Convention regulating navigation, fishing, trading at North West Coast of America 1824, this treaty was signed between Russia and United States controlling various aspects mentioned above. – Treaty for settlement of Fisheries Question on the Atlantic Coast of North America 1888 In 1945, United Nations Organisation and it’s various other organs were established. An agreement called Salient Spring 1962 was recognised which dealt with pesticides and fungicides living in the fields. UN Conference on Conservation and Utilisation of Resources 1949 looked after balanced management and conservation of natural resources.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)1970 established a committee to resolve the issue of Environmental Degradation. - Trial Smelter Arbitration Case: Under this case the air pollution from Canada smelting factory blew over United States and Canada’s boundary and later destroyed a number of crops in Washington.
After 15 years, the arbitration panel introduced the “polluter pay principle”. According to this principle the polluter nation has to pay the compensation against the damage which has been caused to victim nation.
which focused on transboundary pollution was considered an important case which lead to making of IEL. On 5 June 1972, Stockholm Conference or UN conference on Human and Environment was held in Sweden which emphasised on environmental degradation and economic dis balance. It covered It looked after various concepts like transboundary pollution, improving and conserving natural resources for future generations, poverty eradication. It also focused on protecting human rights and keeping peace globally. Indira Gandhi also took part in the Conference and gave the concept of eradication of poverty.
Environmental Impact Assessment was a report which talked about topics like planning, radio active substances in nuclear test, renewable and non-renewable resources, sea pollution and water pollution. In 1989 UNEP evolved through various conventions and improvements in field of environment pollution. It had participation of 58 countries and it’s headquarters are in Nairobi, Kenya. Some of the important conventions in UNEP were- Vienna Convention 1985, Montreal Convention 1987, and Convention on Biodiversity. Rio Declaration 1992 or Earth Summit was held in Brazil. It is considered another landmark conference which lead to the making of IEL. There were a variety of issues which were discussed including protection of forest and wildlife, keeping a balance of resources between present generation and for future generation, transboundary pollution, eradication of poverty, public participation, national environment legislation, compensation of victims of pollution, protection of traditional knowledge of indigenous people.
Kyoto Protocol 1997 or Kyoto Summit was held in Japan addressing issues on reduction of greenhouse gases and temperature, carbon training program. This protocol had four objectives- to use renewable sources of energy, protection and enhancement of reservoirs, promotion of research and development by using scientific uses, and to reduce exploitation of natural resources. Johannesburg Conference or Earth Summit 10 or Rio 10 was held in 2002 in South Africa. It focused on topics including water and sanitation, increasing income, eradication of poverty, Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s). Rio+ 20 Conference was held in 2012. It focused on different concepts like jobs, cities, energy, water, food, ocean, disaster etc. However the outcome of this conference was a total failure because of lack of global co-operation, global economic crisis held In 2008, link of Sustainable development wasn’t recognised and lastly there was no capacity building program.
nvironmental law also plays an important role in national scenario. There are various laws which have been implemented by our National Legislation. Supreme Court has played an active role in highlighting the essential principles for controlling the pollution level in urban and rural areas and has also passed important landmark judgement related to various environmental issues. Legislation also played an important role in implementing the laws and amending the same