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dietary fats assignment Paper

Words: 1546, Paragraphs: 130, Pages: 6

Paper type: Assignment , Subject: Addiction

Essentials of cell biology and chemistry DIETARY FATS Anahera Haami 2019000747

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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 2

T RIGLYCERIDE DIAGRAM ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ….. 3

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DIFFERENCE IN CHEMICAL STRUCTURE B ETWEEN SATURATED AND UNSATURATED FATS ………………………… 4

S ATURATED FATTY ACID DIAGRAM ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………. 4

U NSATURATED FATTY ACI D DIAGRAM ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 4

DIFFERENCE IN STRUCT URE BE TWEEN FATS AND OILS ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 5

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE O F FAT RESULTING IN A LACK OF SOLUBILITY IN BLOOD ………………………….. …………. 5

HOW THE LACK OF SOLU BILITY IS MANAGED AS THE BODY ABSORBS, T RANSPORTS AND USES F AT ………….. 6

POTENTIAL IMPACT OF ‘GOOD’ VERSUS ‘BAD’ FAT ON HUMAN HEALTH ………………………….. …………………… 7

REFERENCES ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 8

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Introduction

Dietary Fat can be great because it makes food taste good and helps to make us feel full and

therefore satisfied as we eat. It also provides insulation for body organs and transports fat –

soluble vitamins.

Like all things, there are good and bad fats and the secret of good health is to have a diet

that has the healthier types of dietary fat and then enjoy them as part of a balanced diet.

This assignment looks at the biology and chemistry of dietary fats.

The general structure of a triglyceride

Triglycerides are a type of fat (lipid) found in your blood.

When you eat, your body converts any calories it doesn't need to use right away into

triglycerides. The triglycerides are stored in your fat cells. Later, hormones release

triglycerides for energy between meals.

If you regularly eat more ca lories than you burn, particularly from high – carbohydrate foods,

you may have high triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia). These may contribute to hardening

of the arteries or thickening of the artery walls (arteriosclerosis) — which increases the risk

of s troke, heart attack, and heart disease. They may also indicate that you have type 2 or

pre Diabetes and hypothyroidism . Extremely high triglycerides can also cause acute

inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). (1 )

Broken down into its structural f orm it looks like the attached Triglyceride diagram.

A triglyceride is a four section lipid the first is a glycerol molecule, that has carboxyl

group ings, with three unsaturated fat chains that stretch out from the glycerol molecule.

Glycerol is a sugar alcohol with three carbon molecules and three hydroxyl units that bond

the hydrocarbon fatty acid chains to the glycerol stamina.

Every carbon atom will opt for four bonds, any carbon atom that does not bond with

another carbon will have hydrogen atoms at tached.

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Triglyceride diagram

Glycerol 3 fatty acid chains

H O H H H H H H

H C O C C C C C C C H

H H H H H H

O H H H H H H

H C O C C C C C C C H

H H H H H H

O H H H H H H

H C O C C C C C C C H

H H H H H H H

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The difference in chemical structure between saturated and

unsaturated fats

The term 's aturated ' originates from the fats chemical structure. A long straight chain of

carbon molecules with singular connections is a saturated fatty acid compound . Every one

of these carbons has a hydrogen atom associated with each accessible space. This makes

the chai n completely hydrogenated, bringing about a truly steady particle. The solidness of

straight hydrocarbon chains is the thing that makes saturated fats dense and solid at room

temperature .

Saturated fatty acid diagra m

O H H H H H H

HO C C C C C C C H

H H H H H H

Unsaturated Fats include monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and Omega 3 fatty acids they

provide us with calories these give our body energy, our cells structure, improve blood

cholesterol levels, ease inflammation, stabilize heart rhythms, enable our nerve, brain and

heart function to operate at their optimum level, whilst antioxidants like lycopene and beta –

carotene and fat – soluble vitamins A, D, E & K can be absorbed because of fat in the food

that

we eat .

Unsaturated fatty acid diagram

O H H H H H H

HO C C C C C C C H

H H H H

Double bond

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The difference in structure between fats and oils

The most obvious distinction b etween fats and oils is that fats are generally s olid at room

temperature and oils are liqu id. Solid fats are saturated fatty acids and oi ls are unsaturated

fatty acids. Fats and oil are both made up of three components, carbon, oxygen and

hydrogen.

These three components consolidate to make the three fatty acid chains that make up a

triglyceride. The mix of these three components will decide if a fatty acid is saturated or

unsaturated.

S aturated fats have straight hydro carbonated chains that are usually short and compact .

t hey are a linear shape because of their single bonds. Unsaturated fats are longer bent in

shape and irregular which means they are not able to be packed tightly . The outcome of this

is a fluid liquid.

Chemical structure of fat resulting in a lack of solubility in

blood

Our b lood is a specialized bodily fluid that consists of liquid s and solids. The liquid part is

called plasma and is made up of water, salts, and protein. Over half of our blood is plasma.

The solid part of our blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red

blood cells deliver oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and organs. White blood cells help

fight infection and are part of our immune system. Platelets help blood to clot when I cut

myself or have a wound.

Fats molecules are made up of mainly carbon and hydrogen atoms and are known as

hydrocarbon molecules, these can include cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides.

Fats in blood are called lipids. Lipids join with protein in t he blood to form lipoproteins.

Lipoproteins make energy for our bodies, so they are important to the cells in our body.

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People who have high levels of fat in their blood eat too much high – fat food whilst others

have an inherited disorder. High lipid lev els may also be caused by medical conditions such

as diabetes, hypothyroidism, alcoholism, kidney disease, and stress.

How the lack of solubility is managed as the body absorbs,

transports and uses fat

Fats have difficulty break ing down in water, therefore they genera l l y bunch together,

making it harder for our bodies to process. Bile salts that are made in the liver go about as

an emulsifier and help to separate the fat clusters into smaller portions of fat .

These then go thro ugh the small intestine . The pancreas makes a substance c alled lipase

that separates the smaller portions of fat into two absorbable substance s , Free fatty acids ,

and monoglycerides.

Once in the small intestine , retention will happen through a coating cal led mucosa.

The monoglycerides and free fatty acids will at that point enter the endoplasmic reticulum

inside the epithelial cells.

The endoplasmic reticulum is a system in which the functions include synthesizing and

transportation of lipids. Here, the p rocessed substances will be combined into triglycerides.

Before proceeding onward, the triglycerides are covered in water dissolvable lipoprotein

called chylomicrons.

Chylomicrons enable lipids to travel uninhibitedly outside of the cell in the blood. Wh en

triglycerides are in the circulation system, the body will either utilize them for energy or will

store them for later use in fat cells called adipocytes which are just below the skin in the

abdomin al area .

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The potential impact of ‘good' versus ‘bad' f at on human

health

Dietary Fats are essential to a balanced eating regimen and good general wellbeing.

Good fats help the body absorb the minerals from liposoluble vitamins , into the circulation

system and is great for our nutrition .

The good fats are healthy and are good for our diet because they keep our hearts healthy

and these fall into three categories known as monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and

omega 3 fats;Monounsaturated includes: – Oils like olive, peanut, and canola, Nuts like

almonds, hazeln uts and pecans, Seeds like pumpkin and sesame as well as the avocado.

Polyunsaturated includes: – Oils like sunflower, corn, soybean and flaxseed, Nuts from the

walnut tree, Flax seeds, Fish and Canola oil.

Omega 3 fats cannot be made by the body so we hav e to consume fish, plants like flax

seeds, walnuts, and canola or soybean oil.

The bad fats

These include Trans fats and Saturated fat:

Trans fats are liquid oils blasted with hydrogen so that they stay solid at room temperature.

They are found in many pro cessed and fried foods.

Trans fats increase bad cholesterol and reduce good cholesterol so we should really avoid

them.

Saturated fat increases total cholesterol and LDL and may increase type 2 diabetes

riskTherefore it is a good idea to choose low fat or fat – free dairy products as this allows you

to absorb their key nutrients and cut saturated fat levels.

Understanding the cell biology and chemistry of dietary fats builds awareness about the

makeup of my food and gives me the power to make better decisions about the food I

purchase and eat and allows me to live a healthy life

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Refer e nces

– topics/high – blood – triglycerides

– topics/cholesterol/hdl – good – ldl – bad – cholesterol – and –

triglycerides

– topics/cholesterol/prevention – and – treatment – of – high –

cholesterol – hyperlipidemia/the – skinny – on – fats

/biology/macromolecules/lipids/a/lipids

– healthy/the – truth – about – fats – bad – and – good

– is – cholesterol

– conditions/high – blood – cholesterol/in –

depth/triglycerides/art – 20048186

– should – you – eat/fats – and – cholesterol/

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About the author

This academic paper is composed by Samuel. He studies Biological Sciences at Ohio State University. All the content of this work reflects his personal knowledge about dietary fats assignment and can be used only as a source for writing a similar paper.

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