Genetically Modified Organisms

Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the debate over GMOs, detailing specifically what they are, their history and the pros and cons behind their expansion and use.

Central Idea: The use, expansion and selling of Genetically Modified Foods is a controversial subject for many people. To address this debate, I will explain what GMOs exactly are and examine their history and origins in the United States, and detail the pros and cons of GMOs using evidence from scientific studies and reports.


Did you know that humans have been genetically modifying organisms for thousands of years? Cats and dogs, for example, have been selectively bred for human benefit since the ancient times. The subject of genetically modified organisms, specifically focusing on GMOs in everyday foods, and explore the different scientific studies on their use. I have completed much thorough research on GMOs through scholarly articles, books and credible scientific studies.

This topic is relevant to listeners because GMOs have, and will in the future, define the quality and nutrition of food for the everyday consumer, and the conflict between organic foods and genetically modified ones applies to all consumers.

Throughout all of my research, what really stuck out to me were the benefits of GMOs for farmers and consumers and the drawbacks and reasons for people not to support them.

Genetic modification is a “special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms” (Bawa, Anilakumar).

INTERNAL SUMMARY: I will be discussing the first certified GMO crop, what exactly defines GMO and common types of GMOs commonly found.

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First Development and use of GMOs in 1980s and 90s First GMO commercial crop Calgene’s Flavr Savr tomato approved in 1994 by U.S. Food and Drug Administration Flavr Savr tomato extended shelf life by a week and lengthen ripening time for flavor Flavr Savr tomatoes failed to create any major revenue Glyphosate-resistant crops developed in the United States tested on soybeans in 1996 popular for farmers Soybeans take up the largest land areas 54.2 million ha and maize in second taking up 13.2 million ha (last name) Decreased effectiveness as weeds evolve resistance to GRC at rapid rates Clarify and define GMOs GMOs are process of choosing a desired trait, isolating trait, interesting trait into the genome of an organism and grow GMO

GMO developers “identify the distinguishing attributes of new genetic traits and assesses whether any new material that a person consumed in food made from the genetically engineered plants could be toxic or allergenic” (FDA). Consultation process required for GMO farmers Common types of GMO foods Corn, specifically BT, cotton, soybeans, canola, potatoes and tomatoes Most U.S. maize is genetically modified BT-corn deters species of insects and pests

INTERNAL SUMMARY: GMOs in foods are a relatively new invention and take many trials and errors when being developed, as proven by the case of the Flavr Savr tomato.

TRANSITION: The debate over GMOs in food is a heated and controversial one, and many factors contribute to one’s stance on the subject.

INTERNAL SUMMARY: I will be discussing the economic benefits of GMOs for both consumers and growers and detail the improved nutritional benefits.

INTERNAL SUMMARY: There are many upsides to using GMOs in food crops, such as lower prices for consumers and easier farming for growers.

TRANSITION: Although there are many advantages to using GMOs in foods for both the consumer and farmer, there are as well many drawbacks to their continued, prolonged use.

INTERNAL SUMMARY: Because GMOs are relatively new, there are a limited number of studies completed in their effects, but the few that have been done show signs of costly, negative ones that could impact the future of human health and the environment.

TRANSITION: To conclude, the use of GMOs in everyday foods is a highly controversial subject given that fact that GMOs have not been studied on long term and many people are split on which side of the argument to support.

CONCLUSION SUMMARY STATEMENT: GMOs are a complex and controversial topic. They have many benefits, primarily economic ones for buyers and farmers, but many drawbacks at the same, as some studies have shown the negative impacts they have on the organisms residing around them and human health issues, such as allergies.

MEMORABLE CLOSING STATEMENT: Now it is time for you to decide what you believe is right – banning GMOs for good, or support them for continued use in the future. The actions of regular consumers like us have the power to decide the fate of the GMOs in our foods.

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Genetically Modified Organisms. (2022, Apr 26). Retrieved from

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