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Earth Sciences Essay Examples

The Evolution of Birds

All animals need to be adapted for travel in their environment… [L]and animals need bones strong enough to lift their body off the ground as they move. Birds have to overcome gravity altogether to fly, and their adaptations emphasize strength and lightness. Their bones are hollow, but strong enough to support the muscles attached to…

Introduction to Flood Routing

The Muskingum flow routing method has been very well researched and established in the hydrological literature. Its modest data requirements make it attractive for practical use. The paper gives a general overview of the Flood routing concept and types, and then goes on to explain the Muskingum method in detail. Introduction to Flood Routing Flood…

Procedure for applying Muskingum Method

For Muskingum method which is a hydrologic method, the discharge measurements alone are sufficient for routing. This is because it is assumed that the parameters of the Muskingum model capture the combined flood-propagating characteristics of a river reach. When the water resources schemes to be built are in their initial planning stages, the river gauging…

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Continental Drift

First proposed by Alfred Wegener the meteorologist, the theory of continental drift supports the belief that the Earth’s continents once were a single land mass. This land mass, which was named “Pangaea”, broke up, and its various parts drifted away from one another. Centuries ago, trips around the world from travellers showed out lines from every…

The megathrust earthquake

Chile is hit by what is called a megathrust temblor. Chile lies on a convergence or destructive home base boundary. This means that to different home bases, in this instance the Nacza home base ( an pelagic home base ) and the South-American home base, travel towards each other. In this boundary, the home bases…

Discussion of the adaptations of plants

Salt marshes are intertidal ecosystems, surrounded by land and open to the sea by way of an estuary (Pomeroy & Wiegert 1981). As a result salt marshes are constrained, by silt and saline water, to the type of communities it can sustain (Ranwell 1972). However because of the tidal nature of these ecosystems and the…

The Structure of the Earth

The structure of the earth The earth has three major parts-the land part or lithosphere, the water part or hydrosphere and the air part or atmostpere. The lithosphere is the surface on which you live . It is also the earth solid sphere consisting mainly of massive rocks. The massive rocks form large land masses…

APES 19, 20 Climate Change

Aerosols Small particles or liquid droplets in the atmosphere that can absorb or reflect sunlight depending on their composition. Albedo The amount of solar radiation reflected from an object or surface, often expressed as a percentage. Anthropogenic Made by people or resulting from human activities. Usually used in the context of emissions that are produced…

ATOC 1060

The term “albedo” refers to the absorption of radiation False Without an atmosphere, the earth’s temperature would be a frigid -100 degrees Celsius False Over the past 400,000 years, CO2 abundances in Earth’s atmosphere have varied in correlation with Earth’s temperature True Molecules are called ‘greenhouse gases’ if they Absorb infrared radiation, but are transparent…

Mesolithic and Neolithic

With Reference to examples, compare and contrast the impact made by Mesolithic and Neolithic peoples on Ireland’s cultural landscape. The extraordinary landscape that the island of Ireland has to offer, cannot be described in words. The individual on looking at the sights of the country feels a sense of ineffability. The Ice Age brought about…

Ch.8 & 9 Questions & Answers

A fault is…. Faults are fractures in Earth where movement has occurred An earthquake’s epicenter is…. Is the location on the surface directly above the focus When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called… Focus. The point within Earth where the earthquake starts is called the focus Earthquakes…

Acid Rain Has a Major Affect on Life in Shanghai

Acid rain is any type of precipitation that has high acid content. This precipitation can be wet (rain, snow, or fog) or dry (gases or acidic salts). Normal rain is slightly acidic with pH 6. 5 but we call it acid rain when it is pH is between 2 and 5. 5. It is formed…

Chapter 5

What is mechanical weathering? When physical forces break rock into smaller pieces without changing the rock’s mineral composition What is frost wedging? The mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and cervices. Which of the following is NOT associated with mechanical weathering? reactions with oxygen What is chemical weathering?…

Chapter 5 Study Guide

The process that occurs when physical force break rock into smaller pieces without changing the rock’s chemical composition is called ? Mechanical weathering What is the weathering processes involving the constant freezing and thawing of water? Frost wedging What are the process of mechanical weathering? Frost wedging , unloading , biological activity When water freezes,…

chapter 6 test

the water cycle is the unending circulation of earths water supply plants release water into the atmosphere through a process called transpiration balance in the water cycle means that the average annual precipitation over earth equals the amount of water that evaporates the ability of a stream to erode and transport material depends largely on…

ES 105

The radioactive fuel of earth is U, Th, K The early Earth’s atmosphere was mostly made of CO2, water, and hydrogen sulfide. Relative to the age of the earth, the fraction of time that humans have existed is 0.04% Early heating of the earth:1. formed the core and mantle2. metled iron and some nickel3. led…

Geology Test

Which seismic waves compress and expand rocks in the direction the waves travel? P Waves What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without destroying or producing lithosphere? transform fault boundary Why do earthquakes often cause damaging fires? Earthquake vibrations can break gas lines, water lines, and electrical lines Tensional…

Intertidal Wetlands-Geography

The area is home to the saltwater plant ‘Lanthanum tokens’. The plant is found in only four known areas, the Sydney Bicentennial Park wetland being one of these areas. The size of the wetland ecosystem has decreased significantly due to human advancement and land use. The once abundant shoreline has been dramatically altered disrupting the…

Global Warming Affects Polar Bears

For example, China has more than 200 million automobiles and as a speed of growth is about 13 million per year, meanwhile the United States has about 255 millions automobiles and the growth speed is more than 10 million per year. So, we can see how large pressure forced on the earth. It is clear…

Environmental Resources Worksheet

How do minerals affect society? Minerals have aided in the continuous growth of developing nations and also, “had abundant mineral deposits that enabled them to industrialized” (Berg, 2013). However, as a consequence of industrialization, “these countries largely depleted their domestic reserves Of minerals so that they must increasingly turn to developing countries” (Berg, 2013). Also,…

Convergent boundary

Describe the major topographic relief elements on the solid surface of the earth and briefly explain their deposition in relation to the plate tectonics concept. Have you ever wondered where mountains come from, why there is a sea floor, island arcs or even volcano and what plate tectonic have to do with this? Well worry…

Oceanography Chapter 7

An indirect method of measuring ocean current is the use of __________. radar altimeters A large system of rotating ocean currents, usually driven by the major wind belts, is called a(n) gyre The current in the northwestern part of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre that transports warm water toward the North Atlantic is called the…

Oceanography Exam 2

What best explains why the atmosphere transports heat toward the poles? the latitudinal imbalance of incoming solar radiation The Coriolis parameter is at largest _______ and zero at the _____. poles and equator The prevailing winds on each side of the equator are: Easterly winds Geostrophy is the balance between what 2 forces? Pressure gradient…

The Effect of Global Warming on Thermohaline Circulation

Studies have been conducted in recent years on the effects of increase of greenhouse gases on the thermopile circulation. There are several hypotheses that state that the prolonged effect Of global warming could eventually “shut down” the thermopile circulation and lead to cooling in certain regions in the North Atlantic Ocean. Several ocean-atmosphere models have…

Ocean Noise Pollution

For millions of years, the oceans have been filled with sounds from natural sources such as the squeaks, moans and clicks of whales and dolphins, the snapping of shrimp, the sound caused by wind upon the surface and even the occasional rumble from earthquakes. Over millions of years, the ocean’s marine species have developed into…

Water Pollution in the Jamaican Society

One hundred and fifty years ago, the monster began, this country had become a place of industry. Factories grew on the landscape like weeds. Trees fell, fields were up-ended, rivers blackened. The sky choked on smoke and ash, and the people did, too, spending their days coughing and itching, their eyes turned forever toward the…

The Effect of Global Warming on the Napa Valley

There is little doubt in the scientific community that this huge economy, based on grape growing, will be affected by this slow but steady climate change. However, how this region will be affected is a tater of debate. A hot year is normally associated with a boom year, offering a high yield of quality grapes…

Environment: Earth and Lithosphere

At the centre is the densest of the three layers, the core. The core is a spherical mass, composed largely on metallic iron, with lesser amount of nickel and other elements. Mantle: The thick shell of dense, rocky matter that surrounds the core is mantle. The mantle is less dense than the core but denser…

Unit 5

What is frost wedging ? Mechanical weathering occurs when physical forces break rock into smaller and smaller pieces without changing the rock’s mineral composition What is frost wedging ? After many freeze-thaw cycles, the rock breaks into pieces by a process called frost wedging When water freezes, it volume _______. Its volume expands by about…

Environmental Determinism

Although environmental determinism has been acclaimed throughout history, it has been lately declining; it has also been divided into arioso subsets including, climate, economic growth and many more. Since ancient times, many prominent Greek philosophers leaned on the idea that they Were more developed than other societies due to their great climate. Plato, Aristotle and…

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