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Findings Paper

Words: 2085, Paragraphs: 88, Pages: 7

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Business

CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDINGS

4.1: Introduction

This chapter mainly tries to present the findings of the study obtained from the analysis and interpretation of the collected data. A total of three hundred eighty-two (n=382) female students consented and participated in the study. All the participants were analyzed and this represents a response rate of 100% of the number of participants eligible for the study. The data has been organized and presented in the tables to facilitate their meaningful interpretations.

4.2: Socio-demographic information of the respondents

Under the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, we analyzed in the study including the age of the respondents, level of education, permanent residence status, ethnicity, types of family belonging, and a person live with at present. We also analyzed the average monthly income, and their main income source of the household, which was taken as the determining factors for facilitating the online sexual harassment in the study.

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4.2.1 Age distribution of the respondents:

Table: 1 shows that, among the total respondent (n=382) participated in the study, 21.50% were of 19 years which is the highest percentage. The age group of the respondent with least percent was 24 years i.e.1%. The mean age of the respondents was 18.89±1.80 years.

Age (Year) Frequency Percent

16 29 7.6

17 64 16.8

18 79 20.7

19 82 21.5

20 61 16

21 30 7.9

22 22 5.8

23 11 2.9

24 4 1

Total 382 100

4.2.2: Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents:

In this research study, out of total (n=382) respondents, 50% were taken from +2 levels and 50% from Bachelors level in equal proportion. The study shows that among the total respondents participated in the study; most of them were from urban areas (63.40%). The majority of respondents were Adivasi/Janajati (34%), followed by Chhetri (28.50%) and 28% were Brahman. The least ethnic group was Muslim i.e. 0.30%. About 74.10% of respondents belonged to Nuclear Family and most of them (76.40%) live with their family members at present.

Variables (n=382) Frequency Percent

Level of study +2 Level 191 50

Bachelor Level 191 50

Total 382 100

Permanent residence status Urban 242 63.4

Rural 140 36.6

Total 382 100

Ethnicity Brahman 107 28

Chhetri109 28.5

Dalit11 2.9

Adivasi/Janajati130 34

Madeshi24 6.3

Muslim 1 0.3

Total 382 100

Type of family belonging Nuclear Family 283 74.1

Joint Family 99 25.9

Total 382 100

Live with at present Family members 292 76.4

Relatives 48 12.6

Friends 22 5.8

Alone 17 4.5

Other 3 0.8

Total 382 100

4.2.3: Economic Status of the Respondents:

The study shows that the majority of respondents had a service-related job (Govt. /Pvt.) as the main income source of the household i.e. 37.20%, followed by business (31.40%) and agriculture (15.20%). Out of the total (n=297) responses in an average monthly income of their household, 69% said to range from Rs. 10,000 to 50,000 which is the highest percentage. 5.1% said less than Rs. 10,000 and 5.7% said more than Rs. 100,000. The mean of the average monthly income of the household was Rs. 60942.77.

Variables Frequency Percent

Main income source of the household (n=382) Agriculture 58 15.2

Job (Govt. / Pvt.) 142 37.2

Labor 20 5.2

Business 120 31.4

Foreign employment 39 10.2

Other 3 0.8

Total 382 100

Average monthly income of the household (n=297) <Rs.10000 15 5.1

Rs.10000 to Rs.50000 205 69

Rs.50000 to Rs.100000 60 20.2

>Rs.100000 17 5.7

Total 297 100

4.3: Internet access and use

Internet is the central issue for this research study regarding associated factors to online sexual harassment. All the study based on their exposure to online media and sexual harassment experienced through it. This section of findings includes the use and accessibility of the internet among the participants.

The study shows that the majority of respondents had their own smartphone/computer with 97.40%. But still, 100% of respondents had access to internet services. Out of them, 89.5% of respondents were using the internet almost every day. Among the total respondents (n=382) participated in the study, all of them i.e.100% were used the internet service for playing social media, followed by online study (74. 6%), and chatting/messaging (67.3%). The least of them were used for gaming i.e. 20.4%.

Variables (n=382) Frequency Percent

Have their own smartphone/computer to access the internet Yes 372 97.40

No 10 2.60

Total 382 100

Access to internet services Yes 382 100

The time interval for internet use Almost everyday 342 89.5

At least once a week 29 7.6

Less than once a week 5 1.3

Not at all 6 1.6

Total 382 100

Purpose of internet use* Online Study 285 74.6

Use Social Media 382 100

Chatting/Messaging 257 67.3

Play Music/Videos 200 52.4

Gaming 78 20.4

*Multiple Responses

4.4: Use of social media

The majority of respondents (68.3%) were spending on social media for 1 to 5 hours per day, while 14.7% of respondents were spending for 5 to 10 hours. The mean time spending on social media was 5.46 hours per day. 12.6% of respondents said less than one hour per day, and more than 10 hours was 4.5%. Among them, most of the respondents (79.8%) received the friend request from unknown people on social media at least once in their lifetime, and 24.59% (n=305) respondents accepted the friend request from unknown people. 20.9% of respondents experienced the non-consensual sharing of intimate personal information without their knowledge or consent on social media. And about 66% of the respondents felt uncomfortable or awkward from a comment made by someone directly toward them on social media.

Variables (n=382) Frequency Percent

Time spend on social media per day <1 Hour 48 12.6

1 to 5 Hours 261 68.3

5 to 10 Hours 56 14.7

>10 Hours 17 4.5

Total 382 100.0

Ever received friend request/messages to add them to their friend’s list from unknown people on social media Never 77 20.2

Once or Twice 36 9.4

Sometimes 132 34.6

Often 60 15.7

Most of the time 77 20.2

Total 382 100

If yes, ever accepted unknown friend request on social media (n=305) Yes 75 24.59

No 230 75.41

Total 305 100

Anyone posted any things about them or uploaded their photos/videos without their knowledge or consent on social media Never 302 79.1

Once or Twice 37 9.7

Sometimes 33 8.6

Most of the time 10 2.6

Total 382 100

Ever felt uncomfortable or awkward from a comment made by someone directly toward them on social media Never 168 44

Once or Twice 76 19.9

Sometimes 130 34

Often 3 0.8

Most of the time 5 1.3

Total 382 100

Among the total respondent (n=382) participated in the study, the majority of the respondents were using Facebook with 95.3%, followed by YouTube (93.4%), and Instagram i.e. 75.3%. The least using social media was Tumblr i.e. only 1%.

Variables (n=382) Frequency Percent

Kind of social media used* Youtube356 93.4%

Instagram287 75.3%

Facebook363 95.3%

Twitter 42 11.0%

WhatsApp72 18.9%

Viber214 56.2%

Skype 19 5.0%

Tik Tok131 34.4%

Snapchat139 36.5%

Tumblr4 1.0%

*Multiple Responses 4.5: Online sexual harassment experienced

According to this study, 66.5% of respondents reported for the exposure to online sexual harassment at least once in their lifetime, and only 25.9% of them felt that someone has sexually harassed. The mean age of sexual harassment experienced was 18.94±1.79 years.

Variables (n=382) Frequency Percent

Online sexual harassment experienced at least once during their lifetime Yes 254 66.5

No 128 33.5

Total 382 100.0

Among the total respondents (n=99) of ever felt that someone has sexually harassed them on online media, 36.37% of respondents were harassed through non-consensual sharing of intimate images and videos, and 26.26% respondents felt sexual harassment by exploitation, coercion, and threats. About 14.14% of respondents felt by sexualized bullying and 23.23% of respondents felt unwanted sexualization on online media.

Variables Frequency Percent

Ever felt that someone has sexually harassed them on online media (n=382) Yes 99 25.9

No 283 74.1

Total 382 100.0

If yes, kind of sexual harassment (n=99) Non-consensual sharing of intimate images and videos 36 36.37

Exploitation, coercion, and threats 26 26.26

Sexualized Bullying 14 14.14

Unwanted Sexualisation23 23.23

Total 99 100.0

The study shows that 38.4% of respondents were experienced online sexual harassment by their peer/college friends, followed by unknown people (37.4%) and 16.2% by their boyfriend. The respondents also experienced online sexual harassment by healthcare providers with 1%. 61.6% of respondent did not respond against the harassment or just ignored it and only 24.2% of respondent did self-defense by making aware them. 3% of them also tried to harm themselves after being sexually harassed.

Variables Frequency Percent

If yes, sexual harassment made by (n=99)* Peer / College friends 38 38.4%

Life partner / Spouse 14 14.1%

Boyfriend 16 16.2%

Family member / Relatives 4 4.0%

Office staff 5 5.1%

Healthcare providers 1 1.0%

Acquaintance 4 4.0%

Unknown people 37 37.4%

Mode of respond (n=99)* Just ignored / Did not respond 61 61.6%

Self-defense / Aware them 24 24.2%

Reported to the police 8 8.1%

Told friends or family 13 13.1%

Tried to harm myself 3 3.0%

*Multiple Response Online sexual harassment experienced among before the age of 18 years:

The study showed that among the total respondents before the age of 18 years, 44.19% of them had experienced for asking to meet or go on date even after they said “no” through online media.

Variables (n=172) Frequency Percent

Anyone kept asking you to meet or go on a date

even after you said “no” No 96 55.81

Yes 76 44.19

Anyone tried to make sense of romantic or sexual relationship even though you tried to let him know you don’t want to No 114 66.30

Yes 58 33.70

Anyone tried to get you to have cyber-sex over instant messenger No 150 87.21

Yes 22 12.79

Anyone bribed you to conduct sexual acts on online media No 157 91.28

Yes 15 8.72

Anyone threatened you to break or damage

if you did not conduct the sexual act as requested No 153 88.95

Yes 19 11.05

4.6: Student’s behavior on online media

The personal behaviors and knowledge of online media also might play vital roles in being sexually harassed by someone directly or indirectly. It is important to note that, the knowledge and manners of using the online media and parenting environment in their home. Under this section, we were analyzed about the student’s intimate behavior in online media, parenting environment, and their knowledge of government laws and policies on cybercrimes.

Table 11 revealed that 13.1% of the respondents had sent to someone an offensive photo/video without any consent at least once in their lifetime through online media. They also revealed that 31.9% of respondents tried to talk with unknown people due to his good looks or an attraction through online media. Among the total respondents participated in the study, 39.3% of respondent had seen adult content on the internet, and 37.8% (n=172) of them had seen before the age of 18 years. Moreover, only 58.5% of respondents received the rules/warning from their parents about the use of the internet. Most of them (80.1%) were heard about government laws and policies on cybercrimes.

Variables (n=382) Frequency Percentage

Ever sent to someone an offensive picture/image or video through online media without his/her consent Never 332 86.9%

Once or Twice 22 5.8%

Sometimes 28 7.3%

Ever tried to talk with unknown people on online media due to his good looks or some kind of attraction Never 260 68.1%

Once or Twice 75 19.6%

Sometimes 42 11.0%

Often 1 .3%

Most of the time 4 1.0%

Ever seen adult content on the internet No 232 60.7%

Yes 150 39.3%

Ever received any rules/ guidelines/ warning from their parents about how to use online media or the internet No 93 24.3%

Yes 223 58.4%

They don’t know about the internet 36 9.4%

I don’t see the need 30 7.9%

Heard about any government laws or policies regarding cyber crime No 76 19.9%

Yes 306 80.1%

4.7: Test of statistical significance between dependent and independent variables

4.7.1: Factors associated with exposure to online sexual harassment among the participating students

The results show that age, monthly income, and time spending on social media have no role in exposure to online sexual harassment (p>0.05). However, female students studying Bachelor Level and those who accept an unknown friend request on social media were more likely to experience cyber sexual harassment (p<0.05).

Variables Exposed

(%) Non-Exposed (%) P-Value

Age (Mean±SD)

(n=382) 18.94±1.79 18.78±1.84 0.218

Level of Study (n=382) +2 Level 46.1% (117) 57.82% (74) 0.030

Bachelor Level 53.9% (137) 42.18% (54) Monthly Income (n=297) 0.201

<10000 5.61% (11) 3.96% (4) 10000 to 50000 67.86%(133) 71.29% (72) 50000 to 100000 22.45% (44) 15.85% (16) >100000 4.08% (8) 8.9% (9) Time spent on social media (Mean±SD)

(n=382) 4.14±2.59 3.83±2.95 0.202

<1 Hour 10.6% (27) 16.40% (21) 1 to 5 Hours 70.1% (178) 64.85% (83) 5 to 10 Hours 15.7% (40) 12.5% (16) >10 Hours 3.5% (9) 6.25% (8) Accept an unknown friend request on social media (n=305) No 71.5% (153) 84.61% (77) 0.015

Yes 28.5% (61) 15.39% (14) Seen adult content on the internet (n=382) No 53.1% (135) 75.79% (97) 0.000

Yes 46.9% (119) 24.21% (31) 4.7.2: Factors associated with frequency of exposure to cyber sexual harassment among the participating students

Variables Once or Twice

(%) More than once or twice (%) P-Value

Age (Mean±SD)

(n=254) 19.18±1.84 19.18±1.84 Level of Study (n=254) +2 Level Bachelor Level Monthly Income (n=196) <10000 10000 to 50000 50000 to 100000 >100000 Time spent on social media (Mean±SD)

(n=254) <1 Hour 1 to 5 Hours 5 to 10 Hours >10 Hours Accept an unknown friend request on social media (n=214) No Yes Seen adult content on the internet (n=254) No Yes Crosstab: Variables*More than once or twice

About the author

This paper is written by Sebastian He is a student at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; his major is Business. All the content of this paper is his perspective on Findings and should be used only as a possible source of ideas.

Sebastian other papers:

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