Forest fires are a highly hazardous means of destruction. They can burn over 40,000 acres of land at a time. An average of 5 million acres consumes every year in the United States and have absolutely no limit on the number of people they can kill. These numbers are with efforts of firefighters trying to stop them. Therefore, the need for a way to prevent the spreading of such flames would be hugely beneficial to the common good. In order to evaluate the course of action necessary to use research in order to slow down, if not completely put out forest fires, one should start with what a fire needs in order the grow and spread.
Once a fire begins, it can spread at a velocity of up to 14.29 miles per hour (23 kph), consuming everything in its mission of infernal destruction. An average full-grown fire on the national forest floor could have flames peaking at 1-meter height and can reach temperatures of 800°C (1,472°F) at minimum.
Under extreme conditions, a fire can excrete off 10,000 kilowatts or more per meter of fire. The primary fuels for all fires are oxygen, fuel, and heat. During wildfires, all three are present and spread due to dryness facilitated by leaves and branches and unfavorable wind conditions. Once these are exposed, a single ignition could ruin acres of land.
How are fires ignited, however? On a scorching summer day, typically when dry drought conditions are at their peak, something as little as a spark from a train wheel striking the track, or a pair of glasses igniting a pile of leaves can ignite a raging wildfire.
Sometimes, fires can occur naturally, ignited by heat linked from the sun or a lightning strike. However, the majority of wildfires are the result of human stupidity. This stupidity causes Eighty-five percent of wildland fires. Human-caused fires result from campfires left unattended, the burning of debris, negligently discarded cigarettes, and intentional acts of arson. Since we can’t stop that from happening through calculus, we will have to focus on the actual fire itself. Therefore, Now that we know what causes and spreads these fires we can assume that the best was to create a model that prevents them would be to stop some of those conditions.
There many techniques to suppressing a fire that can be implemented into the model. Examples of these techniques include hot-spotting: Hot spotting can be practiced to calm ill-tempered divisions of a fire and support firefighters with more time to assemble a Fireline or cool certain parts of a fire to prevent it from making a run. Hot spotting can be accomplished by building makeshift check lines or administering dirt or water to hurt and cool heated portions of a fire. Hot spotting can be fatal to firefighters because they are operating without an anchor position, and therefore can be out-flanked by fire, and they are exhibiting themselves to interminable burning divisions of a fire.A Fireline is a break in fuel, made by cutting, scraping, or digging. It can be done by equipment such as bulldozers, but in most parks, it is accomplished utilizing hand tools. In establishing a Fireline, all fuels are withdrawn, and the surface is abraded to mineral soil on a strip between 6 inches and 3 feet wide, depending upon the fuel and slope. It requires to be spacious enough to limit smoldering, burning or spotting by embers blowing or rolling athwart the path. If it is safe, Fireline should be extended at the origin of the fire than adjacent the flanks. Firelines can also be composed or augmented by backburns, wherein fuels amidst the advancing fire and the line are branded out to stall or cease the fire. Eventually, the firefighters do preponderate. Often a breach in the weather is the circumstance that enables the operators to girdle and restrain the fire. Once the fire is restrained, the stubborn, dirty work of mop-up advances into an extravagant rhythm to deliver the fire under limitation. Each ember will be painstakingly explored and placed out. The complete fire boundary, and sometimes the entire fire district is felt with the fire fighters bare hands (also known as cold trailing) to be sure there is no longer any energy left to concede the fire to escape. During the mop up, firefighters also begin reestablishing fire lines by collecting back the soil and installing water bars to minimize erosion. Comparable to this technique that is long and tedious , A fire break is a gap in vegetation or other combustible material that acts as a barrier to slow or stop the progress of a bushfire or wildfire. There are many types of fire breaks to choose from for the model Plowed, Disked or Bladed Firebreaks should be located parallel to railroads and other high-risk areas, adjacent or parallel to forest property boundaries, and within the forest where necessary. In the Piedmont and Mountains, they should be located on adapted main ridges and side ridges. They should follow the approximate contour of the land wherever feasible to minimize erosion. The breaks should be the width of the disk, Mathis plow (3 to 5 feet), or blade (6 to 12 feet). These widths are usually sufficient to contain most creeping or slowly moving ground fires but will not stop crown fires. Temporary firebreaks must be plowed immediately before burning. Burned Firebreaks consist of two parallel plowed or disked strips, each 5 feet wide, and a minimum of 20 feet apart. Logs, limbs, and other flammable materials which are likely to burn for several hours should be removed from the area between the strips. The area between the strips is then burned creating the break Vegetated Firebreaks protect the forest as well as provide convenient access to the enterprise. Vegetated Firebreaks consist of cool season grass or grass legume strips at least 30 feet wide adjoining forest land and 50 feet wide within forests. The strips should be cleared by removing trees and scrubby growth. Breaks must be 50 feet wide within the forest to allow sufficient sun light for grass and legume plants to grow successfully and form a sod. The land should be prepared and seeded according to the specifications attached. A firebreak may also occur naturally where there is a lack of vegetation or “fuel”, such as a river, lake or canyon. This way not only can we stop the fire we can control where it goes if we use the right model. The location of the area we are trying to protect however is crucial to how we are going to engineer the fire break. Areas with water near buy may have natural fir breaks and areas that have poor erosion may cause a rapid break down of the area around it.
What will the fire breaker be made out of will me our primary question? Sand? Well thats would be unlikely because forest fire flames can reach such great levels of heat to where they can actually melt sand turning it into glass. Traditionally firebreaks for homes are made out of a strip of land totally cleared of vegetation so all that is left is a strip of dry ground, but that would not be ideal to the model we want to produce because of multiple reasons. The firebreak produced is to be used on a large-scale level around the nation therefore it would need to me long-lasting and have minimal need for maintenance and repair therefore using dirt would in opportune due the possibilities of weathering or erosion, and even run off from rain. The ground could simply grow back as well due to primary succession especially since the areas we are trying to protect have high amounts of succession after being stripped. Therefore, the needed material need is to be long lasting, durable, resilient to succession, and over all fireproof of course. I reluctantly decided to make it concrete since it is incredibly resistant to fire, intolerant to erosion, and vegetation cannot grow on it making it the ideal candidate for the job. The fire-resistant properties of concrete are fairly easy to understand. The components of concrete cement (limestone, clay and gypsum) and aggregate materials are chemically inert and therefore virtually non-combustible. The reason I was reluctant toward using this material to build the firebreaks was the environmental damage making them cost from the co2 emission correlated to seizing the concert to the land we have to clear removing ground ecosystems and bio diversity. Finally, its level of diversity in applicability for construction allows for a very large amount of room for creativity regarding the shape of the fire break which can me represented through an equation. Through all these advantages and disadvantages concrete it is still the best choice and can be used in more examples regarding towns, cities, or counties that need to be protected from wild fires through the use of firebreaks.
Now that we know what we are building and what it’s going to be made out of the application to area in the us prominent to wildfires is the next step. First priority would be protecting houses where people live therefore large areas of community will have multiple from with a mile of entering the town. Then inside the fires long non-linear fire breakers will be implemented and will guide fires away from those areas at the start for individual homes. For our model we will be using the fire breaker to protect a suburban area about the size and population of Fulshear Texas with and the same amount of vegetation and succession as Fulshear, Texas that would allow and facilitate fuel for the wild fire. Fulshear,Texas is approximately 8.15 mi? which is ideal in size when it comes to supplies but not ideal when it comes the vegetation and succession since Fulshear,Texas is very rural it is more prone to ignition and spreading of the raging fires of wildfires.the average size of a working firebreak needed to stop or divert the flow of the flames away from protected area is about 12 meters in width. Most of forest and areas of environmental growth do not follow a perfectly liner outline when it comes to their borders and outlines against the houses and neighborhood at a line with them therefore the type of lines that will be needed for the job will be nonlinear for example. A quadratic equation for curved ends like (quadratic equation).
Therefore, the final verdict on the firebreak and its construction is amplified in this last paragraph. The placement of each fire break would be ideal for protecting the fire from civilization. Each fire break would be 12 meters in width depending from their approximate distance from civilization. Then they would be in curved shaped in order for them to reach farther into the forest inherently slowing down the fire over a more prolonged period of time diving the fire a slower velocity and acceleration along with a greater chance of survival for civilians if some unforeseen variable implies its self and causes the forest fire to reach the suburban area. Therefore, giving each and every single person to time to evacuate and get to safety. This could save numerus lives in the process each fire break actively acting as a sort of speed bump with the goal of ultimately halting the speed of the fire, but slowing its descent is just as much of an admired victory because it could potentially save the lives of a numerically unbound amount of people. The placement of each fire break is now been addressed, the quality of each one determines how effective it will me in doing its job. As determined through the analysis prompted above concrete was the material of choice to build the fire break. whereas traditional firebreaks are usually made out of dirt roads. The need for durability, resistance to heat, and capability to be built around objects makes concert ideal for the construction of the firebreak. Finally, but not least important, would be the length of each fire break obviously we can’t cover the whole forest in a ring of concrete therefore each fire break will be spread apart by 15 miles from the maximum or minimum of each curved function .which not only needs less materials in order to be done it also gives fire fighters a move direct window to fight against the fire in a more controlled manner.an average model of all this would collectively be 12 meters in width strung along a path that is in the function shape of (insert equation).and made from a concrete slab placed on top a conventional type fire break facilitates from dirt. Protecting a civilization at least 5 miles away.