All praise belongs to Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be on the noblest of mankind, his family, his Companions and all those who follow his path with rectitude till the last day.
Islam has decreed a series of legal principles which makes up the rules of comportment governing the social system of Islam in order to accomplish its objectives. Ease and removal of difficulty is depicted as one of the major principle of Shariah. In other words, it is a great goal among the aims of Shariah.
Islamic laws are not destined to exist as a burden on mankind creating difficulties for them. They are enacted to ensure the facilitation of mankinds individual and communal needs. In quintessence, if the application of a law causes toil to an individual, then there are alternates one can do to overawe this difficultly.
Difficulty was defined as the hardship that is unusual. Jurists have categorized difficulty in terms of persons forbearance into two kinds namely; usual and unusual.
The former refers to the difficulty one may experience while executing religious obligations. Because such difficulty is inescapable even in our daily life, it is not considered momentous in the Shariah and successively requires no simplification. The difficulties one finds in making wuduu or ghusl in cold weather or one feels when getting up early for Subh prayer or when fasting during lengthy searing days and the likes carry no encumbrance by which an omission or reduction of duty might be simplified.
This is because this type of difficulty lies in one capability and forte and leads to reward in afterlife, since the realization of obligation necessitates this kind of difficulty.
Unusual difficulty is the theme of the principle above and it is what the definition of difficulty above portrayed. Succinctly, the principle is only applicable in all difficulties which are unusual and cannot be applied in usual difficulties that are inevitable in our daily life.
Five Quranic verses and Five hadeeths that can be used to proof this principle
Evidences to support the fact that Islamic law is grounded on the notion of ease and removal of difficulty can be found in several verses of Quran. The succeeding are a few of them;
> (An-Nisaa; 4:28)
And the almighty says in the portrayal of his messenger; ( Al-Araaf; 7:157).
Also, several Ahaadeeth showed the fact that the Islamic law is based on the theory of ease and removal of difficulty. The sequential are a few of them;
Anas radiyallahu anhu reported that the Allahs messenger sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: Facilitate things for people and do not make it tough for them
Also, Urwah narrated that Aisha Radiyallahu anha said; whever two matters were offered to the prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam to choose between them, he would always choose the easiest one unless it was haram.
Abu saiid Al-Khudri radiyallahu anhu reported that Allahs messenger sallallahu alayhi wasallam said; Do not injure others and others should not reciprocate
Abu Hurairah radiyallahu anhu reported that the prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said ; Religion is easy and whoever overburdens himself in this religion will not be able to continue in that way, so you should not be extremists, but try to be near to perfection.
It is widely known that wearing silk clothes is prohibited for men as it found in many hadeeth but then it was reported by Anas that the prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam permitted Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Awf and Az-Zubair to wear silk clothes owing to skin Irritation. Not only this hadith but also the previous ones glaringly shows that Islam is based on Ease and Removal of difficulty.
Five Occurrences in the Shariah where this principle is applicable.
There exists a lot of occurrences in the shariah where this principle can be applied. The following are a few of them;
1. The consent to consume pork and alcohol in cases of grim necessity
2. The authorization to break fast during journey
3. The permission to reduce and combine prayers during travel.
4. The authorization to kill an enemy who cannot be brought under or overcome control except by killing him
5. The permission of a leaseholder to wait until his harvest his plants when the period of his lease finish before harvest. For crop collection before their normal harvesting time destroy them. However he has to pay an extra-additional fee for the supplemental period.
Points to proof that existence of difficulty does not conflict with the principle.
Indubitably, the presence of certain difficulties in the commands and prohibitions Allah has instructed us with does not in any way conflicts with the concept of Ease and Removal of difficulty owing to some reasons.
The lessening of religious Onuses,
the thoughtfulness of the pleas of the excused ( Al-Madhuurin) and
the exclusion of Obligations or lifting the sin of the one who is forced to consume verboten substances in case of dreadful necessity show clearly the facilitation of concept of Ease and Removal of difficulty.
The religious acts legislated on us are quite few and simple when compared with the previous legislations. So, praying Only five times in a day and night, fasting for only a month out of twelve month and going for Hajj once in a lifetime for only who can afford the expenses and still lifting the ban for the excused or postponing its execution to a later time till their period of excuse expires are obligations that has no uneasiness. Also, the prohibitions are very few when compared to those that are permitted either by direct command or by the absence of any command or prohibition. Thus, in case of prohibition, the subcategories are stated and listed unlike permissions in which general authorization is given due to large number of categories present in it.
Despite the fact that the prohibitions are few in comparison to the allowances, the sin of one who is forced to take prohibited substances in case of dire necessity has also been lifted. Allah says;
(Al-Baqarah; 2: 123)
So, which facilitation still exists after this ease?
Tersely, Shariah is based on the concept of ease and Removal of difficulty. They are not in any way meant to create burden on us. Several verses and Ahadeeth elucidated it directly and indirectly and unarguably, certain difficulties which exists in the legislation Allah has instructed us with does not contradict the concept.