TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT ETHICS FINAL EXAM
Ethics is divided into many categories, environmental ethics is one of among these, in which we must control the toxic and unnatural substances into the environment and protect the integrity of the biosphere. Ensure a healthy environment for human. We can apply ethical and moral values to solve the problem of environment. We all are living thing like animals, plant, human being etc. and these all living creatures must have the right to live without any restriction.
As a human being this is our duty to give save and clean environment to other organisms and living creatures. The earth should be safe for all of us where every living creature must be live and breathe easily. Our earth is suffering different types of problem now a days are very common some main problems are; water pollution, air pollution, over loaded population, waste disposal, deforestation etc. All over the world the people are facing these problems.
Ethical values are guide us how we can resolve environmental problems. If the human being is considering to be has a major part in our culture, plants, animals and other living things are not having less importance among them they also have a right to get their fair share of existence. Although they cannot express their feelings like a human being, but they have full rights to live as a living thing. It is an utmost duty of everyone to do what is required to maintain a healthy biosphere for its own sake (Fleddermann,2018, pg430).
If we talk about the relationship between engineering practice and environmental ethics, it is very necessary to an engineer that he/she must be design his/her project without less harm and danger. An engineer is responsible for his product, so he must be ensuring that the product has minimum surrounding impact and that product must not to be harmful for the world. We can save the natural beauty of our earth and safe the health of human being by approaching some multiple task. First approach is oblivious to cost in which ignore the cost of the project and focus on the surrounding clean as we can do as possible. We can say easily these proceeds towards, but implement is much difficult as in practical situation cost is an essential element of the project in engineering profession.
The second approach is cost-benefits analysis in which compare the problem with the benefits, in this cost required to solve the problem. The combination of costs and benefits are compared with each other. In this not focus to solve all problem just goal is to solve maximum problem and balance the cost and benefits as much as possible.
This approach seems not an easy because cost is an important issue in any case, but rather than costs human and other biosphere are more important than costs. The factors in which life of human being and other species are more important than other factors. Professional codes of ethics tell us how to save the life of people and an engineer is responsible for the quality and safety of the environment. In many cases engineers are not to be ensure about their work but they must be counsel of others.
In a modern age computer is an essential need of everyone. Without computer life is like a body without soul. Computer is covering our all basics need in everyday life either at home, workplace, shopping, entertainment etc. but computer is using inappropriately in many fields, leading to serious ethical issues. The role of engineer is to use of computer in ethical way and use it to design the project. There are two broad categories of computer ethics problems, as below
Uses of computer to an unethical act: In many ways computer is using in unethically for example in a company an employee uses a companys computer for online shopping in other way computer can be used to steal the money from the bank and very common unethical act which is very common problem in computer ethics that the Hacker have hacked the database of someone privacy, like email and Facebook hacking are very common but this is unacceptable in any field and unethical way in any circumstances. For example, in 2011, SONY lost $170 million of their play station system and Citigroup and AT&T lost $2.7 million and $2 million respectively as a result of Hackers. (Morse Sarah, 2009). This is an art to hack someone private data and now many companies hire these people and increase the demand of these professional Hackers.
Computer as an engineering tool: Computer is a very useful technology in engineering projects for example it is using to writing documents, making spreadsheets for financial calculations, many software like CAD/CAM, are using in engineering projects. Many structural analyses based on computer. CAD software program allows to work in 3D models and helping engineer to calculate easily. While mechanical engineer used CAE software to understand the condition properly. This all software makes the life of the engineers much easier and their work more efficient.
Although these advance technologies made the life of an engineer easier, but this software also leads to ethical behavior. How an engineer can only depend on this software? Everything depends on base if the base is strong the whole structure become strongest and all the project depends on structure of the project. The engineer totally depends on computer, but same as other fields an Engineer uses this tool in improper way thats mean for unethical behavior. According to software Engineering code of ethics, an Engineer must use software for benefits of the society and respected profession. Off course computer itself not bad inherently, rather than the person is using it in bad manner. A software can never be substitute for good engineering judgment. (Fleddermann,2018, pg434). This is the responsibility of the Engineer that they must be verify the work before going to be implement on it not totally depend on computer software. Unethical situation arises when the proper judgment and proper course of action not applies. What factors must an engineer keep in his mind whenever he/she start work on a project. Engineer must update the computer software, not totally focus on computer results according to his/her own knowledge make aftermath result, estimate the cost of the project, save his data in privacy, make a rough draft first and then make final paper on computer. Although it takes an expert to understand the limitation and appropriate use of software in any engineering design.
PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES AND RIGHTS
Engineering is a very vast field; the engineer cannot take their job in an easy way. They must responsible for all their work and work place, sometimes these rights and responsibilities are overlap, for example BART engineer had responsible for the system safety and the right to have their concern taken seriously by management. (Fleddermann,2018, pg405). There are many rights and responsibilities of the engineer that they should be exercise in professional career. First, the engineer must be responsible for the proprietary and confidentiality information, how a business is run, products and suppliers information must be confidential. If the engineer is working for a client must be sign on a nondisclosure agreement. Companies have right to keep information away from competitors. Second responsibility is conflict of interest, it is best that avoid conflict of interest. Conflict of interest arises when a person has some personal interest rather than company interest like an employer give a position to his wife, but she is not capable for this position. So, it is best to avoid it and examine your motives and use ethical problem-solving techniques. Third responsibility is competitive bidding, its mean that at the request of the firm the contractor or vendor submitted the bids and the firm selects that bids. That bids are usually sealed. There are many ethical issues related to this practice. Competitive bidding can lead to a temptation to low bid to secure the work. It depends on qualification and the proposed approach in determining which engineer get the job.
Now we talk about the rights of the engineer, the basic right of an Engineer has the right of privacy along with the against of racial and sexual discrimination, choosing political activities and right salary according to the work. The most fundamental right is the right of professional conscience mean engineer can make their own decision but to exercise this decision in moral and ethical manner. Second, they have right for recognition its mean that they have right speak about work also internal recognition (e.g. patents, raises, promotions) and third right is right of conscientious refusal in which they have right to refused to participate in unethical activities and behavior. These activities depend (e.g. bribery, forgiving, lying etc.) they also right to protect public safety and interest but again not to be abused. If an engineer finds defensive work ethically acceptable there might be use of weapons, but this an engineer right to refused to do work but it based on them believe. There are people who find it morally unacceptable to take on these projects. After all, above explanation of rights and responsibilities, I may conclude that the right is based on privilege granted to an engineer whereas responsibility is the duty that must be done by an engineer.
Whistle-blowing is an act in which an employee exposes the unethical information or behavior of an employer to the public, media, or upper management. Whistle-blowing is included in rights and responsibilities because it is a part of it. An engineer has in the pressure whenever he faced some harm of the projects and he blow the whistle on that act. Engineer also have right to disclose wrongdoing within organization. Whistle-blowing can be very bad for the company because it can lead to distrust of employee to work together There are two type of whistle-blowing, first is internal in which an employee goes over the head of management and report the problem where as in external an employee goes outside of the company and report the media and law-enforcement authority. When to blow the whistle, only be attempted when these four conditions are met, first is Need Whenever there is harm full situation occur blow the whistle. Second is Proximity Whistle- blower must be in clear position to report the problem. Third is Capability the whistle-blower must have chance to stop the problem. And Last Resort Whistle-blowing must have to be attempted if you feel the all doors shut down. The employer must have given the safe environment to their employee instead of they blow the whistle for themselves safety.
The most recent whistle-blowing incident is that OSHA releases fact on nuclear industry whistle-blowing (Linda Lewis, July 5,2018)2. OSHA is the safety and health department for labor who works under control of engineers, this department provide the training to the employee how to work and provide the safety and how to get safe from harms, The OSHA has released a new factsheet(pdf)1, for the protection of the worker who report about the violation of ERA (Energy Recognition Act) or AEA (Atomic Energy Act). This factsheet describes the legal requirement about who gets the legal protection and what action should be covered by the law. It also describes the filling and time limit of complaint by OSHA. No more than 180 days after completion of the action that is when the employee is notified about the action. This action must be helpful in getting relief from retaliation and compensation for resulting losses is a long and costly journey. Some people blow the whistle because they do not put their self in trouble, in moral and ethical way all whistle-blower are winners and all of us are beneficiaries.
Charles B. Fleddermann. (2018), Business Ethics. Concepts
Ethics in engineering, third edition, McGraw-Hill company Inc.
Lewis Carroll, Environmental Pollution and Control, fourth edition. (1998)
www.nspe.orgNorth Carolina state University: Ethics in computing- Hacking www.computer.orgNational Association of Environmental professionals: code of ethics and standards of practice for environmental professionals
Martin, Mike W. and Roland Schinzinger, “Ethics in Engineering”, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (1996)