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fdgsdxfg Paper

Words: 593, Paragraphs: 1, Pages: 2

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Adoption

In order to maintain higher health standards in human welfare to prevent infection caused by microorganisms used antibiotics as a drug, not only human welfare, but also used in production of livestock as poultry farms and aquaculture to prevent diseases and their promote growth (Kummerer, 2009; Berglund 2005). Moreover relieve infection by action of antibiotics uncreatian quantities remain, but have limited metabolism simantlously accumulated in soil and water trough excretion. Very long back antibiotic detected in surface water, but still their presence through widespread use and became an emerging concern and also its promote the development and spread of resistant bacteria. Repeated exposure to low concentration of antibiotics can support propagation of resistant bacteria which turn into a transfer of resistance genes to other species (Batt & Aga 2005). Most of antibiotic resistance in the environment and its concentrations are in the ng to the high µgL-1 range. A few of them degraded quickly at this concentration diverse affect aquatic and terrestrial habitat(Larsson 2005). Degradation of antibiotics has been reported which includes conventional techniques such as biological processes, filtration, coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. Over the decades advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been studied ( Homem & Santos, 2011 ). From recent developments, there is huge demand for development of technologies to restore the natural environment from contaminants. In endeavor to find out, the less reliable technique, enzyme-catalyzed degradation methods for removal of emerging micropollutant have been explored in recent years. Recently multiple copper oxidase (MCO) like laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) enzymes receiving special attention which has much benefit such as low energy requirement(Hatakka, 1994), easy process, no toxic effects and no adoption to conditions comparable to conventional and/or chemical oxidation techniques (Beloqui et al., 206, Ausec et al., 2017). There are many reports attention on copper laccase from white-rot wood degrading fungi, but very little is known about the potential bacterial MCO (like laccases) for biotechnological applications. In contrast to fungal laccases, reported bacterial laccases are highly active and are much more stable extreme environmental condition. . Laccase belongs to copper oxidases super family, which capable of oxidizes many aromatic contaminants having phenolic and non-phenolic groups. MCO (like laccases) capable of one-electron oxidation and radical formation, causes oxidative coupling or bond cleavage of target compounds( Jeon, &Chang, 2013 ). the wide range of compounds that are susceptible to copper containg laccase such as pharmceuitcal compounds, textile dyes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons have been studied(Chan et al., 2017, Jia et al.,2017 Jiang et al., 2017 Lin et al.,2017). Stenotrophomonas sp capable degrading xenobiotic needs to make modification for effective and efficient in the removal of reticulate compounds by metabolic engineering through genomic manipulation. Naturally, available of Stenotrophomonas sp. is significantly improved by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer for bioremidation proceses and hence Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is unique micro-organism of interest in different biotechnological processes. Their gene encoding the laccase has been identified, and significantly decolorization of dyes reported in (Galai et al., 2011). The decolorization of dyes by copper contain laccase from soil bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain producing by supplement with CuSo4 reported in (Galai et al., 2009). thermotolerant ligninolytic enzyme from Stenotrophomonas sp. CFB-09 used delignification of agro-residues reported in (Olajuyigbe et al., 2018), However, in this paper includes(1) isolation and identification of multiple copper oxidase like laccase contiain bacterium from wastewater (2) identification and phylogentic analysis of multiple copper oxidase like laccase gene. (3) Purification and characterization of multiple copper oxidase like laccase from Stenotrophomonas sp. YBX1 and its application to degradation of antibiotics

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