Dry as the sand that measures it, should lay/Upon thy ashes, on the funeral day?/Have we no voice, no tune? Didst thou dispense/Through all our language, both the words and sense?/Tis a sad truth…”
Posthumously published works. The essays were written during a difficult time in Twain’s life; he was deep in debt and had lost his wife and one of his daughters.
=”The Creator sat upon the throne, thinking. Behind him stretched the illimitable continent of heaven, steeped in a glory of light and color; before him rose the black night of Space, like a wall. His mighty bulk towered rugged and mountain-like into the zenith, and His divine head blazed there like a distant sun. At His feet stood three colossal figures, diminished to extinction, almost, by contrast — archangels — their heads level with His ankle-bone.”
= “Man is a marvelous curiosity. When he is at his very, very best he is a sort of low grade nickel-plated angel; at his worst he is unspeakable, unimaginable; and first and last and all the time he is a sarcasm.”
= “He took a pride in man; man was his finest invention; man was his pet, after the housefly . . . .”
= “It is full of interest. It has noble poetry in it; and some clever fables; and some blood-drenched history; and some good morals; and a wealth of obscenity; and upwards of a thousand lies.”
A fictional county created by American author William Faulkner as a setting for many of his novels.
Consists of word clusters chosen for their prosody, juxtaposed for the purpose of subverting commonplace dictionary meanings which Stein believed had largely lost their expressive force and ability to communicate. The words were re-defined using both their etymology and analysis of syllables by themselves.
Play: G LIST
An update of the Greek myth of Orestes (Aeschelus) to the family of a Northern general in the American Civil War.
Agamemnon=General Ezra Mannon
Poems: playful, witty, morbid. D LIST
Ex.) “There sat down, once, a thing on Henry’s heart/só heavy, if he had a hundred years/& more, & weeping, sleepless, in all them time/Henry could not make good. /Starts again always in Henry’s ears/the little cough somewhere, a chime.”
Long Poem (epic/lyrical hybrid, sometimes called a modernist epic): G LIST
15 poems about Brooklyn Bridge
Novel series featuring Natty Bumppo, G LIST
Last of the Mohicans, The Pioneers, Deerslayer, Pathfinder, The Prairie
Literature that opposes the ideas of the Enlightenment & Modernism
Two-Act Play: G LIST
The plot centers around a woman named Betty, whose son, Bert, was recently murdered and decapitated in lower Manhattan. The first and last scenes take place on a boat, with Betty, who throws bottles filled with notes overboard, and an absurdly disguised Detective Holahan.
German Marxist poet, lyricist, novelist, etc. of ‘epic theatre’
– In media res; many epithets, formulaic/formal dialogue, lots of repetition
– Possibly the oldest recorded story.
Gil is demigod & cruel King of Uruk. Gods create equal (Enkidu); they fight & become friends/together kill Humbaba & Bull of Heaven (sent by Ishtar b/c G won’t marry her). E dies; G seeks immortality. Utnapishtim tells of great flood where he won imm; G fails test, remains mortal, dies.
Epic: 15 books in dactylic hexameter (dactyl=1 stressed syll/2 unstressed; 6 dactyls/ line).
Source of many classical myths/inspiration for Dante, Chaucer, Shakes., Marlowe, Hughes, etc.
Starts with creation story, flood, evil serpent, Apollo/Daphne, moves on to history of Roman, Pathagoras, etc.; ends with Caesar. Wide range! Much of the work is about the Gods.
Epic: dactylic, non-rhyming hexameters.
Epic: dactylic, non-rhyming hexameter
the hallowed heights of Troy.”
Homer, 8 c. B.C.
Lysistrata & Grecian women plan to end war btwn Athens/ Sparta by going on a sex strike. They overtake treasury (Acropolis), deny men war $$, & defy old men/ police. Men/women insult ea.other. Men/women start missing ea.other, but Lysistrata fortells success, & women stand strong. @ a feast w/wine, desire increases, & peace treaty is signed!
Aristophanes (411 c. B.C.) D LIST
Titan Prometheus is punished for stealing fire from heaven & giving it to people. Many Gods sympathize with P, but Zeus (who just overthrew Titans) is now ruling w/o rules.
Also featuring: Force, Violence, Hephestus, Oceanides, Zeus & Hera (only spoken of), Hermes, Io, & Ocean
Oedipus (cast from true home as baby b/c of ‘kill dad/marry mom’ oracle, grows up elsewhere till he leaves for fear of same oracle) arrives in Thebes a stranger; the town is under the curse of the Sphinx, who won’t free Thebes til riddle solved. O solves riddle; since the king (Lauis) was recently killed (by the unknowing O), he becomes king/marries Queen Jocasta. Blind seer Tiresius explains that O’s Theban/cast out of Thebes as a baby, & has killed his father and married his mother. Horrified, Jocasta kills herself; O blinds himself and leaves Thebes forever.
Oedipus & Antigone get to Colonus after yrs of wandering. O/A are on forbidden grounds of Eumenides (Goddess of Fate), but O won’t leave; says he’s destined to die there. Daughter Ismene comes & says that O’s son Eteocles has overthrown O’s older son Polynices for control of Thebes. Ends with Antigone setting off toward her own fate in Thebes.
“My own flesh and blood—dear sister, dear Ismene,/how many griefs our father Oedipus handed down!”
Eteocles and Polynices have killed ea.other. Creon (O’s bro-in-law) rules Thebes, and as Eteocles’ cohort, he’ll kill anyone who gives Polynices a buriel. A. buries her bro. Haemon (C’s son/A’s fiance) pleads for A’s life; Tiresias prophesies doom for denying P’s buriel/ burying A alive; by the time Creon realizes that he’s damned if he doesn’t set things right, A has committed suicide. Trying to kill his dad, Eurydice kills self. Creon’s wife (Eurydice) curses her hubby while committing suicide. Creon is permanently damned. The end.
A signal is send to Argos that Trojan War has ended. Agamemnon’s wife (Clytemnestra) explains to a chorus of old men that she’s pissed because Aggie sacrificed daughter Iphigenia to the god Artemis to obtain a favorable wind for the Greek fleet on the way to war. Aggie returns with kidnapped mistress, Cassandra (who prophesies her & Ag’s death). The chorus comes in to see Cly standing over both of their bodies; she and Aegisthus (Ag’s cousin/Cly’s lover) avenging Iph’s death.
Apollo orders Orestes to avenge his father Ag’s death. He meets Electra (Ag’s daughter) at Ag’s tomb. O goes home disguised, & tells Mom & Aegisthus (her lover) that Orestes is dead. He then kills Aeg. He hesitates to kill Cly, but his friend Pylades reminds him of his duty to Apollo. The Gods’ law demands blood for blood, so the Furies want to kill O. He rushes to seek Apollo’s help.
The Furies are out to get the murderin’ Orestes for matricide. Apollo sends him to sacrifice a pig in Athens, but the Furies won’t be appeased. Zeus says that Mothers are only vessels; fathers alone are blood relatives of offspring, so Cly doesn’t need avenging. Sexist! The jury that Athena selects is tied, so she breaks the tie w/not-guilty vote (she’s partial to men). Athena placates Furies by honoring them with title Eumenides (kindly ones). Atreus curse is lifted!
M. Kempe sees/hears visions of Christ. The wife of a well-off man, mother of 14, daughter of the mayor, & devout Christian, she took a vow of celibacy and married God. Her connections kept her from being tried for heresy. This book relates her experiences (communicating w/God, chastity vow, pilgrimage, fits of crying, etc.).
G LIST Play
After being killed by Portuguese Prince Balthazar in battle (losing a future w/his love, Bel-Imperia), the underworld judges send Don Andrea back to the world of the living for his revenge. He finds that Spain has won, and a crazy entanglement of revenge & love triangles ensues. Most everyone dies in a ‘play’ that involves real stabbings, and DA’s revenge is complete.
CHARACTERS: Heironimo, Bel-Imperia, Lorenzo, Balthazar, Andrea’s Ghost, Revenge, Isabella, Pedringano, Serberine, Bazulto, Alexandro, Villuppo
Open & closed heroic couplets praising Shakespeare’s superiority.
“I will not lodge thee by/ Chaucer or Spenser, or bid Beaumont lie/ A little further to make thee a room:/ Thou art a monument without a tomb.”
G LIST PLAY
Set in Amalfi, Italy. Widowed duchess secretly marries Antonio and has children with him, though she promised not to remarry. Her servant Bosola (sent by her brothers, Ferdinand & the Cardinal to spy on her) report the ‘betrayal, and the Duchess and her children are put to death. Antonio, Cardinal, & Ferdinand are subsequently murdered. The end!
An actual diary which starts in 1660 and ends in 1669. Sam moves up through the ranks in the Navy, visits many Shakespearean plays, cheats on his wife Elizabeth frequently, endures a plague, and the Great London fire, loses his wife, and ends his diary when he begins going blind.
Lovelace talks Clarissa into escaping an arranged marriage, but he rapes her & her family disowns her until she dies; her cousin avenges her by killing Lovelace.
The first gothic novel (C LIST)
When Manfred (Prince of Otranto)’s son is crushed by a giant helmet, M first imprisons an innocent peasant (Theodore), then wishes to divorce his wife (Hippolita) and marry his son’s betrothed (Isabella). She and Theo escape to a church where Father Jerome discovers that T is his son & they are of noble blood (J became priest when family kidnapped yrs earlier). M’s daughter Matilda & T fall in love, but M accidentally kills her. A giant knight (secretly I’s dad Alonso) is killed by T. Ghost of Prince Alonso declares T to be true heir of Otranto. T marries I & they rule Otranto.
First gothic novel, C LIST
Werther moves to Walheim and falls in love with Charlotte, whom he can’t have because she is engaged to Albert. After they are married, he commits suicide.
C LIST POEMS
Focuses on gaining the right for women to be educated, vote, hold office, etc., in order to make women better companions for men. Message not well received b/c Woll. also believed/practiced sexual freedom, open marriage, which obscured her message at that time.
Setting: La Vallee
Setting: medieval Madrid
Includes “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” & “Kubla Khan”
Rejects the classical notion that poetry should be about elevated subjects and should be composed in a formal style, Wordsworth instead championed more democratic themes—the lives of ordinary men and women, farmers, paupers, and the rural poor. In the “Preface” Wordsworth also emphasizes his commitment to writing in the ordinary language of people, not a highly crafted poetical one.
Wedding guest, allegorical figures (=forces of nature, life, death, retribution), mariner, shipmates
Catherine visits Bath, and meets the Tilneys. She goes to stay with them @ home in Northanger Abbey. C finds documents that make her think Gen. Tilney is a murderer. He’s not, but he IS a jackass, who kicks her out bc she’s not an heiress like he thought. She leaves, and Henry chases after her and proposes.
Trying to alter his life after scorned love, Childe Harold travels to many places (Cintra, France, Portugal, Spain, Albania, Greece, Germany, Rome). He admires the locations, but finds different faults with each people. He falls in love with Julia in Germany, and travels to/dies in Rome. He is unfulfilled, but has learned a lot about the world/human nature.
At age 9 Fanny came to live with her uncle, Sir Thomas Bertram, /his family at Mansfield Park. 9 yrs later she’s in love w/Edmund, but he loves Mary Crawford. Fan’s pursued, first jestingly then earnestly, by Mary’s bro, Henry. Fan knows that Henry & Mary are morally flawed. Her judgment is vindicated when Henry runs off w/Marie Bertram after she married Rushworth. Mary’s refuses to condemn bro, reavealing to Ed that she’d be a crap wife. Ed & Fan marry.
abba, abba, cdcdcd
Keats is filled with wonder as he sets out to explore the uncharted lands of Chapman’s Iliad translation. Sees Chap as a herald into the epic bard’s court. Keats compares self to Hernando Cortes, conquerer of Mexico, being speechless at first sight of the Pacific Ocean (Homer’s work).
Don Juan is attractive @ 16, and winds up getting busy with the married Donna Julia, until her hubby finds out, and he flees to Europe. Storm=abandon ship=Juan on a lifeboat for days before washing ashore. Meets Haidee, daughter of pirate Lambro (ruler of Cyclades). H & DJ live happilly in secret til dad sells him as a slave. He must secretly visit a sultana, but refuses to be her lover. Joins Catherine’s army, becomes her fav, goes back to England bc ill, wants Aurora, sees a ghost… ambiguous end.
-Essays written for the London Magazine in the early 1820s (53 pieces in all).
-Likes to use language of ‘antiquity,’ so much of his work refers to pieces from late 1500s/early-mid 1600s (Elizabethan/Jacobean work).
-Good examples: “Dissertation Upon Roast Pig” or “On the Artificial Comedy of the Last Century”
Honest Cordelia disowned (adviser Kent exiled) in ‘who loves daddy most?’ contest; her cloying sisters ea. get 1/2 Lear’s kingdom for A) caring for him, & B) letting him keep 100 knights. C goes to marry French King. Regan/Goneril begin dismantling Leer’s power/respect w/excuse that he’s feeble. Bastard Ed frames bro Edgar to get into Dad Glouchester’s will. Glou isn’t down w/how sisters treat L; Ed turns dad (G) in as traitor; Ed wins G’s lands/title; G loses eyes/reunites w/Edgar (posing as beggar). France invades to save Lear. R’s husband dies; G/L kill ea.other over marrying Ed. Lear & Ed die…Cordelia too? Edgar & Kent rule England.
Plot alternates btwn Henry’s strained relationship w/son Hal, & rebellion by family of noblemen Percys bc Henry owes them cash.
• First, Henry cancels his crusade because of rising rebellions in England. He notes that Hotspur (Northumberland’s son) is fighting rebels, while his kid Hal is at Boar’s Head Tavern, where friends Falstaff & Poins plan highway robbery.
• K. Henry & Hotspur argue about Hotspur’s denial of prisoners after rebellion; Henry calls Hot’s friend Mortimer a traitor & they are estranged.
• Hotspur/Uncle Thomas Percy (earl of Worcester) discuss rebellion plot to usurp Henry’s power.
• Falstaf, Peto, and Bardolph prepare for their robbery, while Poins & Hal plan a practical joke on F. After F. & gang rob travelers, P & H disguise selves as travelers and rob F.
• Meanwhile, Hotspur is warned via letter that the usurpation plan will be dangerous.
Reformed Hal kills Hotspur in rebellion against Henry. Worcester executed.
• Henry works to defeat rebel allies, esp. Northumberland, Scroop, & Glendower.
• North. discovers that Hotspur is dead; decides to renew battle vs. King.
• Scroop fights to avenge death of Richard I, whom Henry IV usurped (so much usurping!)
• North’s daughter convinces him to flee to Scotland.
• Falstaf nearly arrested for robbery; gets drafted to fight against rebels….winds up flirting with prostitute Doll; ‘weary’ Hal returns to old ways, playing tricks on Falstaf.
• Glendower dies; H’s army winning. The rebels give in, & battle is over.
• Falstaf gives soliloquy about swindling fellow recruiter (Justice Shallow).
• Hearing that Hal is still a delinquent, Henry collapses. Hal thinks he’s dead/tries on crown. Henry thinks Hal wants him dead. Hal is actually remorseful, and they reunite.
• Henry dies, Hal’s a great king, Falstaf banished: “How ill white hairs become a fool and jester!”
“In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth…” CREATION CYCLE: “And God said, “Let there be light, and there was light.” ASSESSMENT: “And God saw the light, that it was good…” CLASSIFICATION: “And God called the light day…”
Light/dark (D1), Heaven/firmament (D2), Earth (D3), Sun/moon/stars (D4), Sea/sky animals (D5), Land animals/man (D6), rest (D7)
Fall of Man: Adam (“formed…the dust of the ground, & breathed into his nostrils the breath of life”) & Eve in Eden; Eve tricked by serpent Satan. Ate fruit, tossed out of Eden.
LINK: Milton’s Paradise Lost only concerned w/these first 2 chapters
CAIN/ABEL: Eve’s sons. C. jealous of God’s love for A. Kills A. C. driven east of Eden, but marked for protection: “whoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.”
LINK: Steinbeck’s East of Eden.
FLOOD: “the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of [man’s] heart was only evil continually.” Huge flood; kill everyone & start over. Noah builds arc, gets “2 & 2 of all flesh,” and waits out flood. God’s regrets: “neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.”
LINK: could be based in Epic of Gilgamesh and/or Metamorphoses
TOWER OF BABEL: Shem folks want to build tower to Heaven. God thinks it’s arrogant, & scatters generations as punishment, confounding the languages of the earth.
ABRAHAM & ISAAC: A & wife Sarah can’t have kid. A knocks up maid Hagar=son Ishmael (a nobody, like Melville’s narrator). God tells A. he will be “father of many nations” & his generations will inherit land of Canaan. Elderly S winds up pregnant. God asks A to sacrifice I as a burnt offering. A. says a-okay, & God stops him @ last minute.
– Mostly Moses. First 5 bks=Jewish Torah, or 5 Christian Books of Moses.
– Egyptian Pharoah ordered all babies killed when Moses born; Mom (Jochebed) puts him in mini-arc. Adopted by Pharoah’s daughter/ grows up Egyptian prince; flees after killing slave-driver whip a Hebrew.
– God as burning bush; gives M snake rod/leprous hand to prove God supports freeing of M’s people.
– M to Pharoah: “Let my people go.” Pharoah: “F off, Moses.”
– Bad choice. 10 plagues (blood water, frogs, locusts, fire/brimstone, death to all 1stborn w/o lamb’s blood on door). Pharoah gives up & frees Hebrews, until M & peeps head to Canaan & P sends army. Parting of Red Sea for Hebrews, then “Oops, couldn’t hold it!” for army.
– 10 Commandments & journey through desert
– Split into 2 books
– Kings of Israel (Saul killed in battle w/Philistines, then David), anointed by prophet Sam (last Hebrew judge)
– David beats Goliath via slingshot
– King/wiseman Solomon is David’s son by Bathsheba
– Dave’s son Absalom rebels against David/tries to usurp throne (Don’t feel too bad for Dave…similar power struggle btwn Saul & David).
LINK: Usurping attempt is told allegorically in Dryden’s satirical long poem Absalom and Achitophel (1681-1682) and Faulkner’s Absalom, Absalom! (1936).
• Satan proposes to God that his loyal subject Job is only loyal because of God’s protection.
• Wanna bet? God takes Job’s health, wealth, & family to tempt Job into cursing God (mean)!
• Job doesn’t curse God; for the “patience of Job,” God restores his riches (huh? His family is still gone…)
• Much dialogue; Job talks w/friends in attempt to understand his situation.
• Job seen as Abraham-like figure.
• Others see book of Job as important moment of uncertainty in Old Testament.
•God to Jonah: “go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness come up before me.”
•”No way,” thinks Jonah; tries to escape “the presence of the Lord” by boarding a ship to Tarshish.
•God creates mighty tempest & J admits to the sailors that it’s his fault.
•Sailors cast Jonah overboard, and he is swallowed by a fish. He spends 3 days/nights in the fish’s belly, finally repenting.
• God orders the fish to spit Jonah out onto shore.
• Link: Melville’s Moby-Dick is deeply engaged with the book of Jonah.
• Joe & Mary haven’t consummated new marriage, so Joe is surprised when Mary says she’s prego. Angel Gabriel says she’ll bare son of God: Jesus, the King of Jews.
• Wise men (Magi) bring gifts for Jesus. King Herod hears about it & orders all babies under 2 years be killed in the “Massacre of the Innocents.” Mary and Joe flee with Jesus, who is protected until after Herod’s death.
• Jesus goes incognito until yrs later when he meets John the Baptist, who recognizes him right away; Jesus baptizes him.
• Jesus spends 40 days/nights fasting in desert. Devil tempts him 3 times, but Jesus is nourished by God.
• Jesus does lots of cool stuff like water to wine, raising Lazarus from the dead, & feeding 5,000 folks w/5 loaves & 3 fish.
• Jesus shares a Passover meal w/his disciples (Last Supper) & prophesies that one of the 12 will betray him.
• After chow, they go to the Garden of Gethsemane to pray; Jesus is arrested (Judas identifies him w/kiss for 30 silver pieces!) Many literary references to betrayal.
• Apostles go into hiding; Judas kills himself from guilt.
• Jesus is crucified in Golgotha, and resurrected 3 days later.
Salome = daughter of Herod
Herod = wants the head of John the Baptiste on a plate
Lazarus = resurrected by Jesus
Mary Magdalene = prostitute whom Jesus reformed
Also review Matt Ch. 5-7, Luke 15:11-32, (Mark 4:1-20, Matt 13:1-23, Luke 8:1-15).
The use of the parable has been a particularly powerful didactic tool in literature since the New Testament.
Joyce refers to the 4 important gospels as MaMaLuJo in Finnegan’s Wake.
•9 line Spensarian Stanzas: ababbcbcc; 1st 8 lines iambic pentameter, 9th lime iambic hexameter (called an alexandrine)
•Spensarian stanzas were popular till the 20th century, so don’t assume.
•Look for his “weird stylings.”
•Spenser depends heavily on Italian romantics (Ariosto & Tasso) & medieval/classical works (Romance of the Rose & The Aeneid).
•Only his use of allegory & symbolism makes his work remarkable & unique. He gives superficial romances, courtly love stories, and tragic epics importance.
– Journeying knights Redcrosse & Britomart symbolize Holiness & Chastity.
• Redcrosse quests to be w/Una (‘Truth’) b/c you can’t obtain holiness w/o truth.
• R. mistakes Duessa (‘falsehood’) for Una. Suffers for this, but recovers in House of Holiness, thanks to Faith, Hope, & Charity. Then conquers dragon representing all the world’s evil (God helps him out, of course).
• Britomart is great at being chaste, but doesn’t know how to love, & is surprised by that love when she sees her future hubby in a magic mirror. Learns to incorporate love w/chastity to reach Spenser’s idea of Christian love (moderation).
A didactic romance in prose, characterized by parallelisms (grammatical forms kept carefully even), antitheses, and perhiprases.
•Antithesis: combines/contrasts ideas in a balanced rhetorical form that gives weight to both. Ex.) “If you will be cherished when you be old, be courteous when you be young.” Uses antithesis to show appearance vs. reality. “Do we not commonly see that…in the greenest grass is the greatest serpent, in the clearest water the ugliest toad?”
•Parallelism: “thou weepest for the death of thy daughter, and I laugh at the folly of the father; greater vanity is there in the mind of the mourner, than bitterness in the death of the deceased.” Alliterative balance & contrast of meaning.
•Hot, rich gentleman Euphues moves from Athens to Naples (city of pleasure/wickedness). Euphues ignores warning of Eubulus (old gent) to be modest & reserved, and stays in Naples.
•There, Euph meets Phil; decides P. will be his only/eternal friend. Philautus is in love with the daughter of Don Ferardo, Lucilla, and takes Eu to meet her.
•Well crap, Eu decides that HE is in love with Lu, and chooses to deceive his ‘eternal friend’ by pretending to be in luvv with Lu’s friend Livia.
•Don Fer tells Lu she’s to marry Phil, but Lu says she loves Eu, which makes Phil feel betrayed! Phew. Exhausting! Phil to Eu: “Lu’s gonna betray you, too!” Eu: “Nuh-uh!” Then she falls in love with Curio/dumps Eu.
•Don F dies from grief bc Lu won’t dump idiot boyfriend, C.
•E&P friends again, & scorn love. E moves to Athens/writes treatise on how to raise a child under influence of nature, reason, & use (bc his upbringing didn’t steer him from sloth/wickedness). Writes many letters persuading others about godliness (a few to Phil) and thanking Eubulus for his advice.
• In 2nd book, Phil falls in love with Camilla, then marries Frances. Eu goes on about virtue of England.
“Mark but this flea, and mark in this
How little that which thou deny’st me is/It sucked me first, and now sucks thee/And in this flea our two bloods mingled be/Thou know’st that this cannot be said/A sin, nor shame, nor loss of maidenhead/Yet this enjoys before it woo,/And pampered swells with one blood made of two,/And this, alas, is more than we would do./Oh stay, three lives in one flea spare,/Where we almost, yea more than married are./This flea is you and I, and this/Our marriage bed, and marriage temple is;/Though parents grudge, and you, we’re met
/And cloistered in these living walls of jet./Though use make you apt to kill me,/Let not to that, self-murder added be,/And sacrilege, three sins in killing three./Cruel and sudden, hast thou since/Purpled thy nail in blood of innocence?/Wherein could this flea guilty be,/Except in that drop which it sucked from thee?/Yet thou triumph’st, and sayst that thou
Find’st not thyself nor me the weaker now;/Tis true, then learn how false fears be;/Just so much honour, when thou yield’st to me,/Will waste, as this flea’s death took life from thee.”
Lyric poem w/3 stanzas & 10 lines ea., abba cddc ee
“Busy old fool, unruly Sun,/Why dost thou thus,/Through windows, and through curtains, call on us?/Must to thy motions lovers’ seasons run?/ Saucy pedantic wretch, go chide/Late schoolboys, and sour prentices,/Go tell court-huntsmen that the king will ride,/Call country ants to harvest
/Love, all alike, no season knows, nor clime,/Nor hours, days, months, which are the rags of time./Thy beams, so reverend and strong/Why shouldst thou think?/I could eclipse and cloud them with a wink,/But that I would not lose her sight so long:/If her eyes have not blinded thine,/ Look, and tomorrow late, tell me/ Whether both the’Indias of spice and mine/Be where thou leftst them, or lie here with me./Ask for those kings whom thou saw’st yesterday,/And thou shalt hear: “All here in one bed lay.”/She’is all states, and all princes I,/Nothing else is./Princes do but play us; compar’d to this,/All honour’s mimic, all wealth alchemy./ Thou, sun, art half as happy’as we,/ In that the world’s contracted thus;/ Thine age asks ease, and since thy duties be/To warm the world, that’s done in warming us./Shine here to us, and thou art everywhere;/This bed thy centre is, these walls, thy sphere.”
– Invokes heavenly muse to tell story of Adam & Eve’s disobedience.
•Satan/rebel angels chained in Hell. Escape & fly to Pandemonium. Satan bent on corrupting A&E.
•Hearing this, Son offers to be a sacrifice for mankind.
•S disguised as cherub to get by Archangel Uriel (guarding sun).
•Beauty of Eden & painfully reaffirms S’s decision to make evil his good.
• Toad Satan whispers to E about forbidden fruit. Raphael tells A&E about S’s jealousy of Son’s job as right-hand, the war against God btwn angels, & how Son started kicking ace/took traitors to hell.
•Adam asks mucho questions; R. warns about his quest for knowledge.
A confesses he thinks E’s smokin’; R reminds him to love her spiritually.
•Serpant Satan flatters E, says that God wants her to eat the fruit; she does. A’d rather be damned w/E than pure w/o her. Aww…After eating the fruit, they get busy.
•Son punishes serpents w/eternal belly-walking, E w/pain of childbirth/ submission, A w/hunting & growing own food, & all w/pain & death. Satan = hero in Pandemonium, but punishment= forced into snake form. Hot&cold seasons=punish earth
•A&E start blaming ea.other. A wants to leave E; she contemplates suicide. They decide to love each other & get revenge on Satan via obedience to God.
•A&E must leave paradise. Michael shows A the future of mankind (including many scenes from the Bible). Eve dreams about same thing. A&E leave paradise hand in hand, into a new world.
•Parallels themes of Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress.”
•Also echo’s Ben Jonson’s “Song: To Celia.”
•Carpe diem poem.
•Four four-line stanzas: abab, cdcd, efef, ghgh.
•Herrick favors the trochaic foot: unit of two syllables in which the first is stressed and the second is unstressed.
“GATHER ye rosebuds while ye may,/ Old Time is still a-flying:/And this same flower that smiles to-day/To-morrow will be dying./The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun,/The higher he ‘s a-getting,/The sooner will his race be run,/And nearer he ‘s to setting./That age is best which is the first, When youth and blood are warmer;/But being spent, the worse, and worst Times still succeed the former./Then be not coy, but use your time, And while ye may, go marry:/For having lost but once your prime,/You may for ever tarry.”
NOTE: any time that Julia is mentioned on the test, it is either A) an excerpt of Herrick, or B) a nod to Herrick.
“WHENAS in silks my Julia goes,/Then, then, methinks, how sweetly flows/That liquefaction of her clothes.
Next, when I cast mine eyes and see/
That brave vibration each way free;/
O how that glittering taketh me.”
“DISPLAY thy breasts, my Julia—there let me/Behold that circummortal purity,/Between whose glories there my lips I’ll lay,/Ravish’d in that fair via lactea./
HER eyes the glow-worm lend thee,/The shooting stars attend thee;/And the elves also,/Whose little eyes glow./Like the sparks of fire, befriend thee./
No Will-o’-th’-Wisp mislight thee,/Nor snake or slow-worm bite thee ;/But on, on thy way,/Not making a stay,/Since ghost there’s none to affright thee./
Let not the dark thee cumber:/What though the moon does slumber?/The stars of the night/Will lend thee their light/Like tapers clear w/o number.
Then, Julia, let me woo thee,/Thus, thus to come unto me;/And when I shall meet/Thy silv’ry feet/My soul I’ll pour into thee.”
•”Some things are of nature as to make One’s fancy chuckle, while his heart doth ache.”
•”He that is down needs fear no fall He that is low, no pride.”
•”Better to be despised for too anxious apprehensions than ruined by too confident a security.”
•”There is a limit at which forbearance ceases to be a virtue.”
•”Breathes there a man, whose judgment clear Can others teach their course to steer, Yet run himself life’s mad career Wild as the wave?”
•”But pleasures are like poppies spread: You seize the flower.”
•”Nae man can tether time nor tide.”
•”The gallant Sir Robert fought hard to the end, but who can with fate and quart bumpers contend? Though Fate said, a hero should perish ill light; so up rose bright phoebus, and down fell the knight.”
•”Yestreen, when to the trembling string the dance gaed thro’ the lighted ha’, to thee my fancy took its wing; I sat, but neither heard nor saw.”
•”It bareth the name of Vantity Fair, bc the town where it is kept is “lighter than vanity.”
Read 2 paragraphs
•Allegory of believer’s journey to redemption. Chrisitan slogs through life, passing the Slough of Despond, Hill of Difficulty, Beulah, Doubting Castle, Beautiful, & Vanity Fair on the way to the Celestial City.
•Monument of Puritanism; just as popular in 19th cen. as Shakespeare or Bible. Much less so by 20th cen.
•Doctrine of PP from New Test’s Sermon on the Mount: Christ tells followers to seek “1st the kingdom of God, and his “righteousness” & to avoid path to destruction.
•Christian goes to CC with Faithful, Hopeful, Christiana, her four sons, maid Mercy, Feeble-mind, Valiant-for-truth, Despondency, Honest, & Stead-fast. Man, it’s a parade!
•Some obvious folks don’t make it: Obstinate, Athiest, Prejudice, & Ill-Will. Less obvious: Ignorance is bound @ CC & sent to Hell…harsh!). Talkative&Pliable don’t get in.Wha?! Crazy Puritans…
•Satirical lyric mock-heroic poetry written in heroic couplets; London
•Similar to Bible story: wicked Achitophel urged King David’s illegitimate son Absalom to rise up against his father.
•Absalom (Monmouth Duke)= noblest of Charles II’s bastard kids. Many Jews (Whigs) hate Charles’ son David; wish to rebel against reign.
•Achitophel, (Shaftesbury Earl/Whig leader) talks Ab into usurpation.
•Ab makes a nationwide tour (planned by Ach) as ‘people’s pal,’ opposed to Egyptian domination, Jebusite (Catholic) plot, & senile king (David). Needs people’s support bc he’s not next in line for the throne. The Jews (whom the narrator calls naïve) proclaimed him next messiah.
•Dave realizes enemies scoffing at his moderation/clemency as sign of weakness; shows strength/reasserts royal prerogative. Ab repents/Dave forgives him. He says that he will resort to force to defend the supremacy of established law. Heaven claps its thunder to approve of his words and the coming era.
•Satire; mock heroic poetry; London
•Monarch of Dullness (Flecknoe) passes crown to dull/stupid Shadwell (a satirist Dryden hates), bc his work is obscure, repetitive nonsense.
•Shad coronated as Monarch of Dunces @ Barbican (rundown area linked w/inferior, course humor like Shad’s comedies). Shad walks on carpets of his unpurchased pages to a throne of Fleck’s unpurchased work, where Shad swears to dunces to maintain dullness/wage war with truth/sense. Wears wreath of sleep-inducing poppies; 12 owls (= stupidity) released.
•Fleck gives prophetic speech w/writing advice, saying his characters should be modeled after dull self, and writing after obscure authors (not famous Restoration greats like Ben Jonson; real Shad claimed to be thier contemp.). He should abandon drama/satire & go w/lower forms (anagrams, pattern poems, acrostics, & songs).
•Frank Horner spreads rumor that he is impotent so he can seduce wives w/o husbands worrying.
•Male characters criticize women for sluttiness, & criticize men.
•Thinking Horner is impotent, Jasper gives him access to his slutty wife.
•Mr. Pinchwife brings sis Alithea to city to marry the playboy Sparkish.
•Harcourt seduces Alithea in front of Sparkish/Mrs. Pinchwife is taken with ‘impotent’ Horner (asks him to show her the sights).
•Alithea eventually marries Harcourt instead of idiot playboy, Sparkish.
•Restoration: period in England (1660-1700) when monarchy was restored after 10 yr. rule by Parliament.
•Comedy: subgenre of drama; a play in which the protagonist vanquishes his opponents morally and financially
•Full of bantor/repartee, but not high lit. Influenced modern Brit/ American comedies. Makes fun of people’s public manners.
•You can follow the geneology of one-liners from restoration comedies all the way up to Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw, and Neil Simon!
•Compliation of Pope’s literary opinions, aimed to intending writer.
•Rhyming verse called heroic couplets; essay written in Horation mode, & mocks John Dennis’ work.
•Refers to Virgil, Homer, Aristotle, Horace, & Longinus; feels imitation of ancients shows taste: “True ease in writing comes from art, not chance/As those move easiest who have learned to dance.”
And ten low words oft creep in one dull line:/While they ring round the same unvaried chimes,/With sure returns of still expected rhymes;/ Wher’er you find “the cooling western breeze”,/In the next line, it “whispers through the trees”;/If crystal streams “with pleasing murmurs creep”,/The reader’s threatened (not in vain) with “sleep”…”
-“A little learning is a dangerous thing;/Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring (sacred to the Muses).”
-“To err is human, to forgive devine.”
-“Fools Rush In Where Angels Fear to Tread…”
Mock heroic poetry
•Belinda dreams that Ariel warns her to beware of jealousy, pride, & men.
•B awakes to read letter that makes her forget his warnings. Preens in mirror, & is guilty of pride.
•Suitor Lord Petre admires a lock of B’s hair/vows to have it by fair means or foul. Wakes up early to pray for it.
•B & suitors go on a Thames cruise, then play cards (likened to a battle). P clips a lock & B is pissed.
•Mischievous gnome Umbril goes to Cave of Spleen for a sack of sighs/ flask of tears to make B feel worse.
•Clarissa (helped P in his crime) urges B to get over it, have good sense, & stop being vein. B thinks, “screw that,” and starts a scuffle btwn ladies & gents to recover curl.
•Lock lost in battle, taken to heavens and immortalized as a constellation.
-Mock heroic poetry set in England/underworld (ala Virgil)
-(more serious than other mock epics; warns England to reform)
-Criticism of current literary climate, chance to avenge slights of his work by other writers.
-Acclaims goddess Dulness & her chosen prince (1st ed: scholar Theobald; 2nd ed: playwright/ poet laureate Cibber).
– 1st book: Mac Flecknoe ripoff
– 2nd: Fitting contests for Pope’s enemies, like journalists: “Who flings most filth, and wide pollutes around/the stream, be his the Weekly Journals bound.”
– 3rd: grandiose heroic couplets/parallels to classical underworld visits. Mentions poets John Taylor & Elkanah Settle.
– 4th: criticizes institutions promoting dullness.
– 5th: ANOTHER invocation, evil omens, Dulness & Cibber on throne. Science/Wit/Logic/Rhetoric, etc. chained up (ala Spenser’s The Faerie Queene).
This portion presents Pope’s views of education
-The “conversations” are grouped into classical dialogues, dialogues of sovereigns/statesmen, dia of literary men, of famous women, & misc. Range from Trojan War to Landor’s own period. Great insights into humanity, though characters are only vehicles for ideas (not fleshed out).
-Examples: Marcellus & Hannibal in 2nd Punic War, Lady LIsle & Elizabeth Gaunt (executed for sheltering fugitives), Oliver Cromwell & Walter Noble
-Whole work elaborates metaphor from Swift’s 1704 Tale of a Tub: “What is Man himself but a Micro-Coat, or rather a compleat Suit of Cloaths w/all its Trimmings?”
-3 books criticizing materialism & philosophical rationalism of his age.
– Diogenes Teufelsdröckh is Professor of Things in General at the U of Know-Not-Where, & his manuscripts are sent to the narrator.
– Pivotal chapters based on Goethe: People’s unhappiness derives from the source of their greatness, their finite soul’s striving for the infinite. Once they overcome their preoccupation w/happiness & turn attention to God, they shall achieve peace. Carlyle’s famous command is “Close thy Byron; open thy Goethe.”
Modeled on King Lear; characteristic blend of Balzac pathos/irony
Young law student Rastignac befriends the often mocked, aging Goriot, who lives in the same boardinghouse. R initiated into aristocratic society when he stakes his future on fickle affections of Mme de Nucigen (G’s kid, who ditches him to rise in Parisian society). G dies after ill- treatment from ungrateful daughters (wastes last of $ to buy ballgowns)l R uses his last $ to bury Goriot/resolves to do battle w/Parisian society.
(1838 American Transcendentalism) D LIST
Pym’s friend Augustus Barnard smuggles him onto his father’s ship. The crew mutinies & Cap’n B’s killed; they are saved by mutineer Peters. They overthrow mutineers, but wind up starving & must eat sailor Parker; Augustus dies. Peters & Pym saved by ship Jane Guy. Travel to land where natives kill everyone. Pym/Peters escape in canoe but probably killed later by a giant at sea…? Hmmm.
An autobiography which deeply influenced Melville’s Moby Dick (1851).
-First detective story that uses an imaginative, yet cold, analytical sleuth with great deductive reasoning, an aha! moment, and an average Joe friend as narrator.
– An escaped orangutan kills Mme L’Espanaye & her daughter in the morgue by trying to imitate shaving. Uh…
“That’s my last Duchess painted on the wall,/Looking as if she were alive. I call/That piece a wonder, now: Fra Pandolf’s hands/ Worked busily a day, and there she stands.
…Was courtesy, she thought, and cause enough/For calling up that spot of joy. She had/A heart—how shall I say?—too soon made glad,/ Too easily impressed: she liked whate’er/ She looked on, and her looks went everywhere.
…Oh sir, she smiled, no doubt / Whene’er I passed her; but who passed w/o/Much the same smile? This grew; I gave commands;/Then all smiles stopped together. There she stands/As if alive.”
…The Count your master’s known munificence/Is ample warrant that no just pretence/ Of mine for dowry will be disallowed;/Though his fair daughter’s self, as I avowed/At starting, is my object.” Yipes, run away, new object!
(1842 Late Romantic/Victorian)
Based on bk. 11 of The Odyssey.
Earnshaws: Catherine Earnshaw Linton Heathcliff (phew)/Frances/Hareton/Hindley/Mr./Mrs.
Heathcliffs: Linton, Joseph, Edgar, and the famous Heathcliff
Lintons: Edgar, Isabella (later Heathcliff), Mrs., Mr.
Pyncheons: Thomas Maule/Alice/Clifford/ Colonel/Gervayse/Hepzibah/Judge Jaffreys (older and younger)/Phoebe
Not only a great work of scholarship but also a great work of art. More than a catalog of architectural accomplishments, it is a work of cultural history and a commentary on human character.
Capn Arthur Donnithorne, Jonathan Burge, Mary Burge, Hetty Sorrel, Matthias Bede, Seth, Dinah Morris, Mrs. Poyser
The English utilitarian concerns himself in this work with the problem of defining the limits of the power of the state to interfere with personal liberty. The result is one of the most important statements in the history of Western democracy.
Seven blank-verse paragraphs that reflect upon the strange and tragic fate of its speaker, the doomed lover of Aurora, the goddess of the dawn in Roman mythology.
Mr. Kimble, Nancy & Priscilla Lammeter, Mr. Macey, Mr. Tookey, Aaron & Dolly Winthrop, Silas Marner
Also known as History of My Religious Opinions. This is the famous essay reply to the attack upon him by Charles Kingsley (K accuses N of having “gambled away” his reason/having a “morbid mind,” and not caring about “truth for its own sake”). Newman valued tradition and hierarchy, & wished to return Anglican church to the severe, authoritarian faith of the past, from which he thought the Church of England had lapsed.
King Edward IV of England
George (Duke of Clarence)
Richard (Duke of Glouchester)
Prince of Wales
Duke & Duchess of York (Duke’s Mom)
Jane Shore (Duke’s mistress)
Duke of Buckingham
House of Lancaster (red roses):
Queen Elizabeth (Edward IV’s wife)
Lord Rivers (her brothers)
Lord Dorset (her former hubby’s son)
Lady Anne (later Queen to Rich III)
Henry, Earl of Richmond (later Henry VII, 1st of Tudor House)
The Gothic Novel
Percy Bysshe Shelley
American: Washington Irving & Edgar Allen Poe
(Also Transcendentalism in US; see different card)
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
Brits: John Ruskin
George Eliot Gerard
Americans: Mark Twain & Henry James
William Butler Yeats
Americans: Ernest Hemingway
F. Scott Fitzgerald
W.E.B. Du Bois
After meeting a drunk whose kid (Sonya) sells self to support family, Raskolnikov robs/murders pawn broker to save sis Dunya from marrying loser Luzhin (but really to prove theory that he’s a superman above the law). Engagement off, but new ahole (Svidrigailov) steps in. R plays cat & mouse w/magistrate (Petrovich) & falls in love w/confesses crime to Sonya (she gets it, but tells him to confess). Svid (alluded murderer?) overhears R; blackmails R’s sis to hook up or he’ll snitch. She refuses, he’s tormented by previous sins, & commits suicide. He is what R could become w/o conscience (w/’Superman’ theory). R confesses.
A sought a center of authority by which the anarchy caused by the troubled passage of the Reform Bill of 1867 might be regulated. Criticism against utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham/John Stuart Mill’s followers & various mvmnts of liberal reform. Disturbed by social/political confusion, by Fenianism/Hyde Park Riots of 1866, and by the inability of either the church or the government to cope with the growing unrest both in England and on the Continent, Arnold attempted to describe an objective center of authority that all, regardless of religious or social bias, could follow.
A dramatic monologue in 37 lines
Had 3 yr. term in Parliament; for women’s equality.
Book 1: Miss Brooke; focuses on Dorothea (19) who marries an old man (bc she thinks he’s an aspiring author); he turns out to be a lazy man in need of a nurse. Rosamond marries Lydgate to CRUD. FINISH LATER.
Bears witness to the intellectual ferment of the industrial and democratic revolutions of the time. Wider suffrage led to state-supported education in Britain and debate about its proper content. These circumstances supplied Mill’s chief motives for recording his life. He wished to recount his own intellectual development and mission in a period of cultural transition and to describe his remarkable education.
Petrarchan sonnet describing a world infused by God with a beauty and power that withstands human corruption.
The collapse & fall of the financial empire of rustic Vermont entrepreneur Silas Lapham. The “rise” is L’s moral resurrection,which takes place when L’s business fails as a result of his decision to abandon the elastic and self-serving business codes which have been instrumental in his financial rise.
Set in Venice
Sunset and evening star,/And one clear call for me!/And may there be no moaning of the bar,/When I put out to sea,
But such a tide as moving seems asleep,/Too full for sound and foam,/When that which drew from out the boundless deep/Turns again home.
Twilight and evening bell,/And after that the dark!/
And may there be no sadness of farewell,/When I embark;
For tho’ from out our bourne of Time and Place/The flood may bear me far,/I hope to see my Pilot face to face/When I have crossed the bar.
The Countess Cathleen is a huge philanthropist, who is robbed by merchants (& the Rua men) who use the $$ to buy souls from starving peasants. Cathleen sells her soul to buy back those of the others, and she is redeemed in Heaven for her sacrifice.
A new mother goes mad while staring at yellow wallpaper, since her hubby John & doctors won’t let her have any stimulation as she recovers from post part-em depression.
Set in Angouleme/Paris, France
(1893 Realism) D LIST
Called the Human Comedy in ref. to Dante’s Divine Comedy.
David & Eve live a hard married life since Eve’s bro Lucien continues to borrow all their $$ for a pricey/scandalous lifestyle in Paris w/mistresses. Their print shop is failing. L forges bank notes in D’s name; D can’t pay & goes to jail, while prosecution/bankers got rich off his new printing process. L gets $$ from a priest, sends it to D, & E&D retire in country where they eventually inherit dad’s vineyard.
G LIST POEM
Seven quatrains of rhymed iambic tetrameter
We spend the whole novella (with agonizingly long and complicated sentences) wondering if the kids are really in cahoots with evil ghosts, or if the governess is merely crazy, till the kids die.
Setting: Grand Isle, New Orleans
Often called “the first Modernist poem.”
Let us go then, you and I,/When the evening is spread out against the sky/Like a patient etherised upon a table;/Let us go, through certain half-deserted streets,/The muttering retreats/Of restless nights in one-night cheap hotels/And sawdust restaurants with oyster-shells:/Streets that follow like a tedious argument/Of insidious intent/To lead you to an overwhelming question … /Oh, do not ask, “What is it?”/ Let us go and make our visit.
References to Dante’s Divine Comedy, Hesiod (8 C. BC)
No poet or artist has his complete meaning in isolation but must be judged, for contrast/comparison, w/the dead. The poet’s transforming mind stores up feelings, phrases, and images until all the particles form a new work. Poetry is not a turning loose of personal emotion but deliberate escape from it.
Alludes to lotus-eaters and sailors/sirens from Odyssey.
Alludes to Sophocles’ “Seven against Thebes”
Also alludes to Samothrace, Pisistratus, Horace, Henry James, John Ruskin, Dante Gabriel Rossetti
“For three years, out of key with his time, He strove to resuscitate the dead art
Of poetry; to maintain “the sublime” In the old sense. Wrong from the start—”
Reference to Helen of Iliad
“Once more the storm is howling, and half hid/Under this cradle-hood and coverlid
My child sleeps on./There is no obstacle/But Gregory’s wood and one bare hill/
Whereby the haystack- and roof-levelling wind./Bred on the Atlantic, can be stayed;/ And for an hour I have walked & prayed/Because of the great gloom that is in my mind.”
A LIST!!! Lyrical poem
Turning and turning in the widening gyre/The falcon cannot hear the falconer;/ Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;/Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,/The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere/The ceremony of innocence is drowned;/The best lack all conviction, while the worst/ Are full of passionate intensity./Surely some revelation is at hand;/Surely the Second Coming is at hand.
The Second Coming! Hardly are those words out/When a vast image out of Spritus Mundi/Troubles my sight: somewhere in the sands of the desert/A shape with lion body and the head of a man,/A gaze blank and pitiless as the sun,/Is moving its slow thighs, while all about it/Reel shadows of the indignant desert birds./The darkness drops again; but now I know/That twenty centuries of stony sleep
were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle,/And what rough beast, its hour come round at last,/Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?
Poem is preceded by epigraph from The Satyricon of Petronius.
The first twelve lines of “The Burial of the Dead” section include three Old Testament allusions; reference also to Dante’s Inferno.
5 Parts of Waste Land:
1. The Burial of the Dead
2. A Game of Chess
3. The Fire Sermon
4. Death by Water
5. What the Thunder Said
That corpse you planted last year in your garden,/
Has it begun to sprout?/ Will it bloom this year?/
Or has the sudden frost disturbed its bed?…
2. “The river’s tent is broken: the last fingers of leaf/Clutch and sink into the wet bank. The wind/Crosses the brown land, unheard. The nymphs are departed./
Sweet Thames, run softly, till I end my song…”
5. “Who is the third who walks always beside you
/When I count, there are only you and I together
/But when I look ahead up the white road/There is always another one walking beside you.”
G LIST POEM
Note: “The Hollow Men” is a ‘postlude’ to The Waste Land & a prelude to Ash Wednesday. It can be considered a link between the two works.
Both a single hundred-line poem and a sequence of five poems (or parts). The title comes from Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, and the epigraphs come from Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (
The horror!”) Also alludes to Dante’s Inferno (“We” are modern-day versions of Dante’s tormented souls suffering in “our” low-grade way the pain of loss, whispering rather than howling.) Prevalence of short lines, of elliptical and fragmentary phrasings, and the repetition of a handful of key words and images (eyes, shadow, and kingdom).
Char: Jake Barnes, Robert Cohn, Lady Brett Ashley
The novel’s moral: no matter how you choose to live in this senseless world, live with style.
An open-ended discussion in which Forster covers 7 aspects of the English novel: story, characters, plot, fantasy, prophecy, pattern, and rhythm.
That is no country for old men. The young/In one another’s arms, birds in the trees/—Those dying generations—at their song,/The salmon-falls, the mackerel-crowded seas,/Fish, flesh, or fowl commend all summer long/Whatever is begotten, born, and dies./Caught in that sensual music all neglect/Monuments of unaging intellect.
An aged man is but a paltry thing,/A tattered coat upon a stick, unless/Soul clap its hands and sing, and louder sing/For every tatter in its mortal dress,/Nor is there singing school but studying/Monuments of its own magnificence;/And therefore I have sailed the seas and come/To the holy city of Byzantium.
O sages standing in God’s holy fire/As in the gold mosaic of a wall,/Come from the holy fire, perne in a gyre,/And be the singing-masters of my soul./ Consume my heart away; sick with desire/And fastened to a dying animal/It knows not what it is; and gather me /Into the artifice of eternity.
Once out of nature I shall never take/My bodily form from any natural thing,/But such a form as Grecian goldsmiths make/Of hammered gold and gold enamelling/To keep a drowsy Emperor awake;/Or set upon a golden bough to sing/To lords and ladies of Byzantium/Of what is past, or passing, or to come.
The title is a reference to
Ash Wednesday is the final segment in the unofficial trilogy of Waste Land, “Hollow Men,” & Ash Wednesday. This poem sprang from Eliot’s acceptance of the Anglo-Catholic faith.
“. . . pray that I may forget/ These matters that with myself I too much discuss/ Too much explain,/and that at this stage of religious experience the proper prayer is/Teach us to sit still.”
She writes as Alice B. Toklas, so her observations are as if from Toklas’s point of view. This allows Stein to say things about herself she otherwise would not be able to without sounding utterly egotistical and pompous. This book recounts a lot of encounters Stein has with other painters and writers.
Thomas Sutpen’s story is told by 4 diff. narrators. He builds a house in Jefferson, marries Ellen/has kids (Henry & Judith); Judy plans to marry Charles. T/H/C go to war. When Charles plans to wed Judy after discovery that he’s her 1/2 bro, Henry kills him. After war, Ellen’s dead. Tom knocks up Millie & mistreats her for rearing a girl (needs boy for dynasty), so her g’pa Wash kills him. H & J live in Sutpen’s 100 w/Tom’s illegitimate daughter Clytie, who sets fire to house & kills herself & Henry.
Narrator #1 (Rosa): hates Sutpen; bitter retelling.
#2: Mr. Compson: sympathetic (story told by father)
#3: Compson’s son; his g’pa gave him more details than his father received.
#4: Shreve: knows less; objective view of the story; in a position to question certain aspects of the narrative.
An expression of the dreaming collective psyche as it relives the major conflicts of myth and history. This psyche is divided into the two sexual principles, the major representations of which are Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker (HCE) and Anna Livia Plurabelle (ALP)…and holy ****, does it look confusing!
HCE's feels guilt over indiscretion in Dublin's Phoenix Park (obscure event; central to entire dream). HCE encountered 2 girls; commits obscure offense (seen by 3 boys/soldiers; news of it spread by gossipy 4 Old Men). The retellings through rumor, gossip, & song render all about this Original Sin unreliable, except that it happened. Protesting innocence, HCE sleeps. In his dreams he encounters previous versions of his crime, full of sexual/ scatological innuendo; this further clouds the precise nature of the offense. Characters undergo series of metamorphoses as they pass through the 4 phases of history, representing totality of individual/collective development.
Char: Geoffrey Firmin (the Consul), Yvonne, Hugh, Jacques Laruelle
About a shocking character at the time: Holden
“A huge sad comedy of wild phrasing.” Version of open verse that employs a series of individual image clusters. 3 parts, each marked w/specific rhythmic pattern. With its fervent declaration that “the best minds” of a generation have been driven to madness, establishes poet as engaged witness; the compelling claim, “I have seen …,” = conscious parallel to Walt Whitman’s active participation (“I was the man; I suffered; I was there”) in critical moments of his time.
Story about a tribe’s culture/customs, and its eventual colonization.
G LIST play