Australia is enclosed by the Indian and Pacific oceans. Australia is the largest country in Oceania and the world’s 6th largest county by total area. Australia is highly urbanized and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. The population of 25 million of the country. Sydney is the largest city in Australia. The country originates income from different sources, such as mining-related export, telecommunication, manufacturing, and banking. Australia is a highly developed country with the world’s 13th largest economy.

Australia has one of the most different and most beauteous environments in the world.

Currently, there are fourteen world heritage listed sites in Australia. Central Australia has a more dry climate and Northern Australia has some tropical cyclones. Agriculture and mining are the mainlands used in Australia.

Environmental issues faced by Australia can see the different environmental issues faced by Australia. Most of the human activities cause that issues, like human land use activities and economic activities. Those environmental issues are, climate change, conservation, land degradation, global warming, water use, urbanization, salinity and water issues, bushfires, overfishing and illegal fishing and etc.

Climate change

Climate change happens naturally or results of human activities. We can identify Australia has the most risk from climate change. Australia ranks within the top ten countries globally with respect to greenhouse gas emission per capita. Australia’s climate highlighted diverse key points, including the significant increase in Australia’s temperatures and increasing always of bushfires, droughts, and floods, these all have been linked to climate change.

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southeastern areas water sources of Australia have decreased because of increasing population in urban areas coupled with climate change instrumental such as persistent prolonged drought. Rainfall patterns are expected to be problematic, as rain has become heavier and infrequent, as well as more common in summer rather than winter, with little or no uptrend in rainfall in the western plateau and the central lowlands of Australia.


Australia is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world. The main conservation issue is the protection of biodiversity, especially by protecting the remaining rainforests. The destroy of habited by human activities, including land clearing, remains the major cause of biodiversity loss in Australia. Intensification of resources use in sectors such as, fisheries, agriculture and forestry are mostly reported to contribute to biodiversity loss in Australia. Marine and coastal environments have decreased biodiversity from decreased water quality caused by pollution and sediment arising from human settlement and agriculture.

Land degradation

Australia is mostly land used for the Agriculture sector. Land degradation is Australias number one environmental problem. Land degradation occurs from the clearance of native vegetation, soil erosion, man-made droughts, weeds, misguided governmental policies and etc. Australia is continuing in parts of clearcutting in old-growth forests. This oft-time involves the replacement with monoculture plantations and destruction of natural ecosystems.

Land clearance

over a century of land clearing for agriculture has resulted in the significant loss of native woodlands and forest in Australia. Most of the land clearing has come about since 1980. Land clearance destruction the ecosystems, threatens, biodiversity and can cause the soil degradation leading to salinity and loss of water quality.

Salinity and water issues

Water and salinity degradation are closely concerned with land clearance. Former to European settlement and land clearing, trees and vegetation soaked up the rainfall retaining the salt at a manageable level. Overtime, with the loss of vegetation, the scale of water draining into the groundwater enhances and this can mobilize salts stored in the soil. Salinity affects to agricultural crops, birds, fish and other wildlife relying on rivers and wetlands that are vital water supplies. It can affect to urban areas such as, damaging housing, water pipes, infrastructure, roads, and railways.


Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world. The majority of Australian cities are characterized by an unsustainable law density urban sprawl and have large urban footprints. This place demand on services and infrastructure which contributes to the problems of transport-related emissions, land clearing, pollution, energy consumption, automobile dependency, invasive species and urban heat islands. The urbanization sprawl continues to increase at a speedy rate in most Australian cities. Specially the state capital cities are metropolis. Increase the population growth rate in most Australian cities, because of migration in contrast to the birth rate and fertility rate in Australia.

Global warming

Global warming is occurring of increases in greenhouse gas emission and carbon dioxide concentration and their effect on the earth’s atmosphere. Especially the agriculture sector significantly impacted by global warming. This country farmers have already experienced the combination result of the EI Nino weather pattern, less rainfall, warmer temperatures, longer droughts and more severe bushfires. Native forests, wetlands, alpine ecosystems, riverine environments and marine environments are likely to become more vulnerable. Rising sea levels and extreme weather may threaten coastal and urban communities.

Bush fires

Bushfires are frequent issues during the warmer month of the year, because Australia’s most hot, dry climate, these fires impact extensive areas. Also, it can cause to property damage and loss of human life. Some of the most intense, extensive, and deadly fires commonly arise during heatwaves and drought.

The solution adopted by Australia for environmental issues Australia has many intranational environmental policies such as Desertification- this is a united nation policy singed by 193 nations to reduce desertification and droughts. Hazardous waste policy- this policy used to measure and reduce toxic waste in the atmosphere, water and ground. This is especially important for the mining industry. Other singed international policies are biodiversity marine dumping, whaling, and various Antarctic protocols. Australia has a good foundation in renewable energy and clean technology Clean energy week- organized by clean energy companies to highlight need for a comprehensive clean energy policy.

The government of Australia s introduce a science-based approach to their conservation work and are committed to real, measurable outcomes for the environment which directly benefit Australian species and natural resources like water, land the marine environment.

They established the Australian greenhouse office as a solution for climate change, it was the world’s first government agency dedicated to cutting greenhouse gas emissions.

As a solution for bushfires, local authorities provide education and information for residents in bushfire-prone areas regarding the position of current fires.

Paris agreement- this agreement includes a review of the emission reduction target every five years from 2020.

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (EPBC)- this act helps to protect Australia’s significant environment such as, world heritage areas, commonwealth marine environment, threatened species communities, and wetlands, and national importance. This act introduced a national protection scheme for wildlife. Also, this act promotes sustainable development through the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

Environment Protection Act- this act preserves the environment by regulating against putting pollution in to the air, water or land. Also, this act controls how garbage is collected, stored, transported, and treated.

Households and individuals are contributing to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Also, implemented of government policies and programs to support reducing greenhouse gas emissions. These actions are citizen science activities such as monitoring the condition of the Great Barrier Reef, installing solar panels on rooftops, buying fuel-efficient cars and appliances, and supporting companies that have cut greenhouse gas emissions.

Numerous government policies and programs are contributing farmers to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to changing the climate while considering huge environmental values. Emission reduction projects in land and agriculture sector increase productivity and provide environmental benefits like positive Biodiversity outcomes.

As solutions for global warming in Australia include aggressively decreasing coal dependence while simultaneously implementing a price on carbon emission and a national renewable electricity standard.

My suggestions to solve the issues reduce the people migrating to the urban helps to reduce urbanization. Urbanization is causing to increase the pollution, transport-related emission, energy consumption, land clearing and etc. Australia is the most highly urbanized country and reduce urbanization is very important to protect the environment.

Eliminate the human settlement in coastal and marine areas. Its help to reduce pollution and protect the quality of water. When human settlements built in coastal areas they away wastage to that environment. It is cause to loss of biodiversity and unclean the water.

Prohibit the clearcutting old-growth forests. It helps to reduce land degradation and soil erosion. Trees and plants are most important thing to protect the water resources, protect biodiversity, reduce soil erosion and etc.

Create the proper process for identifying climate change early. Natural or manmade things cause to climate change. If the responsible party can identify those changes early they can prepare to face those changes and they can reduce environmental problems.

conclusion Australia has one of the most different and beautiful environments in the world. Australia is highly urbanized and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. The various environmental problem faced by Australia. Most of the human land use economic activities cause to that issues. Climate change, conservation, land degradation, land clearance, salinity and water issues, global warming, urbanization, bushfires are some of the environmental issues in Australia. The country has many important intranational policies, act, agreements to solve these issues. They give more attention to reducing climate change-related problems and greenhouse gas emission. They considered the protect environmental values. As my suggestion to solve this problem, reduce urbanization, eliminate the human settlement in coastal and marine areas, implement a proper process for identifying climate change and etc. It helps to reduce environmental problems in Australia.


  1. BIBLIOGRAPHY l 1033
  2. Thomas, G. (2018, may 16). Australia: Environmental issues, policies and clean technology.

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Environmental issues faced by Australia
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