Tuteja et al., Mentioned that in the urban environment the network topology is dynamic due to the high mobility and the uneven traffic in some areas and so the street mobility is hard to estimate. They initially calculated the effect of traffic lights on vehicle distribution on streets and then calculate street mobility based on the distribution and density of vehicles in the middle area of the street. Finally they proposed a street centric protocol based on the street mobility.
Meyer-Delius et al.,  describes vehicular ad-hoc network which maintains mobile node vehicle to mobile node data communication as well as mobile node to static infrastructure communication. These two features of VANET make the recent day communication more proficient and effective. This paper will focus on different lane changing techniques and there movement.
Harri et al.,  is a generated-map-based model, in which the simulation area, represented by a generated map, includes many freeways, each side of which is composed of many lanes.
If the distance between two vehicles is less than this required minimal distance, the second one decelerates (a(t) is forced to be < 0) and let the forward vehicle moves away. The change of lanes is not allowed in this model. Maye et al.,  Nowadays, everything is moving towards the infrastructure less wireless environment to bring the smartness of the society. As vehicular traffic is a primary problem in urban roads and on highway.
Message dissemination plays an essential part in the Intelligent Transport System (ITS). Baltrusaitis et al.,  represents the preferred network for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) for Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications.
Guoqing et al.,  Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is an attractive, promising technology, which uses automotive industry to improve the services of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), vehicles exchange important information, e.g., about road conditions and hazardous situations.
Zheng et al.,  describe an analysis of mobility and seamless handoff management and proposing a new algorithm to improve delay performance. NS2 is the network simulating tool for analyzing performance of entire network and its connectivity ,routing performance, Handover Latency, Packet Loss, PDR ratio etc., Saif Al-Sultan et al.,  are working to develop pre-competitive safety technologies and various applications that can be offered in Vehicular ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), a special kind mobile ad-hoc networks where wireless equipped element called on-board unit (OBU) in vehicles form a network with the Roadside unit (RSU) without any additional infrastructure.
Esmaeil Balal et al.,  mentioned that the network communication over VANET is unstable because of high mobility of vehicles. Mathematical models take the effect of headway distance, acceleration, association time, relative speed of vehicles, transmission range and message or data size in short range based V2V communication in the models.