Genetic factor relates to genes that we inherit. It can be down to presence, absence or a combination of genes. I have chosen cystic fibrosis.Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition that causes sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive system. This causes lung infections and problems with digesting food. This is a genetic illness. It affects 75000 people in the UK. It can affect your liver,lung or pancreas. The life expectancy for people living with cystic fibrosis is 31 years.
Although, life expectancy is going up because of screening and there’s new technology and information, such as oxygen machines. There is however no cure for it but there are changes which means it is getting better. In 1940 the life expectancy for individuals living with cystic fibrosis was only 6 months. People would be born and they would only get to life a couple of months of their life. As the years go by theres more people surviving until theyre older.
In 1980(40 years after) it went up tp 18 years old. As we move on to the 21st century, there are more people living to the age of 30+. This is due to new technology and media. In the 21st century there were more awareness and information about cystic fibrosis, for example screening. In the early 19th century, there were no screenings, which meant that doctors couldn’t diagnose someone with it, they would just die or get ill suddenly. When babies are born today, they get tests and screening for a lot of things, this is to make sure they’re healthy.
If a baby has an illness, the doctors can treat them early so they dont leave it last minute. The pattern that i can see with cystic fibrosis is that there’s more life expectancy as the years go on. Around 10,400 people in the UK have cystic fibrosis, thats 1 in every 2,500 babies born. In 2012 111 people died from cystic fibrosis in the UK, the total numbers of deaths came down from 122 from 2008. This shows that there is change and there are more people surviving longer. In the 1940s they used antibiotics. They used nebulized penicillin, this is used for chronic coughs. Sulphadiazine drugs were also used but they were later thought to be ineffective. In the 1950s antibiotics chloteracyline and oxytetracycline were the first choices for treating infections. Stronger doses in combination with antibiotics chloramphenicol and erythromycin were used for more dangerous infections. In the 1980s IV antibiotics gentamicin and tobramycin were used for CF patients. In the 1990s the antibiotic flucloxacillin was used regularly. The antibiotics groups of the UK CF trust recommended the drug to be given continuously for the first two years after birth for all CF patients. A special formulation of tobramycin was created for inhalation. In the 2000s azithromycin was used for patients with chronic bacteria and for those with severe inflammation. IV antibiotics were used more often in early stages of infections rather than a last resort.
Today, antibiotic formulations such as Lynovex are being developed. New antibacterial treatments, such as IV gallium and inhaled nitric oxide are being tested with mush promise.
There has also been a change in CF diagnosis over the past years. In 1983, Dr dorothy anderson created the first description of VF based on autopsy findings of children dying of malnutrition, calling it .cystic fibrosis on the pancreas. In the 1950s the swear electoryle defect in CF was discovered. Pulmonary function testing was used to diagnose and track CF patient, historically, the taste of salty skin on a patient was symptom of CF. In the 1960s sweat tests were created and biopsies of the small intestine were used to diagnose patients with CF.
In the 1980s the CF gene was identified. It is named the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. The cases of CF were now better understood and the push for cure gained momentum. In the 2000s there was full sequencing of the CF gene. Over 1,700 CF mutations are identified. The median life expectancy for CF patients is 47 today.
Lifestyle factors are our own lifestyle and how we want to live our lives. For example, i have chosen smoking and diet. Smoking is a choice, it is not influenced by genetic factors. Your environment can influence you smoking, for example if all your friends are, you might want to fit in. Packets of cigarettes warn you of the dangers possible. This however does not stop some people. There are some facts and figures showing that the number of people smoking is decreasing. In 2001 44% of pupils admitted to trying smoking at least once, compared to 27% in 2010. Theres more awareness today, for example pictures and information on packets, and there are more people knowing about what if causes and effects, for example cancer. Theres also education about the danger of smoking in schools. 70% of pupils admitted to doing this that their friends do to fit in and act cool in front of them. Peer pressure is one factor that can influence the number of people smoking. Theres also a lot of older people smoking because they started in the early years when smoking what popular and it wasn’t known to be dangerous. Once you start it is hard to give up, some older people might be smoking because of habit. The legal age to buy tobacco has gone up in the years to 18. This is to try to prevent younger people smoking. They were also made hard to buy, the prices were going up. In the early 60s you could buy a cigarette for a ?1, today a pack of tobacco is around ?12-15. They taxed them and made them more expensive to prevent people from smoking.Cigarette smoking prevalence among adults (aged 16 and over) in Great britain has decreased since the early 1970s. The sex gap in cigarette smoking prevalence has narrowed in recent years.
This graph shows cigarette smoking relevance, by age, males, great britain, 1974-2012.
This graph shows cigarette smoking relevance, by age, women, great britain, 1974-2012.
In the graphs I can tell that the numbers of people smoking is decreasing. However, it is clear that more males smoke than female, this next graph shows this fact more clearly.
Diet is also a lifestyle factor as you choose what you eat and if you exercise or not. Bad diet can lead to either obesity or malnourishment. Eating too much junk food can lead to obesity. Poverty can be the cause of obesity as an individual may not have much money to spend on healthy foods which are sometimes expensive. Over eating can also lead to diabetes type 2. Diet and what you eat is your choice and how you look after yourself. Diet can also mean how you look after yourself, for example exercise. Theres different ways of looking after yourself and exercise can be one of them. If you dont exercise and eat a lot of junk food, this can lead to a bad diet. You can also have a poor health due to lack of eating. Lack of eating can be caused by the way we feel and tell ourselves that we need to stop eating, this can cause individuals to lose weight. You can also lose weight due to the fact that you are living in poverty and you cant afford food. In 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight, of these over 650 million were obese. Most of the world’s population live in countries where overweight and obesity kills more than underweight. These facts and figures shown how much diet affects us.