REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Tourism in the Philippines
In 2017, the travel and tourism sector contributed a total of P3.35 trillion to the Philippine economy, accounting for about 21 percent of the countrys gross domestic product (GDP), according to the latest report from the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC). The industrys total contributionwhich reflected not only the economic activities of directly related industries, but also the wider effects from investment, supply chain and induced income impactsis similarly expected to rise by 5.9 percent in 2018 and further increase by about 5.8 percent yearly to P6.24 trillion by 2028, data from the WTTCs Travel and Tourism Economic Impact 2018 report showed. (Inquirer.Net)
Meanwhile, investments in travel and tourism last year reached P95.1 billion, a figure seen to similarly rise by 4.5 percent in 2018, and by 5.2 percent yearly over the next 10 years to some P164 billion in 2028. Indeed, travel and tourism remain one of the largest economic sectors not only in the country, but also globally. It continues to create jobs, drive exports and generate prosperity for many countries across the world. In the Philippines, the booming travel and tourism sector is currently driving the growth of many industries, including real estate as the influx of foreign and domestic travellers pushed the demand for new hotels and resort projects. (Inquirer.Net)
Using this knowledge of how fast tourism is growing in our country we can anticipate and be prepared on how big will be the number of tourists coming in and out of the project. We can set how many rooms we will have and up to what certain number of guests we can entertain. And in what time of the year does the volume of the tourist going to the project.
2.2 Climate Change
The world has increasingly been concerned with the changes in our climate due largely to adverse impacts being seen not just globally, but also in regional, national and even, local scales. In 1988, the United Nations established the IPCC to evaluate the risks of climate change and provide objective information to governments and various communities such as the academe, research organizations, private sector, etc. The IPCC has successively done and published its scientific assessment reports on climate change, the first of which was released in 1990. These reports constitute consensus documents produced by numerous lead authors, contributing authors and review experts representing Country Parties of the UNFCCC, including invited eminent scientists in the field from all over the globe. In 2007, the IPCC made its strongest statement yet on climate change in its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), when it concluded that the warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and that most of the warming during the last 50 years or so (e.g., since the mid-20th century) is due to the observed increase in greenhouse gas concentrations from human activities. It is also very likely that changes in the global climate system will continue into the future, and that these will be larger than those seen in our recent past (IPCC, 2007a). (PAGASA)
Fig. 2.1 shows the 0.74 C increase in global mean temperature during the last 150 years compared with the 1961-1990 global average. It is the steep increase in temperature since the mid-20th century that is causing worldwide concern, particularly in terms of increasing vulnerability of poor developing countries, like the Philippines, to adverse impacts of even incremental changes in temperatures. (PAGASA)
Analysis of trends of tropical cyclone occurrence or passage within the so-called Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) show that an average of 20 tropical cyclones form and/or cross the PAR per year. The trend shows a high variability over the decades but there is no indication of increase in the frequency. However, there is a very slight increase in the number of tropical cyclones with maximum sustained winds of greater than 150kph and above (typhoon category) being exhibited during El Ni?o event (See Fig.2.2). (PAGASA)
Using this information from the online website of PAGASA we can anticipate what materials to use in the project that could withstand these types of disasters. Knowing what climate change and its effect on our environment can simply help us understand what can we do in our own way. Because our environment is in deep situation wherein anytime it can destroy itself. It can help the project to understand when this kind of disasters will strike. Uses of materials that withstand this type of disasters will inform and encourage to use it on their own place making the project a sample of what could our environment can be if we understand how to take care of it.
2.3 Marine Ecology
2.3.1 Climate Change: Altering our Oceans (Greenpeace.org)
Carbon emissions on land damage marine life. Climate change, caused by burning fossil fuels, is increasing sea water temperatures and acidity, melting glaciers, raising sea levels, and changing ocean currents. The effects are already beginning to be felt. Whole species of marine animals and fish are at risk due to temperature rise they simply cannot survive the changed conditions. Increased water temperatures are responsible for massive episodes of coral bleaching where corals turn white and eventually die. In 1998, 16% of the worlds corals including those in the country were severely damaged by coral bleaching.
There are over 34,000 square kilometres of coral reefs in the country, some of which have grown since the Ice Age. Over a third of the 2,300 known fish species in the Philippines are reef-associated. But coral bleaching events in Southeast Asia and the Pacific are set to increase in frequency and intensity if greenhouse gas emissions increase unabated. In 1998, a massive bleaching event was reported to have killed up to 30 to 70 percent of hard corals in major reefs in the country. Aside from contributing to local tourism, Philippine reefs contribute at least 15 percent to the total annual fishery production. Bleaching events triggered by warming temperatures would obviously translate to significant economic losses for the Philippines.
2.3.2 Pollution: Unacceptable Ocean Dumping (Greenpeace.org)
Another significant impact of human activity on the marine environment is pollution. Almost half of the pollution found at sea comes from the land. Aside from oil spills, pollution comes in the form of domestic sewage, industrial Ocean Defender Tour of Southeast Asia 2013 Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines May-July 2013 discharges, urban and industrial run-off, accidents, spillage, explosions, sea dumping operations, mining, agricultural run-offs and pesticides, waste heat sources and radioactive discharges. Plastics and other solid wastes also often end up floating in our seas. It can take up to 1,000 years for plastic to break down in the water and it is often found embedded in the skin or stomachs of birds, fish, turtles and marine mammals. Even a tiny cigarette can take two years to break down.
Improving waste management is an important step in having a safe environment for both tourist and animals. Better management reduces the risk of waste polluting the bodies of water, and helps in promoting eco-tourism in a beach resort.
2.4 Bioclimatic Architecture (Barbara Widera, 2015)
A Research Paper of Barbara Widera on Bioclimatic Architecture a Faculty of Architecture in Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland. Below is her research journal on what is the concept of Bioclimatic Architecture and its effect on the environment:
2.4.1 Concept of Bioclimatic Architecture
The first rule of bioclimatic architecture is to take advantage of local bioclimatic conditions with the benefit of the natural and built environment. That approach should always be based on multidisciplinary in-depth research of individual circumstances: from the specifics of the ecosystem through cultural factors up to the economic analysis. In final effect safe and comfortable building which is created does not harm the environment but contributes to its health and enriched biodiversity.
To satisfy contemporary anticipations the built environment needs to ensure suitable temperature range, adequate humidity and air exchange, good acoustic parameters as well as correctly designed lighting. Overall visual comfort expectations should be also met. In numerous cases these are lighting and indoor climate requirements that tend to bring about some serious issues. In standard buildings, in spite of many criticism, the plant air conditioning systems are most frequently used in purpose to regulate temperature and humidity. However, in bioclimatic premises the application of renewable materials and energy sources is promoted, while the usage of plant systems is considerably reduced in favour of methods described further in the text.
The key elements of proper bioclimatic design are maximum usage of daylight to ensure adequate illumination of interiors. Reduction, or in some cases even elimination of electricity consumption for artificial lighting, leads to significant savings, both for the consumers and the environment.
2.4.2 Passive Cooling and Heating
Fig 2.3. Basic models of natural ventilation: a. Cross ventilation, b. Chimney ventilation, c. Wind tower and wind catcher. Drawing by author, based on Sorensen
Fig. 2.4. Natural cooling in Thailand traditional houses with openwork structure built on high stilts. Cross ventilation combined with the elevated floor. Drawing by author, based on Tantasavasdi
Fig. 2.5. Natural cooling in Caribbean traditional houses with openwork structure built on stilts and located above water. Cross ventilation combined with the elevated floor and radiating cooling from the water surface. Drawing by author.
The idea of passive cooling and heating is very important since the project is a beach resort. With passive cooling it provides comfortability within the guests to enjoy their stay in the beach resort. Heating is also important since our country is considered one of the hottest countries, heating is greatly considered to provide guest with comfortable yet tolerable heat that they need. Passive cooling would also affect the structures facing where the air could travel without disturbances.
2.5 Green Building
According to the research of Prof. Dr. Osama Ahmed Ibrahim Masood, Dr. Eng. Mohamed Ibrahim Abd Al-Hady, and Ahmed Khamies Mahamed Ali on Applying the Principles of Green Architecture for Saving Energy in Buildings they concluded that:
The implementation of the principles and basics of green architecture and resorting to environmental design trends consider from the most successful followed ways to get rid of the increasing energy problems and also the problem of energy depletion those principles also preserves on achieving comfort for the users of the buildings by ensuring the thermal comfortable, natural ventilation and natural lighting not only this but also it can save and provide the building with its needs from energy by taking full advantage from the natural energies like: (solar energy, wind energy and water energy), which helps to reduce energy consuming also it helps to get benefit from rain water, grey water and wastes of buildings instead of leaving it pollute the environment, the principles of green architecture demanding of recycling for all this elements and using it to, maintain a clean environment and get benefits from the new and renewable energies studying the global and local buildings, which apply the green architecture and gained certificates for of rationalization of energy consumption like LEED, the desired targets have been extracted by application of the green natural methods and modern techniques which is unamortized of energy in order to reach to a commercial building and environment friendly.
2.6 Ecotourism in the Philippines
The Philippines is a gifted nation. Its biodiverse flora and fauna serve as virtual canvass to a lot of picturesque sceneries spread out in its 7,107 islands. People all over the world are not only attracted to the bounties of the country but also fall in love, literally, with almost all the islands they visit, enjoying nature at its best.
Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintain essential ecological processes and help conserve natural heritage and biodiversity; Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance; and Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation. (ROWENA B. ABAT-PARDUCHO)
Considering the condition of the natural environment here in the Philippines we need to start considering the phrase Building With the Nature not on top of nature. We need to categorized the effect of understanding how important the nature is with us. The beauty of its is just exceptional. In the project one of the objectives is ecotourism wherein the project would include in the design the environment or the condition of the site the surrounding trees and its landscape.
2.7 Rehabilitation of the Environment
2.7.1 The countrys unique biodiversity is under pressure
The Philippines is rich in biological and genetic resources or biodiversity and is one of the 18 megadiverse countries in the world. The majority of plant and animal species in the country are unique and cannot be found anywhere else. The countrys species are among the worlds top 10 in terms of endemism. Given the land density and the density of both flora and fauna, the Philippines may even be considered to be the worlds most megadiverse country. Biodiversity in the Philippines, however, is also among the most endangered in the world. As of 2008, 221 species of fauna and 526 species of flora have been included in the list of threatened species. The continually increasing demands for food, energy, and other goods, coupled with the pressures exerted by rapid development and economic growth, have put much stress on the countrys natural environment resulting in the destabilization of ecosystems, destruction of natural habitats and an alarming rate of biodiversity loss. The introduction of invasive alien species (IAS) has threatened biodiversity and destabilized ecosystems.
This study shows how important in a design to know what will be the materials that can benefit the environment from what does the environment need to regenerate and what design that would lessen the pollution that buildings are making.
2.8 Resort Management
According to the book of Peter Murphy in his book entitled, The Business of Resort Management. According to the book there are two factors that states particularly well-designed resorts can become attractions in themselves and he devotes a chapter to planning tourist resorts under the umbrella of community tourism. Within this framework he emphasizes two factors:
Resorts are a business: They need to start their planning with a market analysis and demand assessment, which should then be matched with a product assessment of how well the proposed area can match expected market demand.
Community relations: Need to be considered carefully if there is a resident population living on or near the resort site, because of positive and negative impacts from such a development.
Within these descriptors of resorts and their management needs certain commonalities can be identified. Resorts are distinctive in that they:
Are established as tourism businesses: When they are planned and financed it is with the specific intent of creating an attraction that will draw visitors.
Convert visitors into guests: To make a profit and long-term success of the business most resorts must convince enough visitors to become overnight guests. The exceptions are those resorts focussing on a local day-trip market.
Attempt to hold their guests on-site: By providing a critical mass of activities in addition to the accommodation there must be sufficient attractions and activities to keep the guests occupied during the day and night.
Attract guests and hold them with superior quality facilities: To keep the guests on-site these attractions and activities need to be of the highest quality.
Cosset guests with superior service: To complement the quality facilities and to obtain the most from the experience for the guest and the resort, the resort needs quality staff who can deliver superior service.
These design standards and guidelines will help the project to know what facility needed to satisfy the needs of the guest and its environment.
2.9 Resort Design and Standards
2.9.1 Beach Resort
Located directly on a major beach or in a very close proximity to one. Most beach resorts offer guests many exciting water activities such as parasailing, tennis, horseback riding, beach volleyball, snorkelling, kayaking, scuba diving, windsurfing, boating or jet skiing. This kind of resort offers variety of facility that is needed to satisfy guests
2.9.2 Mountain Resorts
This kind of resorts have the privilege of having activities like mountain trekking, hiking, sightseeing, and remarkable scenery. This resort is built for those who love the experience nature at its finest and a more adventurous vacation.
2.9.3 Ecotourism Resorts
This resort focuses on the environment and wildlife conservation. This resorts activity is mostly focusing on preserving the natural environment, and exploring the rainforest or hiking pristine mountains
Understanding the different kinds of resorts will make the project more effective because it has the understanding on what rooms are needed and what type of planning it will undergo. This will also help the project to discover best possible solutions on the rising problem when it comes to building a beach resorts or any type of resort.
2.10 Current Trends on Beach Resorts
2.10.1 Walk with Nature
Resorts are responding through the creation of specific healthy-living programs, enhanced fitness facilities and even new brands that promote wellness through out the resorts experience. A strong revival with the growing trend towards, the growing popularity of remote holistic retreats, the development of nature gyms and the increasing prevalence of biophilic and active design in the hospitality sector.
2.10.2 Luxury at its Finest
In resort it is always important to classify whether it is a five-star hotel or a three-star hotel. Because it is the first consideration of guests in looking for a place to stay. In accordance to this there are laws and facility that are written and needed to have in the project so that the project can be called a five star or a luxury resort.