Genetic factor refers to the genes that we inherit. It can be due to the presence, absence, or combination of genes. I chose cystic fibrosis.
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder in which sticky mucus builds up in the lungs and digestive system. They cause infection and digestion problems. This is a genetic disease. It affects 75,000 people in the UK. It can affect your liver, lungs, or pancreas. The life expectancy of people living with cystic fibrosis is 31 years.
Although life expectancy is increasing due to screening and the emergence of new technologies and information such as oxygen machines.
However, there are changes that mean it gets better. In 1940, the life expectancy of people living with cystic fibrosis was only 6 months. People will be born, and they will live to see life only a couple of months of their life. Over the years, more and more people live until they get older.
In 1980 (40 years later) he turned 18. As we move into the 21st century, more and more people are living to their 30s and older.
This is due to new technologies and media. In the 21st century, there was more awareness and information about cystic fibrosis, such as screening. In the early 19th century, doctors could not diagnose this disease.
When babies are born today, they are tested and screened for many things to make sure they are healthy. If a child is sick, doctors can treat him early so they don’t dump him at the last minute. With cystic fibrosis, I see a tendency for life expectancy to increase over the years.
About 10,400 people in the UK have cystic fibrosis, that’s 1 in every 2,500 children born. In 2012, 111 people died from cystic fibrosis in the UK, the total number of deaths falling from 122 compared to 2008. This shows that there is change and people are living longer. Antibiotics were used in the 1940s. Nebulized penicillin was used, which is used for chronic cough. Sulfadiazine drugs were also used but were later considered ineffective. In the 1950s, the antibiotics chloteracilin and oxytetracycline were the first drugs to treat infections. Higher doses have been used in combination with the antibiotics chloramphenicol and erythromycin for more dangerous infections. In the 1980s, intravenous antibiotics gentamicin and tobramycin were used in CF patients. In the 1990s, the antibiotic flucloxacillin was regularly used.
The UK CF Trust Antibiotic Groups have recommended continuous drug use for the first two years after birth for all CF patients. For inhalation, a special preparation of tobramycin has been created. In the 2000s, azithromycin was used to treat chronic bacteria and patients with severe inflammation. Intravenous antibiotics were more commonly used in the early stages of infections, rather than as a last resort.
Antibiotic drugs such as Lynovex are being developed today. New antibacterial drugs such as intravenous gallium and inhaled nitric oxide are promising trials.
The diagnosis of CF has also changed in recent years. In 1983, Dr. Dorothy Anderson created the first description of VF from autopsies in malnourished children, calling it “cystic fibrosis of the pancreas”. A swear electoryle defect in CF was discovered in the 1950s. Lung function testing has been used to diagnose and track a CF patient, and historically, a patient’s salty skin taste has been a symptom of CF. In the 1960s, sweat tests were created and small bowel biopsies were used to diagnose CF patients.
The CF gene was identified in the 1980s. It is called the regulator of transmembrane conductance in cystic fibrosis. CF cases were now better understood and the drive for a cure was gaining momentum. In the 2000s, complete sequencing of the CF gene was performed. More than 1,700 CF mutations have been identified. The average life expectancy of CF patients today is 47 years.
Lifestyle factors are our way of life and how we want to live our lives. For example, I chose smoking and diet. Smoking is a choice and is not influenced by genetic factors. Your environment can influence what you smoke, for example if all of your friends – you might want to fit in. Cigarette packs warn you of potential dangers. However, this does not stop some.
There are some facts and figures showing a decrease in the number of smokers. In 2001, 44% of students admitted to having tried smoking at least once, up from 27% in 2010. Today there is more awareness, such as images and information on packages, and more people are aware of what if cause and effect, such as cancer. There is also information on the dangers of smoking in schools. 70% of students admitted to doing what their friends do to match them and act cool in front of them.
Peer pressure is one factor that can affect the number of people who smoke. There are also many older people who smoke because they started smoking in their early years, when is smoking what is popular and what is not? known to be dangerous. Once you start, it is difficult to quit smoking, some older people may smoke habitually. In recent years, the legal age for buying tobacco has risen to 18 years. This is done in order to prevent smoking among young people. It also became difficult to buy them, prices were rising.
In the early 60s one could buy a cigarette for 1 pound, today a pack of tobacco costs 12-15 pounds. They taxed them and made them more expensive so people wouldn’t smoke. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults (aged 16 and over) in the UK has declined since the early 1970s. The gender gap in the prevalence of cigarette smoking has narrowed in recent years.
Diet is also a lifestyle factor as you choose what you eat and whether you exercise or not. A poor diet can lead to both obesity and malnutrition. Too much junk food can lead to obesity. Poverty can be a cause of obesity, as a person may not have enough money to buy healthy food, which is sometimes expensive. Overeating can also lead to type 2 diabetes.
Diet and what you eat is your choice and how you take care of yourself. Diet can also mean how you take care of yourself, such as exercise. There are different ways to care for yourself, and exercise can be one of them. Not exercising and eating a lot of unhealthy foods can lead to poor nutrition. You may also be in poor health due to lack of food. Lack of food can be caused by how we feel and telling ourselves that we need to stop eating, this can lead to weight loss. You can also lose weight due to the fact that you live in poverty and cannot afford food.
In 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight, of whom more than 650 million were obese. Most of the world’s population lives in countries where overweight and obesity kill more than underweight. These facts and figures show how much diet affects us.