This study focuses on the policy Government should take with the Egyptian urban problem which started in the middle of the 20th century. Within the past five decades, the government has adopted many urban development plans. Those plans have followed experiences of some developed countries that were not essentially in line with the native conditions and priorities. Additionally, governmental institutions have forbidden international trends of urban development like the requirements of property for future generations. This, unfortunately, was done in a shallow means and while not enough studies to see the particular native needs and priorities.
Moreover, barriers that hinder the urban development method have recently appeared. Since Egypt faces water shortage and fuel crisis, the present ways and policies, that are currently ineffective, need to be reorganized. This can be simply to unravel the previous common urban issues. This study discusses the requirements of the government to develop new national strategies and policies for energy saving mistreatment new approaches for sustainable urban development planning.
It conjointly discusses the requirements of the government to boost performance capacities and capabilities continuously. The advanced ought to be technological as well as organizational and social.
Keywords: government policy; sustainability; developed countries.
Within the past few years, new barriers to urban development (UD) in Egypt have appeared. the primary is water shortage. Egypt has reached a state wherever the number of water available limits national UD. The second barrier lies is fuel crisis. Egypt’s energy production chiefly depends on fossil fuel. Production is not enough for the demanded energy and the country doesn’t have enough money to import fuels.
The third barrier is climate change, one that’s sometimes neglected or thought of a secondary priority.
In order to reach global sustainable development, the sustainability and efficiency of urban energy systems should be enhanced. New plans, strategies, and rules ought to be set to avoid wasting energy just in case the energy resources required for urban development don’t seem to be met. This paper studies the governmental policies that deal with the technological, innovative, behavioral, and structural capacities of the Egyptian UD. It focuses on the transition towards sustainable urban development (SUD) and therefore the tools to reinforce the potency of urban energy systems. The study discusses the requirement to line new national ways and policies that rely upon new approaches of SUD designing. this can be so as to boost performance capacities and capabilities of the new energy saving techniques.
Egypt is an emerging country  whose economy and population are growing. Like other emerging countries, these economic conditions beside the increasing population have led to chaotic urbanization. Egypt heavily depends on fossil fuels for power production and already has local resources of fossil fuels. However, within the last decade, domestic demand overpassed production. ‘Subsequently the consumption of energy has been boosted. As a result, within the recent years, domestic supplies have fallen short of demand, this is because the ongoing rapid increase in consumption, stagnation in production, and awfully generous subsidy policy which heavily contributed to increasing consumption’ . Egypt has to find a new approach to deal with these common urban problems. This can be through developing new national strategies and policies that rely upon new approaches to achieve sustainable urban development planning and to unceasingly improve the performance capacities and capabilities.
Egypt’s present economy is high-energy and demand-intensive. The demands are met by energy yielding fossil fuels. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources are proposed solutions and are named the ‘twin pillars’ of the sustainable energy policy. In the coming few pages the research explores a number of the key experiences of developed countries and can use them as a guide for the Egyptian government and its establishments. It studies their plans and methods in handling the energy saving necessity. This could facilitate Egypt develop new national ways and policies that enhance the technological, innovative, behavioral and structural capacities of Egyptian UD in its transition towards sustainable urban development (SUD). The study pays attention to the contribution of the developed countries, particularly the USA and therefore the EU and their plans and strategies for sustainable energy policy. The study suggests four strategies as reference. It uses the experiences the developed countries have had with these strategies as a driver for energy saving in Egypt.
On an international level, there are several institutions that contribute to setting codes that stimulate energy saving. Sustainability is adopted into building codes at completely different levels and with variable motivations according to the government policies by which that codes abide. The approach taken reflects native social perceptions, political priorities, national policies, and economic factors. There are two major experiences which will be taken as guide in our steps to energy saving in Egypt. These two major experiences are the present standing, and trends of ‘sustainable’ building codes custom made by individual political entities among the USA and therefore the EU. The primary example is the US Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. LEED could be voluntary program supposed to remodel the business and is taken into account successful by a trend together with property style practices in building codes across the world. The International Green Construction Code (IGCC) is the basis for that most, however, states in America could have sustainability in their building codes. The second example is the application of ASHRAE Standard 189.1, which is managed and developed by ASHRAE, USGBC and therefore Illuminating Engineering Society. The adoption of energy performance standards varies widely across the USA. On the opposite hand, the EU is making an attempt to achieve nearly zero energy buildings at the tip of this decade per numerous directives like EPBD and EED. The next coming years will see more modification to develop the process in the USA, the IGCC and Standard 189.1 will be united.
Various rating systems that are developed by organizations around the world to point out however well a building meets its prescribed needs. They were conjointly created to see whether or not a building style is green and what level of green it is. All systems give helpful tools to spot and range key environmental problems. These tools incorporate a coordinated technique for accomplishing, validating, and benchmarking sustainably designed projects. Like any generalized technique, each has its own limitations and should not apply directly to each project’s regional, political, and owner design intent-specific requirements.
In the past two decades, a movement began to develop programs which will facilitate, encourage and supply steerage within the inclusion of sustainability measures in the design, construction, and operation of buildings. Initially, these programs were setup as measures by which a building project might voluntarily participate and reach recognition for containing sustainability concepts in its design. Because the thoughts of ‘green buildings’ began to take hold, some jurisdictions began to search for methods to create these sustainability measures necessary instead of simply voluntary. Therefore, these organizations began to develop and set standards and building codes.
Codes that outline the level of performance that has to be achieved before a building may be brought up as ‘green’ or sustainability-focused were therefore known as a necessity of the industry. Due to the wide variation in economic, social, political, and technological conditions between the various countries and jurisdictions of the globe, it is not stunning that there will ought to be a good variation within the approach taken to reach the goals of moving sustainable building design into the mainstream. This paper provides a quick summery of the process that has occurred during t