Forensic Psychology ProposalEdna MaciasPSYCH/635February 12, 2019Annette Edwards, PhD
Using shaping and chaining to improve inmates compliance
A correctional facility is a terminology, which mainly refers to a prison, jail, or any other incarceration place by government officials such as juvenile detention centers. A correctional facility serves to rehabilitate, and confine prisoners and they are normally classified as maximum, medium, or minimum-security facilities. A correctional facility may also contain separate sections for various categories of prisoners. It is paramount to note that the prisoners may take part in vocational and educational programs, a work release program or in various in paid industries program. These correctional facilities are mainly subject to state and federal laws. In many cases, there inmates are not compliant but are instead arrogant and defensive to the rules provided. Through the use of shaping and chaining, the staff can introduce good policies and look for ways of making them a habit, to create a better relationship between the inmates and the staff.
Generally, it is evident that noble rehabilitation programs have contributed to being effective methods in the reduction of recidivism among various prison convicts. These rehabilitation programs are mainly focused on the treatment of the criminals behavior, which causes them to commit criminal activities. Recent research by authoritative criminologists have shown that rehabilitative programs effectiveness such as transcendental, community based and education programs have a higher efficacy especially when they are oriented towards the provision of treatment to the prison convicts and this significantly reduces recidivism. The same research findings showed that transcendental and educational rehabilitative programs are effectively designed to offer prisoners with valuable life skills. These valuable life skills equip them with the necessary technical skills as well as enable them manage their criminal causing behavior, which would lead to an improvement in the life quality (The New York Times, 2014).
Rehabilitative programs focused on effective intervention principles
Rehabilitative programs, which are focused on the effective intervention principles, are mostly able to target the recidivism known factors, which eventually necessitates change, as well as enable the incorporation of behavioral or cognitive treatments. This concept is able to reinforce the criminal offenders behavior through the elimination of criminal thinking patterns. The effective intervention principles ensure that these rehabilitative programs are effectively able to consider various offenders characteristics, which might affect their rehabilitative treatments response. In accordance to various rehabilitation programs, which include moral recognition behavioral and therapy treatment programs, community-based programs, and academic and vocational education have been proven effective in the reduction of recidivism mainly among released convicts (Birmingham, Wilson & Adshead, 2006).
It is worth noting that these programs are mostly effective in the treatment of criminal offenders since they mostly focus on their contributing factors and behavior, which previously influenced them in performing criminal acts. These rehabilitative programs are also able to utilize the effective intervention principles and they include employing sensitive and well-trained employees, focusing treatment interventions especially on high-risk offenders, and the provision of after-care services to offenders after they have left the rehabilitation program. The US Department of justice in 2011 released shocking statistics that showed that there was an alarming increase in the number of repeat offenders. The same statistics showed that prisoners had the highest re-arrest rates in car thieves, burglary and robbery (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2014).
Challenges with rehabilitative programs
Rehabilitative programs have recently faced numerous challenges namely in the U.S whereby a lot of criminals who are mainly behind bars are mostly repeat offenders and they have committed various new criminal activities after being released from prison. This increase in the recidivism rate has mostly been attributed to the realization that majority of correctional programs have their focus on deterring criminal offenders mainly through beatings, punishments as well as other severe and tough methods of punitive actions. These correctional programs should not have focused on punitive actions but rather on rehabilitating or correcting their criminal behavior. Majority of sociologists and criminologists have had noble notions that rehabilitating, or correction programs reduce the recidivism rates and focusing on deterring and punishing criminal behavior led to an increase in recidivism (Muller & Harren, 2011).
Adult female prisoners
Adult female prisoners are mostly committed in the adult female prisons. On the other hand, juvenile offenders however, both female and male are at times special in this aspect. It is evident that there is a growing and undesirable tendency of sentencing juvenile female offenders to the various adult female prisons for crimes committed by them. Majority of these juvenile female offenders usually end up in the various State-run systems since the federal courts rarely prosecute them. This situation will eventually have adverse effects on these female juveniles since they get to learn a lot about criminal activities due to their exposure with adult female convicts. Therefore sentencing young female youths to these adult female correction facilities eventually exposes them to a wide range of abuse. It is worth noting that these adult female correctional facilities were initially not designed for handling youthful female offenders or female juveniles (Whitehead, Jones & Braswell, 2008).
The very treatment that these female juveniles will receive from the adult female fellow inmates will eventually influence them back to these correctional facilities instead of preventing them from being repeat offenders. Female juveniles should be retained in their own correctional facilities where they can effectively receive treatment into being productive and responsible members of the society. In addition, there are other numerous challenges in the adult female prisoners, which should be addressed, and they include custodial abuse, prisoner assaults, and overcrowding. However, there are various systems, which are utilized in dealing with these problems as well as monitoring them (Birmingham, Wilson & Adshead, 2006).
Adult male prisoners
Research conducted recently by notable scholars has shown that majority of the adult male prisoners are mostly subjected to harsh and severe conditions. The old traditional prisons have notably been modernized or replaced but there are challenges of decaying facilities. However, the most predominant harsh conditions, which the inmates suffer currently, are from their treatment. The abuses mainly occur from the treatment they receive from the guards as well as their fellow inmates. Overcrowding is the main underlying issue since tight budgets from the correction agencies and overcrowded prisons force prisoners to stay together. This creates a favorable environment for abuse to prevail and thrive in these adult male prisons (Portland State University, (n.d.).
Majority of these inmates are forced to find other methods of survival in these steel and concrete jungles without the assistance from their keepers. Abuse mainly from guards creates the worst conditions to these prisoners. Incidences of excessive utilization of physical force, excessive restrictions, control, and isolation that is utilized by these guards with impunity creates the worst conditions to adult male prisoners. Majority of inmates have initially complained about lack of medical and mental care, mistreatments, and racial taunting. Many authorities are currently relying on administrative segregation whereby inmates are physically separated in small windowless cells to curb this menace. These worst conditions should be reduced so that the adult male prisoners are effectively treated so that they can be positive to return to the society when their terms in prison end (Birmingham, Wilson & Adshead, 2006).
Corrective measures have to be implemented so that these worst conditions are eliminated since they only harden the adult male prisoners criminal behaviors. The prisoners keepers who include the guards should be trained on how to handle adult male prisoners in order to reduce the rates of abuse. They should also be trained on proper interpersonal skills so that they can handle these prisoners in accordance to their rights. Adult male prisoners should also be taught on other inmates rights and the repercussions of breaching in order to reduce abuse among fellow inmates. The implementation of a reporting system on mistreatment among the adult male prisoners should be developed so that the authorities are able to know what is actually taking place in the prisons for corrective measures (Muller & Harren, 2011).
Correctional facilities should be improved so that they can offer exemplary rehabilitative programs that will eventually treat the prisoners from the causes of their criminal behavior. This is the only solution of reducing the rates of recidivism since the prisoners will eventually come out of the prisons with the knowledge of what they are supposed to do in order to be productive, responsible, and law-abiding citizens. The rehabilitative programs have proven to be the best methods of treating prisoners in order to improve correctional facilities. Other issues such as overcrowding can be tackled through establishing community-based programs on petty offenders and on those prisoners, who have a short remaining period to serve in the prisons so that overcrowding can be eliminated.
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2014). Retrieved on 29th July 2014 from <
Birmingham, L., Wilson, S., & Adshead, G. (2006). Prison medicine: ethics and equivalence.
The British Journal of Psychology, 188(1), 4-6. Retrieved July 15, 2014, from BJPsych.
Muller, J., & Harren, H. (2011). Correction Methods Embraced in the American Prisons.TheBritish Journal of American Legal Studies, 9(2), 3-5.
Portland State University. (n.d.). Prison overcrowding is a growing concern in the U.S. Retrieved on 29th July 2014 from < >
The New York Times. (2014). Prisons and Prisoners. Retrieved on 29th July 2014 from < >
Whitehead, J. T., Jones, M., & Braswell, M. C. (2008). Exploring Corrections in America. Burlington: Elsevier Science.